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LONDON, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1863. of the old possessions of the bishopric; then, that

he began to collect together a body of monks, and CONTENTS.-No. 95.

to reform the statutes; and then he says :NOTES :- Bishop Gundulf and his Architecture, 321 - Sir Robert Honywood, 322— Giovanni Pico, Prince of Miran

“ A new church, the old one being destroyed, is begun, dola, 323.

a circle of offices (ambitus officinarum) are conveniently, MINOR NOTES :- Mrs. Hemans and her Brother - Names arranged, the whole work within a few years is completed of Serials - Custom at Ripon - The Birthplace of Wil- | (perficitur), Lanfranc privately contributing (subminisliam Mulready, R.A. - Alexander the Great : Swift in the trante) much money." Nursery - Wife Sale, 323. QUERIES: – Alfeknight – Anonymous

Our author then goes on tó relate how "all

Arms; Bell Motto Wanted - Boucher and Bowden: st. Dunstan's things being finished” (igitur perfectis omnibus) Clock - Candles --Edward Walton Chapman - The Rev. Gundulf kept on increasing the number of the Thomas Craig-Families of Trepsack and Forster – James Fordyce- John Freer-"London and Literary Museum "

monks, and how well

, how steadily, and how kindly - London Chapels - Lynn Regis - "Mitch ke ditch he presided over them. Oglesby- "The Periodical Press" Quotation --Scalding Thursday - Taliesin Williams (ab Lolo) - Tile Barn

The other authority is that of the celebrated " Tudor, a Prince of Wales " - Sir John Wenlock : Lord Textus Roffensis (p. 143 of Hearne's edition, Wenlock - Anthony Young, 325.

1720). Here the account of Gundulf's elevation QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:--Chancellor Livingston - Sir to the see is given much as before ; and then the Robert Howard, K.B. - Treacle Bible -" The History of author tells us : of Miss Clarinda Cathcart and Miss Fanny Renton The Right Hon. George Smith - Pimlico, 327.

“ He built the church of Saint Andrew, almost destroyed REPLIES :- The Devil, 328 — Sir Francis Drake, 330 — St. by old age, new entirely, as at this day it appears Anthony of Padua preaching to the Fishes, 331 Bed-gown (Ecclesiam Sancti Andreæ, pene vetustate dirutam, noand Night-dress, 332 = Quaint Surnames, 333 Quixote, Ib.- Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford - - "God

vam ex integro ut hodie apparet, ædificavit), " and he save the King" in Church - Innocente Coate- Terrier

constructed all the offices necessary for the monks, as Sketching

Club or Society - Executions for Murder - Ber: well as the capacity of the site would permit.” nard Gates, Tuner of the Regals - St. Luke, the Patron of Painters -- Arms of Milan - Um-Elia: Amelia - Robert

Thus we have two direct testimonies; one from Davenport - -Third Buffs - The Rev. Peter Thompson a contemporary who knew the bishop personally, Riddle -- Mrs. Cokain of Ashburne - Party - Major Rud; yerd — Sir Bernard de Gomme—“Philomathic Journal”

the other from a MS. of the highest estimation, - Zincography - Greek Phrase, &c., 334.

which (even taking the lowest date assigned to it) would not be very long after his time, and these

agree that Gundulf did build, and that he did comNotes.

plete the cathedral at Rochester and the monastic BISHOP GUNDULF AND HIS ARCHITECTURE.

buildings necessary thereto.

Nevertheless, few architects who have studied In the current number of the Gentleman's the early works of the Normans would deny, Magazine (p. 448), in the account of the meeting that, in the words of the discerning Professor, of the Archeological Institute at Rochester, Pro- “ The work is of a more refined and advanced fessor Willis is reported to have said that Gundulf character than his (Gundulf’s) times would preerected the western portion of the crypt, and sent, and therefore it must be assigned to a period perhaps the lateral tower, “but certainly not in the reign of Henry I., after the death of the another stone ” of the cathedral. It is with the prelate." We are so accustomed to connect the greatest diffidence one ventures even to offer a name of Gundulf with the Tower of London and remark on the expressed opinions of so learned the Conqueror, that we are led to fancy all his and careful an antiquary, but the testimonies of buildings must be early Norman. We know the monastic writers, though few, are strong there was another bishop between him and Ernulf, the contrary,

