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Kensington Palace Chapel. -Any information about this? The Marquess of Carmarthen was married there in 1712, and the Rev. Mr. Blakeway was "curate" of the Chapel in 1736.

Wood Street Compter Chapel.-This was probably removed when the Compter was located in Giltspur Street. Is anything known of it, or of Noble Street Chapel ?

Is any thing known of the Register of Marriages belonging to Guildhall Chapel, which was pulled down about 1820? It is not at the Church of St. Lawrence, Jewry, as stated in Cunningham's London. JOHN S. BURN.

The Grove, Henley.

LYNN REGIS. In the General History of the County of Norfolk (8vo, Norwich, 1829), pp. 464466, are given extracts from a poetical work, entitled, "Lenna Redeuiua; or, a Description of King's Lynn in Norfolk by Ben Adam." It is said to consist of "Two hundred and fourteen MS. pages, beginning at Anno Domini 1, and carrying down the events to the reign of King Edward IV." The writer of the History of Norfolk does not appear to have seen the MS. itself, but quotes from extracts which he says are contained in a "Catalogue of Seals presented to the Norwich Museum by Richard Taylor, Esq." Strange to say, not only have these extracts from the Lenne Redeuiua disappeared from the Museum, but the Catalogue itself is no longer to be found there. Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." give information respecting this work of Ben Adam, which, from a marginal date at one place, appears to have been written in the year 1676? There is a "Catalogue of Seals and ancient Deeds in the Norfolk and Norwich Museum" still in that institution, but it is evidently not the one alluded to by the historian, for it contains notes in which reference is made to "Mr. Richard Taylor's book on Seals in the Museum" (doubtless the book now missing). Moreover, it bears date 1830, whereas the History of Norfolk was published in Q. "MITCH KE DITCH."-What is the meaning and origin of this old English expression? I have observed it in pamphlets published in Charles II.'s

1829.

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time. An instance of its use is now before

me:

"Well, Mr. Observator, Mitch ke ditch ye with Sir Denny Ashburnham's gingerbread testimony. For there's - Doctor many an unhappy child makes a good man."Oates's Vindication of himself, fol., 1679, p. 47.

J. C. H.

OGLESBY is a very uncommon name. It does not occur, so far as I am aware, in any of the Indices of Wills, at the Prerogative Court, London. Can any correspondent of "N. & Q." inform me to what part of England it is peculiar at the present day, or where any records of it in the seventeenth century are to be found? SP.

"THE PERIODICAL PRESS," &c. - Who was the author of a 12mo volume, entitled The Periodical Press of Great Britain and Ireland (London, 1824)?

ABHBA.

QUOTATION.

"We live to die, and die to live again; For life eternal is our destiny,

And death is but the gate to life, which cannot die." EMERITA. SCALDING THURSDAY.-What is the meaning of this mysterious entry in Laud's Diary?— [1635.] "Sept. 24. Scalding Thursday." DAVID GAM. TALIESIN WILLIAMS (AB IOLO).-Wanted a perfect list of this gentleman's writings, with the places and dates of their publication. His collection of Welsh MSS. (including those of his father, Iolo Morganwg) is said to have been purchased by Lord Llanover. Have any of them been edited, and by whom? Any Welsh correspondent of "N. & Q." kindly replying to these queries will oblige GOFYNWR.

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SIR JOHN WENLOCK: LORD Wenlock.-Cam

den says of this double-distilled traitor, that of his parentage he cannot say anything, the earhis appointment as Escheator for Bucks and Bedliest notice of him which Camden had found being fordshire, 17 Henry VI. In 28 Henry VI., he

was Chamberlain to Queen Margaret, for whom he laid the first stone of Queen's College, Cambridge. In or soon after 35 Henry VI., he was created K. G., and two years afterwards attainted,

having sided with the Duke of York against the king.

He had been severely wounded at St. Alban's, when on the king's side. He was with Edward at Towton field; and, in 6 Edward IV., he had summons to Parliament as a baron. But after great honours and employments conferred on him by King Edward IV., he rejoined the Lancastrians, and was slain at Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471; leaving neither wife nor issue that ever I could see says Camden.

I should be very much obliged to any of your correspondents who can give me any account of the family, connections, marriage, or issue (if any), of this Lord Wenlock.* G. R. C.

