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BAAL WORSHIP: ST. JOHN'S EVE.
(3rd S. iv. 168.)
Lanigan, Eccles. Hist. of Ireland, vol. i. seems justly to refer the prevalence of fire-worship among the ancient Irish to the connection existing "between Ireland and remote parts of the East." The festival La Baal Tinne, or the day of the great Baal fire, that of Samhin, and others, point to a marked Phoenician influence on the "Island of Saints." See also among many other authorities, Moore's Hist. of Ireland, chap. ii. This admixture of the Phoenician element marks the third stage in the history of the Druidic religion. Raised first on a pure patriarchal basis, it lost much of that purity by the introduction of the Arkite corruptions, and mingled the adoration of Hu and Kêd with that of the only God. Finally, it sank still lower under the influence of the Sabian idolatry, until at length its original features could be scarce discerned. ̧ W. BOWEN ROWLANDS.
That the Ghebir or Baal-worship prevailed in the pre-Christian era cannot be substantiated from direct historic statements, but is rather to be gathered from occasional inferences, which are incidentally strengthened (as relates to an early connection with the East) by the circumstance of the primitive and independent church of Ireland, previously to its subjection to Rome, having observed the festival of Easter according to the chronology of the oriental communion.
Forty years ago, in the southwest of Ireland, I remember well on a May eve, and on June 24 (St. John the Baptist's Day), when the sun attains his height of power, watching in the twilight for the first gleam upon some loftier mountain which was speedily answered by fires all around the horizon; and, if the nights happened to be moonless or clouded, one might discern at several miles distance men and cattle in dark relief against the light; the former with torches of bogwood, or lighted wisps, driving the cattle madly, and leaping after them through the flame. But this custom was observed under the superstitious notion of invocating saintly protection for their cattle, so that they should become prolific, and free from disease throughout the season; and I never could catch the least glimpse of tradition of an ancient fire-worship, though the vernacular terms are so curiously significant: May Eve, nin na béal-tina, Eve of Baal's Fire; May Day, la na béal-tina, Day of Baal's Fire; Month of May, mi na_béaltina, Month of Baal's Fire. J. L.
The Spanish customs on this night seem to be very different from those which appear still to exist in Ireland.
"Saint John's Eve," says the Spanish proverb, "sets every one a gadding." Accordingly, the public walks are crowded after sunset by parties, each assuming such a character as they consider themselves most able to support. One pretends to be a farmer, just arrived from the country; another a poor mechanic; this a foreigner speaking broken Spanish, and that a Gallego trying to make himself understood in the difficult dialect of his province. The gentlemen must come provided with a good stock of sweets (dulces), which are called papelillos from the circumstance of being each folded separately in a small piece of paper.
Persons inside the houses disguise themselves also, and speak to the gentlemen behind the latticework of the windows. A great deal of small-talk and wit is carried on by both parties. The señoras and the señoritas inside appear to enjoy the innocent mirth immensely. The strictest decorum is observed, as far as one can judge. I have heard that the custom is very ancient, but what is its origin I am unable to say.
Another custom exists among the populace of Madrid, on St. John's Eve. Numbers are to be seen on this night in the fields gathering vervain. This is called coger la verbena, an appellation evidently derived from some ancient superstition, which attributed supernatural powers to this plant when gathered at twelve o'clock on St. John's Eve. (See Doblado's Letters from Spain, p. 311, ed. London, 1822.) J. DALTON.
I know that bonfires were universal in Ireland, at least a few years ago, and used to be attended by every class of persons in the locality where the fire was lighted, and that used to be generally (in rural districts) at some cross road or other conspicuous place. Throwing brands from the fire into cornfields was common, and was practised by persons of all religious denominations. It was supposed this prevented blight or mildew to the crop. In of time (like the festivals called "Patterns ") abuse process crept in at bonfires, such as drinking and its attendant vices; and then the Catholic clergy prohibited their flock from attendance at such gatherings, which have nearly fallen off altogether. In the year 1851 I saw an immense bonfire in the city of Limerick. There were thousands collected about it, and pipers and fiddlers were plenty, and dancing was kept up all night. These fires on St. John's Eve are of great antiquity in Ireland, and if thoroughly investigated, no doubt would be found to have some connection with the Round Towers and fire-worship, introduced from Persia at an early period into Ireland. S. REDMOND.
In your number of Aug. 29, occurs a notice of the fact that, not many weeks ago, certain persons in Ireland were imprisoned for taking part in an unlawful assembly. And it appears that the superstition, which prompted the "unlawful" act, is so ancient as to perplex antiquaries as to its origin and duration.