and therefore it is also natural to believe there The first to which I allude is that of the anony- must have been considerable difference in the mous author of the good Bishop's life, which is styles of their architecture. But we forget his was printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, vol. ii. p. 273, comparatively a late consecration, 1077, "eleven &c. Whoever the writer was, and however warmly, years after the coming of the Normans into Engperhaps partially, he reverenced the memory of land under Count William," as his biographer the subject of his biography, he seems to have says; and that he held the bishopric till 1107, nearly compiled it with the utmost care as to facts. He the third of a century. Radulf was translated to assures us in his “prologus” he relates nothing Canterbury in 1114, and Ernulf elected in 1115, as to the Bishop in which he was not one of the so that there are only eight years between Gunparties present, or which he did not receive dulf and Ernulf. In fact, the former lived seven from credible eye-witnesses. He tells us the cir- years under the reign of Henry I. cumstances of Gundulf's succession to the see, That the work differs from what we generally mainly through the exertions of Lanfranc, and judge to be early Norman there can be no doubt; the state in which he found it; and then goes on but does this necessarily prove it to be that of to relate that, first he claimed and obtained many Ernulf? It seems impossible to conceive that two chroniclers of the first class; one, at least, living at precious stones, shrines, illuminated books, and the very

time such work was carried on; the other such things as might be expected to be wanted in very shortly after, should make such clear straight a new church, but not a word of any expense in forward statements if they were not true; and building. Of Ernulf, who had the see from 1115 that as to the buildings which must have been as to 1123, he records that he built the dormitory, familiar to them as Westminster Hall is to our chapter-house, and refectory. Of these there are lawyers. May not the difficulty be solved thus?- sufficient remains to lead one to suppose that he Either the work in the nave was planned and may also have lengthened the nave one bay, and executed late in Gundulf's life, when in fact he erected the gorgeous west front. But all this is was within the reign of Henry I.; or he was in beside the question we started with, which is — advance of his age, and his design then would did Gundulf erect the crypt and the tower, but hold the same reference to Norman as those at certainly not another stone,” or did he build the Lincoln do to the Early English and the Deco- nave, or the greater part of it? If he did not, rated; or as those at Gloucester do to the Per- the monks must have been without a church for pendicular. We must remember styles of archi- nearly forty years, except one “pene vetustate tecture do not spring into fashion all at once. dirutam," and Radulf would have done more like the airs of a new opera, or the pattern of a wisely during his seven years' episcopate to have new dress. They have all been of slow growth; laid out his money in building than in jewelled like forest trees rather than fungi.

vestments and gorgeous service-books. It seems Is it not possible then, that there may be truth also incredible that Edmund de Hadenham, when in both, namely, that the nave of Rochester may treating of Ernulf's buildings, should enumerate have been comparatively a late work of Gundulf, the offices and quite forget the church. I hope and also far in point of style before any other of for a reply from abler pens than mine: and then the same period ? He had much to do before he if you will permit me to offer a few remarks of could recover the revenues of his impoverished the same nature as to Rochester Castle, the archisee, and get bis monks together. Then he had to tectural merits of this good bishop may be further build the church (possibly very slowly), as money


A. A. came in; the crypt first, then, according to the

Poets' Corner. practice of medieval times, the choir over it, and in all probability the nave last of all. All these works must necessarily have occupied much of

SIR ROBERT HONYWOOD. the time between his consecration and the suc- He was eldest surviving son of Sir Robert cession of Ernulf.

