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The public document which throws most light on the principality of Cumbria at this period, and on the fusion of races which was going on in the Lowlands, is the memoir or notitia, which records an investigation, directed by David while Earl of Cumbria, regarding the lands and churches belonging to the Episcopal See of Glasgow. It is entitled, “Inquisicio per David Principem Cumbrensem de terris Ecclesie Glasguensi pertinentibus facta.' Its supposed date is about 1116. David succeeded to the throne in 1124. John, the tutor of David, became the first Bishop of Glasgow under the new ecclesiastical system in 1115. As the deed refers to him as bishop, the inquisition must have taken place between 1115 and 1124. The first part of the deed contains a statement made by its framers, in presence of the Prince and his Court, of the tradition and belief of the country at the time regarding the history and possessions of the Cathedral Church. It is said that Kentigern settled a colony of converts in Glasgow in the middle of the sixth century. The five juratores"seniores homines et sapientiores totius Cumbriae “ the older and wiser men of all Cumbria ”—then record on oath their belief regarding the possessions of the Church. Cumbria itself is described as a region situated between England and Scotland—“regione quadam inter Angliam et Scotiam sita." Part of the original kingdom had already been given up to England—viz., that south of the Solway to the Derwent, including Carlisle. The remainder or Scottish portion had become the Bishopric or Parochia of Glasgow. The Inquisition recalls the

1 See Registrum Episcopatus Glasguensis, i., No. 1.

foundation of Glasgow, the pontifical seat or See of Cumbria, by the “ domestici fidei” and the “ proceres regni,” co-operating with the king of the province, “cum rege provincie.” This refers to the time of Kentigern and Rydderch Hael. The Church and religion flourished for some time under the many successors of Kentigern. At length, however, a (or the) fraudulent exterminator (fraudulentus exterminator) arose — probably Satan himself—and by his craftiness wrought unbearable injuries (scandala intolerabilia) upon the Church of the Cumbrians. Diverse troubles arising, the whole district was laid waste, and the inhabitants sent into exile. A long time having elapsed after this, tribes of various nations, flowing into it from different parts, occupied the deserted district. These people, differing in race, language, and mode of life, did not readily amalgamate, and were heathen rather than faithful worshippers (gentilitatem potius quam fidei cultum tenuere).

Even now they are represented as living more like beasts than men. In order to restrain their excesses, and introduce among them some sense of morality and civilisation, and the knowledge of saving truth, God in His providence has sent David among them, the brother-german of Alexander the King of the Scots, as their prince and duke (principem et ducem). David again has appointed his tutor, John, a man devoted to God, to be their bishop. After his consecration, he has spread the preaching of the Word through the diocese (parochiam) of Cumbria. David, both in his capacity as Prince of the district, or at least of the part under the Scottish crown, makes the inquisition for the purpose of ascertaining accurately the

ancient possessions of the Church, with a view to their restoration to the See. The oath of certain of the older and wiser men of the whole of Cumbria is taken as to their knowledge and traditional belief on the point, and the result is a list declared by them of the lands and churches belonging of old to the pontifical Church of Glasgow.

The ejection of the Cymri referred to in the Inquisition was either not complete or not permanent. It is obvious that neither the oppressions of Æthelfrid, Osuiu, nor those of Angus MacFergus had destroyed the British nationality. In 875, we are told, in the Saxon Chronicle, that Halfden the Dane frequently harried thė Picts and the Stratcludenses or Stratclud Wealas. And we see that down to David's time, and, as we shall find, even later, the inhabitants of Cumbria are recognised as a distinct nationality. Their laws were known as peculiar even down to the time of Edward I., when we hear of the “Laws of the Bretts and the Scots."

Among other lands found in the inquisition to belong of old to the Church of Glasgow, are Stoboc, now Stobo, Penteiacob, otherwise Penjacob, now Eddleston. In Pobles [Peebles] there belong to the Church "una carucata terre et ecclesia ”—“ a ploughgate of land and a church ” -dedicated to St Kentigern. This ploughgate was probably the land afterwards known as the Kirklands, adjoining St Andrew's Church. In Treverquyrd [Traquair] there also belong to Glasgow a ploughgate of land and a church. These possessions were no doubt as old as the time of Kentigern. The names of the jurymen

Compare also Innes, Early Scottish History, 6.


(juratores) are as follow: Uchtred filius Waldef, Gillielmus filius Boed, Leysing et Oggo, Cumbrenses judices, Halden filius Eadulf. These are obviously natives of the province, and they are Angle or Saxon, at least Teutonic. Have we any traces of them in the middle ages or now? Boed may possibly be Boyd or Bold. Halden remains on Tweedside still, and may be traced back in the Burgh Records of Peebles all through the middle ages until our own time. Eadulf is to be traced in Eadulfstoun, now Eddleston. The others have passed quite traceless away. They are simply dim figures in the early dawn of Scottish story-men who could remember through their fathers the early Cymric and Saxon traditions of their country.

Curiously enough, while the jurymen are wholly Angle, the witnesses to the oath are partly Angle or Saxon, and partly Norman, the latter predominating. We have three Cospatricks, probably of Dunbar. Cospatrick has been regarded as originally meaning servant of Patrick. But the family was now to all purposes a feudal family, holding their lands in Scotland by the new tenure, and found almost always on the side of lordly aggression and domination. We have Osolf filius Eadwin. There is Maccus filius Undweyn. This was subsequently Maxwell, the ancestor of the great lords Maxwell. The family held originally a small feudal barony on the Tweed. Then there is Uchtred filius Scot, perhaps the earliest mention of what afterwards became the famous Border surname. Then coines Ulchel filius Alstan. Hugo de Morvilla next occurs, and seems to head the list of Normans. ceeded his father in the office of High Constable of

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Scotland in 1159. He was Lord of Lauderdale and the father of Richard Morville, who possessed, though only in " ferme," from the Bishop of Glasgow, Gilmoreston, now Eddleston. Then there are Paganus de Brausa, or of Braiose, and Osbert de Ardena. Gervasius Ridel also appears. For long afterwards Riddel was a great landed name in Teviotdale, on the banks of the Ale Water, where it flows by soft pastoral haughs, far down from its wild source amid the solitary lochs of Alemoor. Then follow Guido de Caynes and Berengarius Engaine. Robertus Corbet, the next witness, held lands in Manor Water. Walterus de Lindeseya was a far-back ancestor of the “ lightsome Lindsays,” and his lordship at this time lay high up in the wilds of Clydesdale. Robertus de Burnevilla is supposed to be the laird of what was afterwards known as Burnetland, near Broughton, which the old family of the Burnetts held for several generations, along with their later and principal property, the estate of Barns. Some years later, as witness to the great charter of Holyrood, by David I., is Rodbertus de Burneuile. Reinaldus de Muscans, Walterus filius Winemari follow. Willelmus Venator, the next name, was probably an ancestor of the storied line of Hunter of Polmood. Alanus de Perci needs no comment. The last is Walter de Broy. In a subsequent deed, before 1124, besides Corbet, Lindeseia, de Morevilla, Robertus de Brus, occurs Hugo Bretoneither a man from Brittany, or a solitary example of the original people of Strathclyde.?

David gives a charter to Durham of Coldingham and

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