Will you give me leave to inquire on a matter which, I acknowledge, is to me a greater curiosity still? I mean, the origin and date of the law under which these poor people were convicted. Superstition is, indeed, a great evil; but the notion of expelling it by penal laws is itself the worst superstition with which mankind were ever afflicted. When educated Englishmen can be brought together to hear spirits" rap," or to peer into magic crystal balls, surely there is no justice, and as little reason, in persecuting those who have so much more excuse for their folly. But, perhaps, the law was only directed against the riotous tendencies which, it is far from improbable, would become mingled with this traditionary custom. This is a point on which I should much like to be informed. FRANCIS J. MOORE.
(3rd S. iv. 180.)
Although I am not able to give a complete list of the serjeants, I send such as I have, with mottoes and dates. It may, nevertheless, be interesting to A. I regret being unable this week, from pressure of engagements, to give the dates of promotions and deaths of some of them.
George Bond, Esq. Motto, "Hæreditas a legibus." Easter Term, 1786.
John Wilson, Esq., on his being made one of the Justices of Common Pleas. Michaelmas Term, 1786. "Secundis laboribus." Died in Trinity Vacation, 1793.
Sir Alexander Thomson, Knt., on being appointed one of the Barons of the Exchequer, Hilary Term, 1787; Simon le Blanc, Esq., Hilary Term, 1787; and Soulden Laurence, Esq., Hilary Term, 1787: "Reverentia legum." William Cockell, Esq. "Stat lege corona." Easter Term, 1787.
C. Runnington, Esq.; S. Marshall, Esq.; and J. Watson, Esq. "Paribus se legibus." Michaelmas Term, 1787. Lloyd, Lord Kenyon, on his being appointed Chief Justice of King's Bench, Trinity Term, 1788; and Ralph Clayton, Esq.: "Quid leges sine moribus?"
J. W. Rose, Esq., chosen Recorder of London. "Vitium lege regi." Michaelmas Term, 1789.
S. Heywood, Esq., and J. Williams, Esq.
servi ut liberi." Trinity Term, 1794.
Legum Hilary "Legibus emendes." Easter Term,
A. Palmer, Esq.
Evaganti fræna licentiæ."
"Respice quid moneant leges."
J. Vaughan, Esq. "Paribus se legibus ambæ." Hilary Term, 1799.
J. Lens, Esq., and J. Bayley, Esq. "Libertas sub rege pio." Trinity Term, 1799.
Sir J. Scott, Knt., created Baron Eldon on his being appointed Chief Justice of Common Pleas. Trinity Vacation, 1799. "Rege incolumi mens omnibus una."
Sir Alan Chambre, Knt., on being appointed a Baron of the Exchequer. Trinity Vacation, 1799. "Majorum instituta tueri."
W. D. Best, Esq. "Libertas in legibus." Hilary
Robert Graham, Esq., on being appointed a Baron of the Exchequer, and Arthur Onslow, Esq. Trinity Terms, 1800. "Et placitum læti componite fœdus."
W. M. Praed, Esq. "Foederis æquas dicamus leges." Hilary Term, 1801.
Sir Edward Law, Knt., created Baron Ellenborough on being appointed Chief Justice of King's Bench. Hilary
"Positis mitescunt secula bellis."
Sir J. Mansfield, Knt., on being appointed Chief Justice of Common Pleas. Easter Term, 1804. "Serus in cœlum redeas."
Sif T. M. Sutton, Knt., on being appointed a Baron of "Hic ames dici the Exchequer. Easter Term, 1804. pater atque princeps."
Sir George Wood, Knt., on being appointed a Baron of the Exchequer. Easter Term, 1807. "Moribus ornes, legibus emendes."
William Manley, Esq.; Albert Pell, Esq.; and William Rough, Esq. "Pro rege et lege." Easter Term, 1808. Robert Henry Peckwell, Esq., and William Frere, Esq. "Traditum ab antiquis servare." Easter Term, 1809.
Sir Vicary Gibbs, Knt., on being appointed one of the Justices of Common Pleas. Trinity Term, 1812. "Leges juraque."
Henry Dampier, Esq., on being appointed one of the Justices of King's Bench. Trinity Term, 1813. "Consulta patrum."
John Singleton Copley, Esq. "Studiis vigilare severis." Trinity Term, 1813.
Sir Robert Dallas, Knt., on being appointed one of the Justices of the Common Pleas. Michaelmas Term, 1813. "Mos et lex."
Richard Richards, Esq., on being appointed a Baron of the Exchequer. Hilary Vacation, 1814. "Lex est ratio summa."
John Bernard Bosanquet, Esq. "Antiquam exquirite matrem." Michaelmas Term, 1814.