Honywood of Pett, in the parish of Charing, Kent, As to his ability in the arts of design, the by Alice, daughter of Sir Martin Barnham of HolTextus Roffensis (p. 146) describes him as “ in lingbourne, in that county; and was born at the opere cæmentarii plurimum sciens et efficax," latter place, August 3, 1601. which one of our day would translate as

On June 15, 1625, he received the honour of architect of first rate ability, both theoretically knighthood. Subsequently, he served abroad for and practically.". It seems to be conceded that many years in the wars of the Palatinate, baving he was the architect, or to have been concerned the rank of Colonel, and being steward to the more or less in building, not only this cathedral, Queen of Bohemia ; who in her letters occabut also the Abbey at Malling, the Castle at sionally refers to him by the familiar appellation Rochester (of which more anon, if I do not intrude of Sir Robin. On July 3, 1646, the parliament too much upon your space), and of higher renown granted a pass for him to transport himself into than all, the Tower of London. Is it not reason- Holland, with his lady, two daughters, three maids, able to suppose the designs of such a man were four men servants, all their necessary baggage, before his age? Are we to take certain examples, and eight horses for his own use. and average them down to a year or two, and It is said that he was returned for Romney to deny to an architect the merit of his own work, the Parliament which met Jan. 27, 1658-9; but or doubt the truth of a narration of facts, which this must be an error, as, on May 16, 1659, he the chronicler must have seen with his own eyes, was appointed one of the Council of State as one because it does not fit our scale of dates ?

of the members of that body who had not seats There is another reason to believe that Gun- in Parliament. In March, 1659-60, he, Algernon dulf finished the cathedral, besides the plain Sidney, and Thomas Boone, were dispatched by words of the chroniclers, and that is, that Edmund the Parliament on an embassy to the King of de Hadenham, who carefully records all benefac- Sweden. Boone returned before the Restoration, tions to the undertaking (Ang. Sacr. i. 362), has and Sidney and Honywood were recalled by a given a list of those things presented by Radulf, royal proclamation, to which the latter paid due the successor to Gundulf, and the predecessor of obedience; and he caused to be delivered up at Ernulf. These gifts are all chasubles, stoles, albs, Whitehall, on August 31, 1660, all his majesty's


plate and household stuff. In December follow- learned, promising to those who stood in need of such ing, the Parliament made order for payment of assistance, to defray the expenses of their journey. 22001. , the amount of bills of exchange drawn by and substantially contained nothing of any importance.

“ These propositions were, after all, very insignificant, the ambassadors for their allowance, and for Some of them, however, related to judicial astrology, and mourning at the King of Sweden's death.

were at once all condemned by the Pope. The whole chalIn 1673 appeared his translation of The History lenge fell to the ground. Pico without delay wrote an of the Affairs of Europe, but more particularly of apology, and tendered his submission to the Roman court the Republic of Venice, written in Italian by Bat

Posterity has treated him somewhat hardly, for

his name gradually sank into oblivion. It must, however, tista Nani (London, folio). In the dedication to be confessed that his learning was not very profound, his, Sir Walter Vane, Knight, and that he was far inferior in erudition to Politian, and in Colonel of his Majesty's Holland regiment, he philosophy to Ficino. Of the two-and-twenty languages states that he began this translation in the circum

that he made a boast of knowing, so little was he in stances of an uncomfortable old age and ruined reality conversant with them, that a Jew was able to sell fortune, brought on bim rather by, public cala- by the command of Esdras, while the whole sixty formed mity than private vice or prodigality; and he together one work — the Cabbala ; of some others he only undertook it to divert the melancholy hours knew the alphabet. He wrote Italian without elegance, arising from the consideration of either.

and his literary judgment was so little to be relied upon, His death occurred April 15, 1686, in the that he was one of those who preferred the poetry of

Lorenzo de' Medici to that of Petrarch and Dante." (Vol. eighty-fifth year of his age, and he was buried at i. p. 81-2.) Charing; where is a monument, with an inscription, commemorating him and Frances his wife, One great merit, however, Pico possessed - viz. who died Feb. 17, 1687-8, in the seventy-fourth that he was the first, in his age, who applied to year of her age.

the study of the Oriental languages, which before By this lady, who was daughter of Sir Henry his time attracted little or no attention from Vane, Secretary of State to Charles I., he had European scholars. His works consist of two Robert his heir, eight other sons, and seven large folio volumes, which are now almost worthdaughters.

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. less. (See Miscellaneous Essays by the Rev. W. Cambridge.

