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gration. There is a pantheistic ring about the Battle of Godeu (the Trees), relating to Gwydion ap Don :

“Not of mother and father
When I was made
Did my Creator create me.
Of nine-formed faculties,
Of the fruit of fruits,
Of the fruit of the primordial God,
Of primroses and blossoms of the hill,
Of the flowers of trees and shrubs,
Of earth, of an earthly course, -
When I was formed.” 1

In either case, the worship was after all a nature-worship; the immediate or sensible object being merely a symbol of one or many unseen powers.

It is probable, further, that both forms of belief continued to subsist side by side. We have the name of a (or the) god of the Gadeni preserved on two stone altars washed out of the bank by the river Reed, at Habitancum or Risingham, and discovered in 1607. On the one the dedication is "Mogonti Cadenorum," on the other, "Deo Mouno Cadenorum.” Mogo or Mogon has been identified with the Mao of India?

It was among these nature-worshippers that the first Christian missionary on Tweedside carried on his labours. It was not until the twelfth century that there began to arise in Scotland a secular clergy or a parochial system. Previously to that time, Christianity was spread and sustained in the country only by individual missionary enterprise. The Cænobite system, or “the family," was the prevailing one; the religious house, monastery, or abbey, 1 Four Books of Wales, i. 281. See Camden, Britannia, xi. 203, and Jeffrey, Roxburghshire, i. 169, 185.

planted in the most fertile part of a wide district, as, for example, Melrose, in the haughs of the Tweed—for the abbey was ancient even in the time of David I.-sent out zealous teachers and preachers into the surrounding wilds of forest and hill. From his White House by the sea, St Ninian, or St Ringan, the teacher of Pict and Scot, had apparently, about the beginning of the fifth century, partially reached the pagan Cymri of Tweeddale. His name is associated with Tudval Tutclud, father of Rydderch Hael. This king or prince among the Cymri had, according to the legend, been struck with blindness for his opposition to the saint. Ninian restored him to sight, and the king became thereupon his friend and disciple. The light that shone in Ninian's day was probably evanescent enough. I am not aware that there is any surviving memorial of him in the district.?

St Ninian had been dead for some time; his tomb by the Molendinar had made the spot sacred, and near it there had arisen “an earthen rath and wattled church," to be superseded, yet perpetuated, many centuries afterwards by the noble and still untouched Cathedral Church of Glasgow. The missionary cause in the Borders was now, towards the middle of the sixth century, taken up by a young and zealous apostle of Christianity, the devoted Kentigern, better known as St Mungo, "the Beloved." Amid much that is mythical, there is a quite definite historical element about Kentigern. He was the

1 Innes, Early Scottish History, 9.

2 Ringan's Haugh, near Peebles, has been.supposed, with probability, to be named, not from the saint, but from an old possessor, viz., Ninian Lowis. See Mr Robert Renwick's most careful and interesting volume, Gleanings from the Burgh Records of Peebles, 266.

son of Theneu, the daughter of Loth, King of the Lothians; the father a relapsed Christian,“ vir semi-paganus, the daughter an ardent but indiscreet devotee of the Christianity of the time. The mother had been committed by the enraged Loth to the sea in a wicker boat near Aberlady, but, after a stormy struggle, the waves gave her up alive in the bay of Culross. On the shore of that bay, according to the legend, " at morning dawn, by the side of a smouldering fire which shepherds or fishermen had left on the shore, with a bundle of twigs for her couch,” her son was born. The child was baptised by St Serf, and Kentigern was thenceforwards devoted to an ecclesiastical life.

Kentigern, with the ardour of the youthful convert, seems to have assailed the Druidic cultus in that part of Strathclyde, where height of mountain and depth of forest, in themselves favourable to the Druidic feeling, rendered the district least accessible to new influences. He spent eight years of his ministry at Lochquharret, or Locherwart. This district, called also Loquharriot, is on the north side of the watershed which divides the feeders of the South Esk and the Tyne from those of the Gala. Borthwick Castle occupies the site of the ancient Mote of Locherwart. No doubt Heriot, formerly Heryeth, enters into all those names, though the places lie north of Heriot and the Heriot Water. Kentigern taught also the doctrines of Christianity in the central part of the Wood of Caledon, what is now Tweedsmuir, or Tweed

1 Mr Skene places St Serf or Servanus a century later, in the time of Brude-who died in 706. But there seems to have been two saints named Servanus—the instructor of Kentigern being the earlier one, who had come under the influence of Palladius.

shaws. Adopting the Druidic notion of the sacredness of the fountain, wells were consecrated to him—or, it might be, the well in which he baptised was dedicated to his memory.

We have, or had, St Mungo's Well on the slopes of Venlaw, by the Tweed. The church of Stobo—a mother church, or ecclesia plebania, comprehending the chapelries of Lyne, Broughton, Kingledoors, Dawyck, and Drummelzier—was apparently founded by him, or subsequently dedicated to him.

At length, when Christianity became strong enough to conquer the old paganism, the missionary of Tweedside became the Bishop of the Borders, a position which he occupied until his death in 603. His name is associated with churches in nearly every Border county, and these the oldest in the district. His memory was a quickening power in the land down to the time of David I., when, as Prince of Cumbria, in 1116, he made the famous Inquisition into the possessions of the Cathedral Church of Glasgow. We have references to him, chiefly as St Mungo, all through the middle ages. He was, indeed, pre-eminently the Saint of the Clyde, the Tweed, and the Teviot, up to the Reformation. I cannot forbear quoting one reference to him—it is so characteristic of the mixture of quiet scorn and humour which marks the Border character. In the fifteenth century a pestilence threatened to cross the Border from England into Scotland, and the English were good enough to say that it was sent upon the Borderers by God's grace for their repentance, whereupon a prayer was formulated and repeated fervently and generally among the Scottish Borderers : “ Gode and Saint Mungo, Saint Ronayn, and Saint Andrew, schield

us this day fro Goddes grace, and the foul death that Englishmen dien on.” 1

After Kentigern came St Cuthbert. Cuthbert is said by some to have been of Irish descent, but we first find him a shepherd boy on the braes of the Leader, then in the kingdom of Northumbria, or North-hymbra-land, that bordered on Strathclyde, and touched it near Galashiels. In the vale of the Leader, about 651, where afterwards the seer of Ercildoune had his fairy visions, the fervid shepherd boy saw one night angels descend from heaven, and then bear upwards the soul of Aidan of the Holy Isle. This led him to devote himself to a religious life, and he became an inmate of the Abbey of Melrose, then presided over by the zealous Boisil. After the death of Boisil from the plague, in 664, Cuthbert, who was then in the Abbey of Ripon, was recalled to Melrose, and became the Prior or head of the monastery, the original house which was founded by Aidan of Lindisfarne, who died in 651. The brief history of this early house, from its foundation until it was burned in 839, is rendered illustrious by the names of Eata, Boisil, Cuthbert, and Drycthelm. It was a home of learning and of pious zeal in a very dark period of our history. The more recent and more splendid Abbeys of David I. and Robert Bruce show, through their much longer annals, no name superior if equal to even one of those that rendered honourable the early and humbler house. Cuthbert has left some faint traces of his missionary zeal on Tweedside. It was his practice, we are told, when Prior of Melrose, to be absent

1 Quoted by Bishop Forbes, History of Scotland, vol. v., Introduction, p. cii. See Pinkerton, History of Scotland, i. 20.

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