James Alan Park, Esq., on being appointed one of the Justices of Common Pleas. Hilary Term, 1816. leges juraque servat."
Charles Abbott, Esq., on being appointed one of the Justices of Common Pleas. Hilary Term, 1816. "La
George Sowley Holroyd, Esq., on being appointed one of the Justices of King's Bench. Hilary Vacation, 1816. "Componere legibus orbem."
James Burrough, Esq., on being appointed one of the Justices of Common Pleas. Easter Term, 1816. " Legibus emendes." "Auspicium melioris ævi." Tri
John Hullock, Esq. nity Term, 1816. William Firth, Esq. Hilary Term, 1817,
"Ung roy, ung loy, ung foy."
Sir William Garrow, Knt., on being appointed a Baron of the Exchequer. Easter Term, 1817. "Fas et jura." William Taddy, Esq. "Mos et lex." Trinity Term, 1818.
INCOMES OF PEERS.
I send a copy of a MS. at Stanford Court relating to the Incomes of Peers in the seventeenth century.
The Surnames, Titles, and Times of Creation of all the Nobilitie of England, together with their yearly Revenues this present Year 1622.
Pawlett, Winchester, 5 Edw. VI., 65001. Villiers, Buckingham, 13 Jacobi, 12,0007.
Howard, Arundell and Surrey, 1 Henry II., 70002. Vere, Oxford, 5 Henry II., 2000. Percy, Northumberland, 1 Ric. II., 20,000l. Talbott, Shrewsbury, 10 Hen. VI., 20007, Gray (?), Kent, 5 Ed. IV., 20007. Stanley, Derbie, 1 Hen. VII., 8000Z. Somerset, Worcester, 5 Hen. VIII., 70007. Manners, Rutland, 17 Hen. VIII, 12,0007. Clifford, Cumberland, 17 Hen. VIII., 4,5007. Ratcliffe, Sussex, 21 Hen. VII., 30007. Hastings, Huntington, 21 Hen. VIII., 3000. Bourchier, Bath, 28 Hen. VIII., 30004 Wriotesley, Southampton, 1 Edw. VI., 10007. Russell, Bedford, 3 Edw. VI., 5000Z. Harbert, Pembroke, 5 Edw. VI., 18,000Z Seymour, Hertford, 1 Eliz., 12,0007. Devereux, Essex, 14 Eliz., 40007. Clinton Fienes, Lincoln, 14 Eliz., 4000l. Howard, Nottingham, 39 Eliz., 30007 Howard, Suffolk, 1 Jac., 60002 Sackville, Dorsett, 1 Jac., 14,000. Cecil, Salisbury, 8 Jac., 12,000l. Cecil, Exeter, 3 Jac., 12,000l. Herbert, Montgomery, 3 Jac., 30007. Stewart, Richmond, 11 Jac., 60004 Car, Somerset, 11 Jac., 3000Z. Edgerton, Bridgewater, 15 Jac., 14,000. Sidney, Leicester, 16 Jac., 40007. Compton, Northampton, 16 Jac., 80007. Cavendish, Devonshire, 16 Jac., 20,000, Hamilton, Cambridge, 17 Jac., 40007 Stewart, March, 17 Jac., 3000Z. Ramsey, Houlderness, 18 Jac,, 2007. Viscounts.
Browne, Montague, 1 Marie, 12,0007 Knowles, Wallingford, 14 Jac., 3000/. Hayes (?) Doncaster, 16 Jac. Villiers, Pembroke, 17 Jac., 80007. Cavendish, Mansfield, 18 Jac., 10,000Z. Mountague, Mandeville, 18 Jac, 60004. Ffielding, Newnham, 18 Jac., 20007. Bacon, St. Albans, 19 Jac., 20007. Darcy, Colchester, 19 Jac., 70007. Carey, Rochford, 19 Jac. 80007. Howard, Andover, 19 Jac., 3000Z. Barons.
Ffane, Le Despencer, 1 Hen. III., 70002.