Pair Greswell, Manchester, 1805.)



Most biographies tell us wonderful things of this “phenix of genius" – a term by which he

Minor Notes. was generally known in the fifteenth century. It MRS. HEMANS AND HER BROTHER. — MR. JOHN is said, “ that he had a most extraordinary me- Pavin PHILLIPS's Note on Mrs. Hemans's For. mory; that he was acquainted with two-and- geries (3rd S. iv. 261) bas reminded me of an intwenty languages ; that he was skilled in almost cident which I well remember to bave heard my every branch of learning - viz. philosophy, law, father relate many years ago, as having occurred philology, poetry, astrology, and general litera- during a visit he paid to Canada in, I believe, the ture," &c. But, in perusing the History of Girolamo Savo- the family of that gifted poetess, may perhaps be

year 1819; and wbich, from its connection with narola and his Times,t I met with the following deemed worth preserving in “N. & Q.” A numpassage, which has considerably lessened my opi- ber of gentlemen, mostly strangers to each other, nion of this “phænix of genius." I believe it to

were seated over their wine after dinner at the be a correct judgment of his real worth, as a lite hotel, in Montreal —one being my father, and rary prodigy. Perhaps you may consider the ex

another a military officer named Browne. In a tract deserving a corner in “N. & Q.:" —

spirit of fun it was suggested, and at once agreed “Not only in languages but in science also, he aspired to to, that every one present should write impromptu universal knowledge, and expected to be able to master the some lines of poetry; and that the writer of the omne scibile of his time. So great were the praises he received on all hands, and so high an opinion had he formed

worst should pay the dinner bill. of himself that, on going to Rome, he announced that be

As might be expected, considerable mirth was was ready to respond publicly to nine hundred proposi created by the badness of several of these effutions, which he pretended contained the whole science of sions; and eventually, amid much laughter, it his time, and he sent invitations, in his name, to the was agreed that the lines signed “Browne" were

decidedly the worst. He was uncle of the Francesco Pico della Mirandola,

In this verdict the writer, with the greatest who wrote a Life of Savonarola.

By Professor Villari of the University of Pisa. It good humour, fully acquiesced, saying (what was has lately been translated into English by Leonard Hor before, of course, quite unknown to his comner, F.R.S. (2 vols. Longman & Co.)

panions,) that “ he was a brother of Mrs. Hemans, and that it could not be expected there should be some doubt on the generally accepted fact of Mulready two poets in one family!”

having been by birth an Irishman. I am happy to be

able to state to my own knowledge that he always This was of course, Claude Scott Browne, one

avowed himself Irish by birth. I knew him so far back year younger than his sister; who, as we learn

as the year 1831, when he received me in London kindly from the Memoir of Mrs. Hemans prefixed to her and cordially as a fellow-countryman; and in last June, Works (1839, vol. i. p. 8, note), “died at King- but three or four weeks previous to his death, I met him ston, in Upper Canada (where he was employed at an evening party, when, in course of conversation, he

stated precisely that he was born in Ennis, in the county as a Deputy-Assistant Commissary General), in

Clare. This should set at rest for ever the doubt raised 1821 ;" and to whom his sister thus alludes in

by . Nemo.'-Yours truly, The Graves of a Household :

“ GEORGE F. MULVANY." “ They grew in beauty, side by side,

Mr. Mulready was one of whom his native land They fillid one home with glee;

may well be proud.

Their graves are severed far and wide,
By mount, and stream, and sea.

One, 'midst the forest of the west,

SERY.—I heard the following story from my nurse By a dark stream is laid

more than fifty years ago : it was the first time I The Indian knows his place of rest,

ever heard of the great Conqueror. I asked why Far in the cedar shade."

he was called Alexander the Great, and was inWILLIAM KELLY.

