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language, Welsh is still living over a considerable area, and Armorican is said to be the speech of a million and a half of Frenchmen.
Of the Celtic root-words in the valley of the Tweed we have, first of all, forms which are common to the Gaelic and Cymric branches of the language. These may, perhaps, be regarded as belonging to the old Celtic before it was divided into two dialects, the Gaelic and Cymric. These are: ard, glen, dal” (a plain), dun, loch (Cymric, llwch), pol (Irish pol, Arm. poull, Welsh pwll).
Of these, however, glen may be fairly claimed as Cymric. The Armorican is glen, the Welsh is glyn, the Gaelic is gleann. Pol, too, is the direct Cornish form as well as Irish.
Of this class, the root-forms common to Gaelic and Cymric, ard, high, may be regarded as represented in the old word ord, or orde. The Orde appears in a document of about the year 1200, Divise de Stobbo, the marches between Stobo, Hopprewe, and Orde.3 The Orde was the high-lying district towards the head of the Stobo Hopes. We have it still in Lochurd and Ladyurd. Glen, the Cymric form, abounds in the district.
Dun or don, a hill or eminence, also a hill-fort, very old Celtic, is found as a suffix, generally in the name of a hill, as in Cardon. Dun, for a fort, is very rare in Peeblesshire, but it is common in Dumfries, as Dunscore, dun-sgoire, fort of the sharp rock. Dun is frequent in words on the con
Compare Taylor, Words and Places, 203.
tinent of Europe. One is very striking. Melun is Melodunum, and that is Mealdun, a fort on the rounded or conical hill. We have the original form almost exactly in Meldon or Meal-dun, a hill by the Tweed in Peeblesshire, topped with curious old strongholds. We have also the Saxon dun applied to a hill, but obviously the adjective of colour, as in Dun Law. We have, on the boundaries of the old Cymri, Dun-glas, grey fort, and Dundas, dun-deas, the south fort. Loch is very common for an inland sheet of water, and is very near the Welsh form of the word (llwch). Pol, a pool, appears in Polmood. Mood is probably mód, an enclosure or fold. Pol is also in Polternam and in Poltenstobbo, names which occur in the Divise de Stobbo already referred to. Polternam was the name of the little stream or burn which formed the march between Stobo and Hopprewe (Happrew) in the twelfth century. The other part of the word may be ter, clear, or tern, full of motion. Pol is usually softened into pow in the vernacular of the district. We have also Polten-tarf as one of the headwaters of the Lyne.
There is, secondly, a class of root-forms which belong to the Gaelic alone. These are: cul, drum, inch, kin, knock, ra. But, as a rule, few of these forms occur more than once.
Of the purely Gaelic root-forms we have an example of cul, back or recess, in Culter or Cultir, the land at the back. But Cul-tir might be Cornish for narrow strip of land. Drum, ridge, appears in Drum Maw, and in
1 Cf. Jeffrey, Roxburghshire, i. 306. 2 Not far from this is Mount Maw, one of the Pentlands. The Moss of
Drummelzier. The oldest form of this name which appears in writing in Drumedler. Fordun gives Dunmeller, and melr, pl. melar, is old Norse for bent-grass. But this is probably merely an inaccuracy in spelling. Inch, islet, is found applied to a small island in the centre of the Tweed near Barns. Kin is in Kingeldores. The oldest form is Kyngeldores, the later Kingildoris. Knock, hill or mound, is in Knock Knowes. Ra or rha is in Rachan. But the ra may be the Norse ra, raa, wraa, a corner, landmark, as in Wrae.
There is, thirdly, a class which belongs to the Cymric alone, either in its form of Welsh, or of Cornish and Armorican. This comprises : alt, a cliff or hill, cairn (a heap), cefn (back), caer, cors, cum, craig (Welsh, a rock, Gaelic is carraig), gar (shank or leg, also fort), lin, man (a place or district), pen, ros (Cornish, Welsh rhos, a moor), tre, trev, pl. trevow (Cornish, a dwelling-place), tar, tor. We have thus a great number of root-forms belonging to the Cymric alone, and it will be found that among these are the Celtic names of most frequent occurrence in the district. Of these forms there can be little doubt that craig, dun, glen, and pol were adopted from the original nomenclature of the district by the advancing Saxons, and incorporated into their language. Dal may be in some cases the Scandinavian dale. When Scandinavian,
Maw seems to have lain in the valley between these hills. Maw means expanding. Mawn is Welsh for peat:
“ From the bush of Maw and Eiddyn,
It would not take opposition.
Maw is thus connected with
Taliessin, xi., Skene, Four Books, i. 337.
it usually appears as a suffix, as in Tweeddale; when Celtic, as a prefix, as in Dalmarnock. Of the third class, the purely Cymric root-forms, alt, a cliff or hill, is found in Cramalt (Welsh allt), the bowed or bent cliff, an appellation exceedingly appropriate to the natural appearance. Altrive, originally Eltreif, in the valley of the Yarrow, may perhaps be referred to the same root. It may be, however, that Crainalt is Gaelic-crom, crooked, and allt, a burn or mountain stream. Cefn, back, is in the Cheviots, as it is found in Chevington in Northumberland, and Chevin in Wharfdale.
In France it is represented in Les Cevennes. Cefn, dorsum, pars superior, dorsum montis, supersunt les Cevennes apud Gallos : Gebennici montes.” 1 Cairn is very common, meaning a rock or a heap of stones. It is most usually applied in its Cymric sense (Carnedd) to a heap of stones, originally probably a tumulus, as opposed to its Gaelic sense of a rock simply Caer is one of the most frequent names for a hill-fort, and hence for the hill itself, as Cardrona, the fort on the ridge, Caersman, the place of the fort. Spelman gives Cardronocke in Cumberland. Caer means originally a wall—hence a walled place, fort, city. The root is cae, enclosure. Caer is clearly an original Celtic, even Cymric word. It appears in the names of places and men already existing before the times of Cæsar and Agricola. A list of at least twentyeight cities, bearing the prefix caer, can be made up from Nennius, Henry of Huntingdon, Alfred of Beverley. Kair Ebrauc (Eboracum), Kair Kent (Cantuaria), are
1 Leibnitz, Collectanea Etymologica Celtica, 103.
once much more common than now in the Lowlands. In a charter to the burgh of Peebles of James VI. of 1621, we have as names of places, now almost unknown, Carcads, Carlincraig, and Card, all apparently in one glen. And although cathair, pronounced cair, and the abbreviated form car, is found in Irish and Scoto-Gaelic, the form on Tweedside is distinctively the Cymric one, caer. It was without doubt originally applied by the latter people to the numerous hill-forts in which they withstood Roman, Gael, Pict, and Saxon in turn. It is one of the most common generic appellations wherever we find a Cymric people. The Armorican is cear and ker, the latter being the precise form of the family name common on Tweedside, just as one now finds it over the doors of shops in Bretagne. Caver or cavers, not unfrequent, is probably British for corn-growing farm. But there is Cavares on the continent of Europe, and Zeuss seems to refer this and other forms of it to cawr or caur, a giant.
Cors, a bog or fen, common in Cornwall, appears in Corscumynfielde, or Corscunningfielde, an old but now extinct name of a boggy meadow near Peebles; and Kershope, the Border boundary, appears early as Corshope, though here the prefix is more likely ker or caer, from its proximity to Caerby. It ought, however, to be kept in mind that there is a Gaelic form car, meaning curve or bend, and this would apply exactly to the case of the crescent ridge of Cardon. Corscleugh and Tam
See note by Gale to Nennius, Britannica Historiæ Scriptores, 135 (ed. 1691).