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LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 15, 1863.
NOTES:-"The Merchant of Venice," 121-The Bruno
niad: Rev. Thomas Foster, B.A.: Mary, Countess of Pomfret, 122 - Early Surnames, Ib.-Verulam: South Myms, 123-Letters of Charles Catton, 124 - Somersetshire Wills,
MINOR NOTES:-Water-shed-The Court of Session Multiplication Table - Vicars of St. Mary-Church, Devon -Summer of 1724-To "terrify"- The Maypole in the Strand --“The Book of Days: " Bunyan's Meeting House,
QUERIES:-Sir Ingram Hopton, 127 Lord Barkwood-
"THE MERCHANT OF VENICE."
This delightful play is such a universal favourite, and is on the whole preserved in so correct a state, that I think it a kind of duty to try to remove the few remaining blemishes; and which, with a single exception, have, as far as I know, remained untouched by critics and commentators. In Act II. Sc. 1, Morocco says:
"Come, bring me unto my chance." To which Portia replies:
"First, forward to the temple; after dinner
"To the temple!" What to do there? Neither Aragon nor Bassanio, who were Christians, were taken to a temple or church, and why should the Moslem Morocco? Surely the poet wrote table. So obvious is this correction, that on my stating to my sister the objections to temple, she instantly cried, “Sure, it ought to be table;" and two other trials gave the same result. It really reminds one of Columbus's egg.
"Thus ornament is but the guiled shore
To a most dangerous sea, the beauteous scarf Veiling an Indian beauty."-Act III. Se. 2.
Here the critics have seen that beauty had been, in the usual manner, suggested to the printer by the preceding beauteous. Hanmer, therefore, proposed dowdy, and Sidney Walker gipsy. Both I
need not say are as bad as bad can be; and I will venture to assert, with the utmost confidence, that the original word was feature-the only word perhaps in the language that will suit the metre and the context. Feature (Old Fr. faiture), form, shape, person, was a word in frequent use with our old writers. Thus Ben Jonson, with whom it was a favourite, renders the mulier formosa of Horace (A. P. verse 4), "a fair female feature ;" and Milton (Par. Lost, x. 279) terms Death "the grim Feature."
As I have spoken of printers' errors and their causes, I will here add, that one of these was the substitution of synonymes; and that, therefore,
"Gilded timber do worms enfold."-ii. 7,
we should probably read woods with Rowe, and not tombs with Johnson.
"I pray you think you question with the Jew. You may as well go stand upon the beach,
And bid the main flood bate his usual height," &c. Act IV. Sc. 1.
Act IV. Sc. 1.
A syllable is evidently lost in the last line. Some, therefore, read "a misery." I read "deep misery," We have, "such deep sin," Rich. II. Act I. Sc. 1; "deep grief," Hamlet, Act IV. Sc. 5.; and similar expressions elsewhere.
Be it so much
As makes it light or heavy, in the substance
Here we get both force and correctness by reading Of for "Or," in the third line.
With these few corrections added to those already made, the text of the Merchant of Venice may be regarded as almost perfect. I will take the liberty of adding here a couple of corrections in the other plays, where editors have emended badly, or not at all:
"That monster, Custom, who all sense doth eat Of habits, devil, is angel yet in this." Hamlet, Act III. Sc. 4. No one ever has made, or can make sense of this. I think the poet wrote create, and that cr was blotted or rubbed out.
"Who cannot want the thought how monsterous It was for Malcolm and for Donalbain To kill their gracious father?"
Surely it should be "Who can ;" but then the metre would suffer. Read then, We for "Who," and put a period for (?), and what excellent sense emerges; and how the irony is increased!
In conclusion, I shall feel very thankful to any possessor of the publications of the Shakspeare Society who will be so kind as to lend me some half-dozen of them for a short time: namely, Merry Wives of Windsor, Taming of a Shrew, First Part of the Contention, True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York, True Tragedy of Richard III. THOS. KEIGHTLEY.
Belvidere, Erith, Kent.
THE BRUNONIAD: REV. THOMAS FOSTER, B.A.: MARY, COUNTESS OF POMFRET.
We estimate highly the contributions to your columns respecting anonymous works. In your 1st S. ix. 573, is one signed ANAT. on the authorship of the Brunoniad. This unfortunately has not been Indexed, in consequence perhaps of its occurring incidentally in a communication on another subject.
The following brief particulars respecting the Rev. Thomas Foster, the author, may be deemed worthy of record.