structed as follows: -“ Why, you see, my dear, NAMES OF SERIALS. — Good Words owes its he was once out hunting, and lost his way, all name to "holy” Herbert; Household Words de- alone. At last he came to a cottage, and the rived its name from Shakspeare, as has also its people took him in, and gave him dry clothes [I successor All the Year Round. "I do not know think they wrung his umbrella, but I am not quite whether the titles of the serial established con- sure], and set him down by the fire. And then temporarily with All the Year Round was, con- it was, what would he have for supper? Would sciously on the projector's part, favoured with a he have a fowl ? No! no fowl; thank you, of poetic baptism. It is, however, to be found in course, that people always say. Would he have a the concluding lines of the otherwise prose epi- rasher ? No! no rasher. Would he have roasted logue to Eastward Ho!” which are as follow : - eggs? Yes! he would have roasted eggs. Then “O may you find in this our pageant here,

the good man of the house called out to his wife, The same contentment which you came to seek; All eggs under the grate : and he was so pleased And as that show but draws you once a year,

with the sound of it, for you see, my dear, he was May this attract you hither once a week.""

very hungry, that he went to church next Sunday, This is rather a strange circumstance, when we and had himself christened so." The mere play remember that, in the third line of the prologue to on the words is Swift's; the rest is a nursery the same play, the authors Jonson, Chapman, and formation, which the Dean himself would not have Marston assert, “ We have evermore been imi- disdained.

A. DE MORGAN. tated.”


WIFE SALE. — Some twenty-two years ago a CUSTOM AT RIPon. I copy. the following from

working man living in Gloucester, finding that his a north country newspaper, in hope that some cor

wife, with whom he had lived uncomfortably & respondent of “ N. & Q." may afford some illus- long time, had been unfaithful to him, obtained an tration of the custom, or that, at all events, it may interview with her paramour, to whom he agreed be placed on record.

Y. B. N. J.

to sell her. Accordingly on the following Satur“ KING ALFRED OF NORTHUMBERLAND. — At Ripon every night at nine o'clock the watchman of the market day (market day), attired in a black gown and a blows, in front of the town hall, an ancient horn, said to

new white bonnet, with a halter round her neck, be the gift of King Alfred of Northumberland. It is said the frail wife was led by her husband into the that on the blowing of this horn depends the maintenance market, where, it seems, a sort of auction was got of the city's charter; and, as nine o'clock is the hour up, and the woman, who was a consenting party fixed for the ceremony, it appears probable that it has a place in the local economy as a substitute for the curfew, half a crown, the money being duly paid down by

to the transaction, was sold to her paramour for which is still rung in some towns of the north and of Ireland at the same hour.”

the “purchaser," who then led the woman away. THE BIRTHPLACE OF WILLIAM. MULREADY, eye-witness of the extraordinary (for so it was)

I believe these particulars, as related to me by an R.A.- The following deserves, I think, to find a place in “ N. & Q.;” and, accordingly, I send gular part of the occurrence remains to be men

occurrence are perfectly credible. The most sinit :

tioned. The woman, it is averred, proved an exTO THE EDITOR OF SAUNDERS'S NEWS-LETTER. National Gallery of Ireland, Merrion Square,

cellent manager to her second lord, who frequently West, Dublin, 2nd October, 1863.

congratulated himself on his “bargain."' It is Sir-I perceive in your publication an extract from possible that the woman is still living, but both a letter to the Scotsman, signed · Nemo," which throws the men are dead.

F. G. B.


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lights, and Baronius and Muratori show that wax

candles were employed in the church in the third ALFEKNIGHT. Mr. Harwood, in bis interesting century; is there any earlier record of their use ? Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Nor- Is there any evidence or reason to suppose that folk, says (p. 227, note) :

the Hebrews were acquainted with them prior to " A Ralph Alfeknight is a witness to an early deed their expulsion from their own land ? [of the fourteenth century, in the Chartulary of Brom

OPIFEX CANDELARUM. holm, preserved in the Public Library at Cambridge). In another he appears as Ralph Demychyvaler, and some

EDWARD WALTON CHAPMAN.— This gentleman, of the family subsequently figure as Halfknights. Some a son of Capt. William Chapman of Whitby (whó of the speculators on the origin of names may amuse died 1793), was engaged under his brother William themselves with the investigation of the origin of this." Chapman, a famous engineer (who died at New

May not the surname referred to have been castle-upon-Tyne at a very advanced age, May conferred on the possessor of half a knight's fee, 29, 1832), on important public works in Ireland, which was settled at 401. a-year early in the and is subsequently described as of Newcastlefourteenth century ? Or may it not have had its upon-Tyne, and Willington-Ropery, in the parish rise in the doctrine then in force, that the per- of Wallsend, Northumberland. The date of his sonal attendance of a single knight was equivalent death will oblige. He appears to have been living to that of two men-at-arms not being knights? in 1817.