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Is Chancellor a Christian name or a name of office? In either case some account of this author appears desirable. S. Y. R. [Robert R. Livingston, an eminent American politician and lawyer, was born in the city of New York, Nov. 27, 1746. In 1780 he was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs, and at the adoption of the constitution of New York became Chancellor of that state, which office

he held until 1801, when he went to France as minister plenipotentiary, appointed by President Jefferson. In 1805 Mr. Livingston returned to the United States, and employed himself in promoting the arts and agriculture. He introduced into the State of New York the use of gypsum and the Merino race of sheep. He was president of the New York Academy of Fine Arts, and also of the Society for the Promotion of Agriculture. He died March 26, 1813, with the reputation of an able statesman, a learned lawyer, and a most useful citizen. Lieber's Encyc. Americana, viii. 25.]

SIR ROBERT HOWARD, K.B., was Governor of Bridgnorth Castle for Charles I. when it was surrendered to the parliament April 26, 1646. Who was he? It seems to me that he could not have been Sir Robert Howard the dramatist, who is said to have been born in 1626, and to have been knighted at the Restoration. S. Y. R. [Sir Robert Howard was the fifth son of Lord Thomas Howard, first Earl of Suffolk. Sir Robert was made Knight of the Bath with his brother William at the

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creation of Charles, Prince of Wales, in 1616. He is noticed in Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 280; Collins's Peerage by

Brydges, iii. 154; Lord Braybrooke's Hist. of Audley End, Howard's Memorials of the Howard Family, p. 54; p. 39; Nichols's Prog. of James I., iii. 220; and Henry nothing is known of him.]

but

TREACLE BIBLE

-

I have heard of a Breeches

Bible and a Vinegar Bible; but now a friend tells me there is a Treacle Bible. What is its history? CPL.

[The Treacle Bible is so called from those printed in the time of Henry VIII. and Queen Elizabeth (among others that of Coverdale, 1535), in which the Balm of Gilead is called the Treacle of Gilead, as in the following passages of the edition of 1575:

"Is there no triacle at Giliad? Is there no Phisition there? Why then is not the health of my people recovered?"-Jer. viii. 22.

"Goe up unto Giliad, and bring triacle, O virgin thou

daughter of Egypt: but in vayne shalt thou goe to surgerie, for thy wound shal not be stopped." -Jer. xlvi. 11.]

"THE HISTORY OF MISS CLARINDA CATHCART AND MISS FANNY Renton."-This work was published by Newbery, in two volumes, Oct. 1765. See list of books published, Gent's Mag., vol. xxxv. p. 485. I shall be much obliged for any information about this book. Did these ladies ever exist in form and substance? or are they creatures of some fertile imagination? Real, or fictiC. tious, who wrote the History?

[This work is one of Jane Marshall's novels, authoress of Letters for the Improvement of Youth, and Sir Harry Gayglove, a comedy printed in Scotland, but never performed. A list of her works is given in Watt's Bibliotheca, where her name is spelt Marishall.]

THE RIGHT HON. JOHN SMITH, successively Speaker of the House of Commons and Chancellor of the Exchequer, was living in 1722. When did he die, and where was he buried?

S. Y. R. [The death of the Speaker is thus announced in The Political State of Great Britain, xxvi. 455; “On Wednesday morning, Oct. 2, 1723, died the Rt. Hon. John Smith of Tydworth, co. Southampton, Esq. one of the four principal Tellers of His Majesty's Exchequer, a privy counsellor, and formerly Speaker of the Hon. House of Commons. He was a person who, on all critical occasions, had given signal proofs as well of his zeal and affection for the present happy establishment, as of his inviolable uprightness and integrity."]

PIMLICO.There is a Devonshire proverb, "To keep it in Pimlico," that is, to keep a house in nice order. Can you inform me from whence we get the name of the place, Pimlico? Whether it has any reference to the proverb? C. H. G.

[Four articles on the origin of the word Pimlico appeared in our First Series; but without any allusion to this proverb. Pimlico kept a place of entertainment in or near Hoxton, and was celebrated for his nut-brown ale. The place seems afterwards to have been called by his name, and is constantly mentioned by our early dramatists.]

Replies.

THE DEVIL.

(3rd S. iv. 246.)

The History of the Evil Spirit as dealt with by Revelation and Tradition, Paganism and Popular Superstition, Heresy and Infidelity, Literature and Art, would no doubt, if treated in a reverent and Christian spirit, form a very instructive and profitable, though a very painful and more or less repulsive work. To see so awful a subject treated in a merely "interesting" or "light-literature style, not to say with downright levity, would be both repulsive and mischievous.

There is a book by J. G. Meyer (or Mayer) called Historia Diaboli, Tribing, 1777, 4to, which I have never seen, but suspect to be little more than a collection of witch-stories and such like.