He was son of Thomas Foster, LL.B., Vicar of Ryball and Rector of Tinwell, in Rutland, and his wife Sarah, daughter of the Rev. John Baskett, and was baptised at Ryhall, April 1, 1770. On March 4, 1788, he was admitted a pensioner of St. John's College, Cambridge; proceeding B.A., 1792. In Jan. 7, 1797, he was instituted to the rectory of Tinwell on the presentation of Henry, Earl of Exeter. He married Susan, daughter of William Waters of Stanford, surgeon; and died without issue in London,
Feb. 8, 1798.
ANAT. states that, at the time of the marriage of Mary Browne of Tolthorpe, with George, third Earl Pomfret, "her servants (as was believed by order from their mistress) persevered in chiming the only two bells of the parish church, to the hazard and annoyance of the vicar's wife, just confined of her first child in a room hardly a stone's throw from it. His pupils were so indignant, that they drove away the offenders and took the clappers out of the bells:" and Mr. Foster made the circumstances the subject of the Brunoniad.
ANAT. gives 1790 as the date of the Brunoniad,
which Watt thus describes:
"BRUNONIAD, 1790. The B. a Poem in six Cantos. Lond. Kearsley. 4to. 3s. 6d."
Now the marriage of George, third Earl Pomfret, with Mary, surviving daughter and heiress of Thomas Trollope Browne, Esq., of Tolthorpe, did not take place till August 29, 1793 (Blore's
Rutland, 95; Gent. Mag. lxv. (2) 860; Annual Reg., 1793, p. 63).
Perhaps the occasion of the bells being rung was the attainment of the lady's majority, which we presume was in 1790.
Mary, widow of George, third Earl Pomfret, died Sept. 17, 1839, aged seventy; but in the Gentleman's Magazine (N.S. xii. 436), she is misdescribed as Amabel Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Richard Borough, Bart., and widow of Thomas William, fourth Earl Pomfret. This error was to some extent corrected in the next number (ibid. 442); but it is observable that her real Christian name is not there given, and in the Annual Register for 1839 (p. 364) the original error of the Gentleman's Magazine is repeated. C. H. & THOMPSON COOper.
Mr. Lower's Patronymica Britannica is very far from being a perfect work; but in stating this fact it must be borne in mind that it would be almost impossible for any single individual to compile a complete list of surnames. Any candid labourer in the field of family nomenclature will while honour is due to the gentleman we have just admit the truth of my assertion, and therefore mentioned for the ability he has evinced in treating his subject, and for his having been the first who threw any light on such studies, which was worthy of remark, we cannot but repeat that we are very far from perfection after all. The question then arises, how is the deficiency to be remedied? The answer is, by the contributions of those who have hitherto unheeded, or but scantily noticed, to the memoranda in their possession respecting surnames pages of "N. & Q." There are not a few persons who hold valuable data on the subject, and I would appeal to them to forward what they can towards increasing knowledge respecting this interesting division of archæology.
which I have met with in the course of the past I enclose a list of rare and curious appellations fortnight. I believe most of them have not been Should you think my communication merits inalluded to in any previous paper of this kind. sertion in your columns, I shall be happy to return to my theme on a future occasion.
Blackinthemouth.-A William Blackinthemouth 1321. (Record Office: Miscellaneous parcel of appears in a Roll of Amercements for London, Fines, No. 374.) I leave the reader to speculate on the origin of this pretty title. In the north of Ireland they speak of "black-mouthed Presbyterians." Query, if the word in Master William's case referred, figuratively, to some disagreeable trait of character, such as obtained for the children of the kirk their pleasing sobriquet? or had the
Henry Foxhangre was, I fear, a descendant of a vulpicide. He is to be met with in a Gaol Delivery Roll of 37 Edward III., county Wilts.
The name of Antioche existed in Dorsetshire 36 Ed. III., if not previously. This is an interesting memento of some crusading house. (G. D. Rolls, 36 Ed. III.) Stephen de Pendlesworth. I find in a Gaol Delivery Roll, 10 to 22 Ed. III., Pendlesworth was a village in Wiltshire, existing certainly till 1400 (Subsidy Rolls), but all trace of its localization is lost since then.
Blakebird is in a Misc. Assize Roll, 7 Ed. I. Richard Cokrobyn was of Wilts, 9 Ed. III. Vide M.A. Roll of that date.
Stranger than all these is the Devil! By a Gaol Delivery Roll, 11 Ed. II., know all men that unfortunate William le Devel was killed near Mells in Somerset.