S. Y. R. (See Mr. F. M. Nichols's learned paper on “Feudal THE REv. T IAS CRAIG, minister of the Assoand Obligatory Knighthood," Archæologia, xxxix. ciate Congregation of Whitby, 1789, removed to 213, 222.) JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A. Leeds in 1793, and subsequently settled at or

ANONYMOUS. --Who are the authors of the two near Bocking. He published Three Sermons on following poetical volumes ?--1. Leisure Moments, Important Subjects, Whitby, 8vo, 1791; Funeral by M. N. A., London, Cleaver, 1843. 2. Frag

Sermon for Mrs. Fitch Bocking, 8vo, 1815 ; ments, Original and Translated, by M.C.R., 1857.

Funeral Sermon for John Tabor, Esq., Bocking, R. INGLIS. 8vo, 1815. When did he die?

S. Y. R. ARMS.-Argent, a saltire azure. Whose ?


be greatly obliged for any information respecting

the Rev. John Trepsack of Canterbury. His wife, BELL MOTTO WANTED.—Where is the bell that who died in 1699, is buried in the cathedral. has, this motto, most descriptive of the uses of Was he a member of the Chapter, or connected church bells ?

with Canterbury ? The name has rather a foreign “ To call the folks to church in time I chime. sound, and I believe his arms are given on the When mirth and joy are on the wing- I ring. monumental slab belonging to his wife. When from the body parts the soul-I toll."

His brother-in-law was “ John Fforster, of QUERIST.

Dover, Gent.;" who appears, from his marriage BOUCHER AND BOWDEN: ST. DUNSTAN'S CLOCK. / license, to have been born in 1662. Was there a Can any reader of “N. & Q.” explain who Bou- family of this name at Dover at the period incher and Bowden were? for such appears to have dicated ?

C. J. R. been the names of the two figures who struck the JAMES FORDYCE.- Who was James Fordyce, hours on the old St. Dunstan's clock.

who published at Edinburgh, in 1788, A Collection I quote from A Pacquet from Wills; or a New of Hymns and Sacred Poems ? I take it for Collection of Original Letters, frc., London, 1701 :- granted, that he was an entirely different person

“A Lady of Pleasure being the Escutcheon of Iniquity, from his namesake, the celebrated preacher, who
and the Cully and Pully her two Supporters, hanging also published a poetical volume in 1786. J. O.
thus like St. Dunstan's Clock, between Boucher and Bow-
den for both to knock at in their turns," p. 47.

John FREER.–Any information regarding John I can find no allusion to Boucher and Bowden Freer, an ensign in the 66th Foot in 1768, will be in Londiniana, Cunningham's Hand-Book, or thankfully received.

Σ. Θ. Timbs's Curiosities of London ; and Cowper, who,

“ LONDON AND LITERARY MUSEUM.” —Can any in his Table Talk, likens a lame poet to them

one inform me as to the authors of the following "When labour and when dulness, club in hand,

articles in this periodical, published in 1822: Like the two figures at St. Dunstan's stand,'

Vol. i. “ The Bridal Eve," a dramatic scene, seems to have been equally ignorant of the names


155-56. “The Masque of the Seasons," by of what Strype describes as “two Savages or Her

166. Agnes,” a dramatic scene, by M., cules."

W.J. T.


204-5, " Roman Conversations at Bignor," CANDLES. Is it known when candles were

- Vol. ii. “The Witches," a dramatic invented, or when they were first used for religious sketch, 492. “Jephtha," by R., p. 796.

R. INGLIS. purposes ? Pliny and Martial allude to rush

R., p.

p. 426.

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