Stafford, Stafford, with the Conqueror, 15007. Scroope, Scroope, 8 Ed. II., 5000%. Sutton, Dudley, 20 Hen. VI., 2000Z. Stourton, Stourton, 27 Hen. VI., 2000Z Somerset, Herbert of Chepstow, 1 Ed. IV., 30007. Ogle, Ogle, 2 Ed. IV., 1500l. Sandes, Sandes, 14 Hen. VIII., 2000/ Vaux, Vaux, 21 Hen. VIII., 3000. Windsor, Windsor, 21 Hen. VIII., 2000Z Wentworth, Wentworth, 21 Hen. VIII., 3000Z. Mordaunt, Mordaunt, 24 Hen. VIII., 35004 Cromwell, Cromwell, 28 Hen. VIII., 20007. Evers, Evers, 33 Hen. VIII., 3000Z. Wharton, Wharton, 35 Hen. VIII., 20007. Willoughbie, Willoughby of Parham, 1 Ed. VI., 20007. Sheffield, Sheffield, 1 Ed. VI., 1500Z. Pagett, Pagett, 5 Ed. VI., 40007. Darcy, Darcy of the North, 300OZ North, North, 1 Mary, 20007. Bridges, Chandoisse, 1 Mary, 30007. • St. John, St. John of Bletsoe, 1 Eliz., 2000. Wotton, Wotton, 1 Jac., 4000Z. Russell, Russell, 1 Jac., 30007. Gray, Gray of Groby, 1 Jac., 3000Z. Peter, Peter, 1 Jac., 70007 Danvers, Danvers, 1 Jac., 4000Z. Gerrard, Gerrard, 1 Jac., 30002. Spencer, Spencer, 1 Jac., 50007. Ffienes, Say, 1 Jac., 20007. Denny, Denny, 2 Jac., 30007.
Stanhope, Stanhope of Harrington, 3 Jac., 30007.
Karew, Karew, 3 Jac., 30007. Arundell, Arundell, 3 Jac., 80007. Knivet, Knivet, 5 Jac., 20007. Dormer, Dormer, 13 Jac., 4000Z. Roper, Teynham, 13 Jac., 50007. Holles, Houghton, 14 Jac., 30007. Stanhope, Stanhope de Sheff, 14 Jac., 60007. Nowell, Nowell, 16 Jac., 40002, Digbie, Digbie, 16 Jac., 30007. Mountague, Mountague, 18 Jac., 3000/. Grevil, Brooke, 18 Jac., 50007. Cranfield, Cranfield, 16 Jac., 50007.
THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
PRICES OF OLD BOOKS.
Your correspondent H. COTTON has related a curious instance of the revulsion of public feeling as to the value of old books, from the boiling to the freezing point, in his contrast of the prices given at the Duke of Roxburghe's sale in 1812— when a single volume brought the sum of 22701.with those of a recent auction in the county of Tipperary; where the contents of a library (between six and seven hundred weight) were knocked down at one halfpenny per pound. Nor were the books merely waste paper; for among them were works of Bacon, Hammond, Ussher, Tillotson, with many more modern authors of good note.
But, though the difference is striking, it is most probable that the two cases were quite dissimilar; and that, in fact, the contents of the two libraries
bore no resemblance to each other either exter-
But, Mr. Editor, is not such a sale most depressing to gentlemen authors, whose shelves happen to be inconveniently loaded with unsold copies of their own productions? I do not consider myself a better writer than Bacon, Tillotson, or Ussher; yet I had always hoped, that my executors would receive at least threepence per pound for my lucubrations from any respectable grocer or cheesemonger.
But, to sink to a single halfpenny-the paltry amount of Falstaff's bill for "bread,"-Charon's fee for ferrying a ghost across the Styx!-the price of a ration of cat's-meat!-Bah! As the Emperor Louis Napoleon said of Kinglake's bitter book on the Crimean war: "C'est ignoble!" Well, I am only sorry for my legatees. I'll write no more books. SCRIBLERUS MINOR.
MAXIMS: NEWBERY: GOLDSMITH (3rd S. iv. 229.)- The Index to Mankind, referred to by your correspondent J. M., forms a part of the third volume of The Midwife, or Old Woman's Magazine. The title-page states
"To which is added, An Index to Mankind,' which completes her works in English:
'Cedite Romani Scriptores, cedite Graii.'
should much doubt whether any of the maxims in it appeared for the first time in this work; so large a proportion of them being easily traceable to previous writers and collections. Indeed, the preface states:
The Magazine takes up 154 pages. Then follows, with the title-page given by J. M., and the date 1751, the "Index to Mankind." From the date, of course, Goldsmith's having any share in it is out of the question; as, in 1751, he was still in Ireland. As regards the collection itself, I
"What is here offered to the Reader is more what I have digested than what I myself have wrote; and, therefore. I may without vanity or partiality com
The Old Woman's Magazine—an amusing and now scarce periodical-did not extend beyond the third volume. Its editor was the unfortunate Christopher Smart; and he and Newbery were almost the sole writers in it. The probability is, that the "Index to Mankind" was collected by the latter, who was fully equal to such a performance without calling in any higher power. JAS. CROSSLEY.