Among others I have lately come across I may enumerate the following; they are, with very few exceptions, of the reign of Ed. II. and Ed. III. I hope to treat of them at greater length hereafter:
Lychepole, Whytehod, Swetchild, Portebrief, Kikk, Lovesweyt, Fughalare, Goldhord, Phelipesclerk, Tonesman, Spademan, Under-the-Orchard, Thomasesheyward, The Rokele, Bolechild, Fleshmongere, Derbyshire, Breakbred, Happelove, Ryghtwys, Le Shepester, Walklate, Scorchebeef, Thonderloud, Williamservant, Wolmongere, Shakelcross, Personfischer, Falldew, Goseflech, Spilewyn, Buryman, Handsex, Maisterrichardscervaunt, Foukesbaillif, Goldlock, Nicholeservant, Courtpreest, Wetebody, Garlekmongere, Newehosbond, Ouerthemarket, Richardesbaillif de la Ryvere, The Baillif of the Hundred of Worth, Habdassch, Howeshort.
VERULAM: SOUTH MYMS.
I was lately in the neighbourhood of St. Alban's, and seized the opportunity of making a pilgrimage to the shrine of the great proto-martyr of England. A little way out of the town I discovered an ancient church dedicated to St. Michael, and one probably overlooked by most visitors from its nearness to the glorious abbey. It is, however, worthy of being better known on account of a very handsome monument to Lord Bacon in the chancel, bearing an elegant Latin inscription, which I regret being unable to recollect. There is also shown a most quaint and curious picture of the resurrection, which till lately helped to separate church and chancel in the hideous fashion common under the sway of the earlier Georges. But, amongst many things deserving notice, the most interesting is a very old map of Verulam, much discoloured and spoilt by reason of age, but still distinct enough. Can any of your readers inform me whether this has ever been copied and published? Surely such an interesting relic as a map of the former capital of England should not be left to moulder away unknown.
About six miles from this is the parish church of South Myms, the registers of which are well worthy of inspection. They are kept in a small folio volume, commencing in the year 1558, and written in a very clear hand. Soon after the martyrdom of King Charles, the justice of the peace appears, according to the irreligious law of Cromwell, presiding at marriages; and the act for "burying in woollen" seems to have been duly complied with about the year 1685. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, however, when ecclesiastical affairs were so much neglected, the writing becomes a mere scribble, and the entries themselves very careless. Take, for instance
LETTERS OF CHARLES CATTON.*
I send a copy of another of Catton's letters. Hogarth's adventure at Calais on a similar occasion (the origin of the picture of "The Roast Beef of Old England"), is related in Nichols's Life of Hogarth, vol. i. p. 145.
Charles Catton, R.A., to Mrs. Catton, in the Close, Norwich. "London, Oct. 29, '69.
"You were much mistaken when you thought I had been to the West Indies. I only went to France for I hate people that have not seen France.
"Pray Monsieur, how long did you stay? I staid all day. I am now so perfectly acquainted with the world, that I know all Ladies have an itching inclination to know every thing about it-am likewise so perfectly polite in consequence of my tour, that I will inform some of them how the thing came to pass:- Having occasion to go to Canterbury, I sett out from London Fryday morng-proposed to myself to take the advantage of seeing Dover, and returng to London Monday following. Whilst I thought myself snug and unknown, a company of my friends poured in upon me; and after the first transports were over, informed me they were making a three weeks tour thro' Ghent, Lisle, &c. - most earnestly
begd me accompany them to Dunkirk. The English Engineer being one of the company, promised himself much pleasure in showing me the works. We sett out a very bad Sunday morng from Dover: a most violent .storm oblidged us to put into Calais. After clean'g and refresh'g themselves, my fr'ds took coach and left me there; as I was convinced I shou'd find entertainment enough for the time I cou'd stay-proposing to return to Dover next morng, but was detain'd till Tuesday. Gott into London again Wednesday noon. I was sick in the storm. The Captain not being acquainted with my motives for keeping upon deck (i. e. to see the violent motion of the elements and the sailors' distresses), thought me a madman; swore I ought to be drown'd for taking such a terrible wash'g: threat'ned, if I did not submitt to be shutt down in the hold with the passengers, who were at prayers most devoutly, he'd throw me overboard. I in turn bullied him: told him that in consequence of my being in the vessell it might gett safe to land, and he and his men come to be hanged. In my return not sick at all. I made two very accurate drawings at Calais at the risque of my liberty. Hogarth drew the Gate we enter from England. I took La Porte Royal, thro' wh we go to Paris, &c.; likewise the ramparts, with the great Crucifix. Our English nobles and gents are much surprised at them. Ld March, with a ffrench Marquis, questioning me about them, I told them I trusted to my memory, hav'g carefully considered them upon the spot: for indeed, the Officer on Guard wou'd hazard his commission if it cou'd be proved that he had seen me. He did indeed examine me at five o'clock o' the morng; but I sett a bold English face on the matter, and eluded him. There is much drollery in ye tale, but 'tis too long for this paper.
"I continue to lead a solitary life. The Lassy you mention may be very good-is not striking. I have no information what her fortune will be-wch surely it does not misbecome me to say is a material consideration. Indeed, as custom is second nature, I am not now much inclin'd to change my mode of living. If I can
* Continued from 3rd S. iii. 211.
His wife died in the summer of 1762.
spare time, when I write again, I'll make amends for the shortness of this epistle. In the mean time, I remain, "Yr affectionate, "C. CATTON. "Little Charles was very well when I heard last from him. Goes on very well."
I now give four more examples of testamentary dispositions of the Reformation period. The first is a copy of the will of John Horsey, one of an old Somersetshire family of that name:
"T. Johannus Horsey de Somerton.
"In the name of God, Amen. The yeare of owre lord god MCCCCCXXXIX, and the xxi day of december, I, John Horsey, of the p'yshe of Somerton, beyinge of good and parfytt mynd, mayke my testament and last Wyll in this maner and forme folowyng: Fyrst, I bequethe my sowle vnto allmyghtie god, and my bodie to be buried in the Churche of Seynt Michaell of Somerton. Also, I bequethe to the Mother Churche of Wells iiija. Item to the Churche of Somerton, x. It'm to the Churche of Northover, viijd. To the Churche of Ilchester, viijd. To the Churche of Lymyngton, viijd. It'm to the Churche of Yevylton, viijd. To the Churche of Podymor Mylton, viijd. To the Churche of Kyngesdon, viijd. To the Churche of Charlton Makerell, viijd. To the Churche of Compton, viijd. Also I bequethe to Richard and Robert, my sonnes, all the stuffe w'thin my shoppe. And yf the one die before they be maried, or of lawfull age, then yt shall remayn to the other. And they die bothe, yt shall remayn to their mother. It'm, to the sayd Richard and Robert iiij of money and ij heyfers w't the'crese. The residew of my goods nott bequethed, I geve and bequethe to Elizabethe, my wyffe, whome I mayke my trew Executrix, to dispose parte of my goods as shall seme to her most best. Wyttnesse hereof, Umfrey Blowton and Thomas Cocks, wt other moo Mayster John Porter and Cuthbert Hyllaker, Clarke, Vicar there, to be my ov'seers."
The second example is a copy of the will of Cristine Whityng, in all probability a near relative of Richard Whitynge, the last Abbot of Glastonbury. The Whitynges were chiefly settled at Shepton Mallet, but some of the name resided at Burnham; and others in the neighbouring parish of Worle:
"Test. Cristine Whitynge de Burneham.
"In dei no'ie Amen. The year of our Lord 1541. I, Cristian Whitynge, hole of mynd and memory, make this my Testament and last will, yn forme and man' followyng. Fyrst I bequeth my sowle to Allmyghty God, and my body to be buryd yn the Churchyeard of Burneham. Item, to Saynt Andrews of Welles, ijd. Item to Saynt Andrew of Burneham, iiij. Item to the hye Auter, ilija. Item to the hye Crosse halfe a bowsshell of wheat. Item to oure Ladi S'vys my best gowne. To Saynt Nicholas Aut'r S'vyse a bowsshell of hemp. The resydew of my goodis geve and bequethe to my Childer Richard and Agnes, whom I make my executors. Thes beyng witnys S'r John Slode, John Harte, w't many others. I make my overseers Jolin Golle, Robert Davy, and Rich. More. "Probatum fuit p. Testament. cor. Magr. Johë Daws,
in eccl'ia p'och. de Est Brent yto die mensis Decembris Anno D'm, 1541."
The third example is a copy of the will of Richard Sheriffe, of Castle Carey. The respected vicar of that parish, the Rev. R. J. Meade (a great archæologist and antiquary), will be amused should his eye fall on the curious and extraordinary gifts to his parish church :
"Te'tu. Ric. Sheriff a'ls Osteler de Castelcarey. "In dei nomine, Amen. The year of our Lord 1541, xxii day of September. I Ric. Sheryff make my Testament and last wyll yn forme and man'r followyng. Fyrst, I bequethe my sowle to Almighty God, my body to be buryd yn the Church yeard of Castelcarey. It'm, I bequethe to the church of Castellcarey a bowshell of wheat. It'm to the brotherrede of Castellcarey a bowshell of wheat. Item to my gostlye father xx. It'm to my dowghter Crystyan, of Wells, a bowshell of wheat and a bowshell of drege. The resydew of my goods not gevyn no' bequethed, I geve and bequeth to my dowghter Alis, whom I make my executrix to se my detts payde, &c. These beyng witnis, John Kyck, Stephen Hellyar, Will'm Roke, and Robert Gypson, w't others. "Probatum, fuit p Testamentu. cora. Magro Joh'e Dawis, in ecclia Cath. Wellen. iij die Mensis Octobris anno D'ni, 1541."