ISABEL OF GLOUCESTER (3rd S. iv. 187.)-Your learned correspondent HERMENTRUDE inquires concerning "Xanton" and "Scone," the bishops of which are found mentioned-one by Speed, and the other by Stow-in connection with the Archbishop of Bordeaux and the Bishop of Poitiers.
1. Xanton. The part of France subsequently known by the name of La Saintonge, was once inhabited by the Santones or Xantones: its principal town, Saintes or Xaintes, formerly Mediolanum Santonum, or Urbs Santonica. It was from early times a bishopric; and was subject to the archiepiscopal see of Bordeaux. This may account for our finding the archbishop and the bishop associated in the matter of King John. The spellings Xaincts and Xaintoing may be seen in Speed (ed. 1632, p. 603,) both in text and margin; also in the "Table" at the end, under the letter_X.
2. In regard to Scone there is more difficulty. Scone, in Scotland, though famous in history, does not appear to have ever been the seat of a bishopric, any more than Escon, or Escouen-two small places in France mentioned by Expilly, though not by Valesius. Can Stow's "Scone" be Carcassone, which was a bishopric? Or may it not be a corrupt spelling of Xanton? On this last supposition the same three prelates who, according to Speed, united in the sentence of divorce, were also associated, according to Stow, in dissolving the marriage.
The Bishoprick of Xanton is that of Saintes, called Santonus in Latin, and frequently Xaintes in French. It was the capital of Saintonge, or Xaynton, as Froissart spells it. (Cap. xxii.)
Roger de Hoveden mentions the divorce of Hawise, with the names of the officiating prelates; and it appears from his account that John's mar
"Anciently there was noe written precedent for ordering the bearing of supporters, nor for limiting them to the major nobilitie. . . . . The moderne use of them is now chiefly in the greater nobility, and knights of the garter, or persons that were of the privy council, or had some command whereby they had the title of lord prefixed to their style, as Lord Deputy of Ireland, Lord Warden of the Cinque-Ports, Lord President, Counsellors of the North or Marches of Wales, or Lord Warden of the Stan
"That the peers of the realm did and might bear them, is not the question. That others under the degree of peers in parliament did bear them, and by what reason or right, and how the precedent of their ancestors bearing supporters' may justify the use of them in lineal heirs, is the question. It is confessed there is little or nothing in precedent to direct the use of supporters," &c. &c.
"Sir Walter Raleigh, as Lord Warden of the Stanneries."
I cannot at all agree with MR. MACLEAN in assuming that if the office in question entitled its holder to the dignity of supporters, a person appointed to the office could not use them without the authority of the Heralds' College. The Lutterells, Pastons, Carews, Hintons, and others, below the rank of the peerage, who use supporters, require no warrant whatever from the Heralds' College to justify them in the continuance of their hereditary distinctions; nor does the Lord Chancellor need a grant from the College of Arms to justify him in placing behind his shield the maces which are the ensigns of his official dignity. JOHN WOODWARD.
"MAY MAIDS" (3rd S. iv. 229.)-MR. REDMOND is probably aware that a May Queen is the subject of the most popular of all the Poet Laureate's poems. Mr. Tennyson might give information on the question, if applied to. LYTTELTON.
GREEK PHRASE (3rd S. iv. 240.)-SCHIN's conjecture does not seem to me very probable. It assumes either that the substantive funda is etymologically connected with the verb fundo and effundo, or at least that effundo is used of a sling. The first of these is by no means certain. Voss derives funda from σφενδόνη, and fundo from χύνω. As to the latter, no doubt sling might be well expressed by fundere or effundere; it does not appear that it ever is so. The only verb connected plainly with funda is fundito, in Plautus, applied to the person aimed at. All the above notes are from Scheller's Lexicon.
I understand that SCHIN has ascertained that the phrase in question is not in Plutarch.
SIR INGRAM HOPTON (3rd S. iv. 127.)-He in Leeds, by his first wife Mary, daughter of was only son of Ralph Hopton, Esq., of Armley Roger Nowel, Esq. He was born at Armley, and baptised Feb. 23, 1614-15, on which day his mother died.
under Mr. Doughty, he was, on May 12, 1631, After being for four years at Wakefield school admitted a scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge.
He married Eleanor, daughter and coheiress of Arthur Lindley, of Leathley, Esq., and by her (who re-married Col. Robert Brandling) had issue Ralph, who died young, and Mary, his sole heiress, who married, first, Sir Miles Stapleton of Wighill, and secondly, Richard Aldburgh, Esq.
It is observable that the writer of the inscription at Horncastle, in commemoration of Sir Ingram Hopton, was mistaken as to the day on which Winceby fight occurred. It is but common charity to suppose that, had he been acquainted