The fourth example is a copy of the will of John Blewett of the old borough of Axbridge. "T. Johannis Blewett de Axbruge.
"In dei No'ie Amen. The yeare of o'r lorde God MCCCCCXL  and the xiiij day of the monethe of Marche, I John Blewett, of hole mynd and good remembrans, mayk my last wyll in this maner and forme followyng. First, I bequethe my sowle to almighty God, to oure blessed ladie, and to all the holie companye of heavyn, my bodie to be buryed in the churchyard of Saynt John in Axbruge. Also I bequethe to the mother churche of Wells jd. Also I bequethe to the hie auter in Axbruge jd; also I geve to the Trinytie lyght, to the Roode lyght, and to Seynt Crispyn and Crispinyanes lyght, to ev'y one of these lyghts, a peny a pece. All the residew of my goods not bequethed, I geve and bequethe yt to Alys my wyffe, and to Maude my dowghter, whome I mayke my full executors. Wyttnesse hereof S'r Richarde Browne, curatt, Richard Blewett, Morrys Browne, Thomas Ball, w't other moo.'
WATER-SHED. A very unnecessary objection has been used for this comprehensive curt designation of the passing of waters down the two opposite sides of an eminence. At Donauschingen, a house is usually pointed out, from whose eaves the rain on one side descends to the Danube, on the other to the Rein. The objection seems to be that we take the word from the German scheiden, to divide; but both Fatherland and ourselves have it from a much older language. The AngloSaxon has numerous derivatives from sceadan, to 'separate or divide; as scedan, to shed; scedeland, divided land. Beside the German scheiden is a neuter verb, our to shed is an active one, as to shed tears; and, though rather a far-fetched elu
cidation, when we shed tears from two eyes, the prominent nose may be considered as the shed between both streams. WILLIAM BELL, Phil. DR.
THE COURT OF SESSION. - For a considerable period after the union of England and Scotland, the Court of Session (the Supreme Civil Court of the latter country) appears to have assumed powers of very questionable authority. Among these was the singular and hardly credible one of regulating the sale of beef and mutton by weight in the Edinburgh market; on which subject I extract the following dignified provision from an Act of the Court of date December 7th, 1734:
"That there be no sale made of mutton or of beef but
by Trois weight, heads, knaps, tongues and marrow bones cut out by themselves excepted."
This enactment seems to have been found grinding or inoperative, for their lordships, by a subsequent Act (January 24th, 1736) kindly exempted from its operation "the following pieces of flesh, viz., knap-layers, mid-layers, shoulderlayers, and craigs or necks." What I have referred to will be found in the printed Acts of Sederunt of the Court published in 1790; but as that publication is little known out of the legal profession in Scotland, and as the matter is curious (ludicrous is probably a more suitable phrase), it has occurred to me that it merits preservation in your widely circulated journal.
MULTIPLICATION TABLE.-It is well known that after a Table of Logarithms, no table is so useful to mathematicians as a large multiplication table. The following must be very rare, as it is not entered in the revised article "Tables" in the English Cyclopædia,—“ Практкh .... en Benetia (Venice), 1813, 16mo." This is a table extending to 100 times 100. The title is copied from the Hon. Fred. North's copy now in the Museum, press WM. DAVIS.
mark 870 a. 24.
VICARS OF ST. MARY-CHURCH, DEVON. The following list of Vicars of St. Mary-Church, drawn up with great care and accuracy from the Records of the Dean and Chapter of Exeter by Colonel Harding of Exeter, and the Rev. R. H. Barnes, the present Vicar of S. Mary-Church, was published in the Torquay Directory of July 22. I think it is worthy of being embalmed in your pages, as such lists are always useful for genealogical and other purposes.
"The following list of the Vicars of St. Mary-Church is taken from the Bishop's Registers :
Robert Maloylsch, instituted 10th August, 1313.
John Otery, 7th March, 1397.
John Carvargh or Curburgh.