De Foe's History of the Devil is unworthy of the

title or of its author. He writes much more to the purpose in Robinson Crusoe, in that striking passage where Friday (somewhat like a certain Zulu of recent celebrity) dumbfounders and completely shuts up his instructor by asking two or three questions; which, simple and natural as they were, were yet unanswerable, as they involved the whole tremendous Mystery of Evil and the Evil One.*

scope

For much curious matter and some striking Eastern traditions respecting "The Prince of this World," I would refer r. to a work of singular interest and profound learning, The Many Mansions in the House of the Father, by the late Rev. G. S. Faber, section iii. chap. vii.-ix. The of Mr. Faber's views may be shortly given in the words of a learned writer of last century: "As it is highly credible that Satan, whilst an Angel of Light, was a Fountain-Spirit, and Hierarch in the place of this World; so we may hence the more naturally account for his particular envy and enmity to Mankind, the designed successors to his kingdom; as also for that share of dominion he still retains, till the time of his binding shall come." (Hartley's Paradise Restored, Lond., 1764, p. 3.)

Cf. Böhme's account of the "Throne-Angels," and the Fall of Lucifer,-J. B.'s Theosophick Philosophy Unfolded, by Taylor, Lond. 1691, pp. 20, 45, 341, 371. Henry Brooke's autograph in my copy of the Theosophic Philosophy, suggests a reference to his Fool of Quality, Kingsley's edn. vol. ii. pp. 140-141, where he follows Böhme. See also, Rev. J. Deane, On the Worship of the Serpent; Rev. W. Haslam's The Cross and the

Friday's last question, which points to the ultimate repentance and salvation of the Evil Spirit, opens out a curious field of thought and literature; starting, say, with Origen, and coming down to Bailey's Festus.

Serpent; Dr. S. R. Maitland's Eruvin; and Ennemoser's History of Magic. With the last, compare "The German Ideas of the Devil in the Sixteenth Century," in Freytag's graphic Pictures of German Life, vol. i. ch. xII.

this old fashioned word), that he denied "the It was one of Coleridge's heresies (if I may use personal existence of the Evil Principle," and considered the Devil "a mere fiction, or, at the See a Note he wrote in a best, an allegory."

copy of Robinson Crusoe; and another he wrote in Smith's "Select Discourses," given in his Notes and Lectures upon Shakspeare, &c., London, 1849, vol. ii. pp. 135, 154. Swedenborg held a similar doctrine.—Cf. his Heaven and Hell, §§ 311 and 544. Is there not, by-the-way, a modern work on "The Personality of the Tempter?"

The mysterious affinities which exist between the Demoniacal and the Bestial led the Heathen Fauns, Satyrs, &c., in the shape of rough shaggy to represent their Demons, such as Pan, the Animals. Thus Pan, the God of this World, "is portrayed by the Ancients in this guise; on his head a pair of Horns that reach to Heaven, his body rough and hairy, his beard long and shaggy, his shape biformed, above like a Man, below like a Beast, his Feet like Goat's hoofs," and from this he was especially called "the Goat-footed." Now, when the Heathen Teutons and Northern Nations embraced Christianity, there were a few who hung back, (as was the case in every nation), and for a long time clung to the ancient belief, and in secret continued to practise their rites. From this state of things, the Demonology of the Ancients mingled itself imperceptibly with Christianity. Accordingly, Satan, the god of this World," naturally took the place of Pan; and, after great Pan was dead, inherited his Horns and Hoofs. As Ennemoser observes, the representation of the Devil as a Black He-Goat was of high antiquity; and in oaths it was a common formula to swear "by the He-Goat's skull," or imprecate, "May the He-Goat shame him." He adds, "The best known marks of the Devil are the Cloven Foot, the Goat's Beard, the Cock's Feather, and the Ox's Tail." * In the WitchOrgies of the Middle Ages, the Devil used to appear either riding on a He-Goat, or in the shape of a He-Goat with a black man's face. Thus in

Goethe's Walpurgisnacht, the He-Goat figures conspicuously. Besides these popular superstitions, the Mysteries and Moralities so frequent in the Middle Ages probably served to keep up this association of ideas, and to familiarise men's

Cf. Ennemoser's History of Magic, Howitt's trans. vol. ii. pp. 152-3, 195-7. The Devil was sometimes called an Ox by the Jews, and a Rabbinic writer says: "Sammael is sometimes seen in the likeness of an Ox or a Hog. Particularly in the time of pestilence, he appears in the likeness of a black Ox."-Stehelin, p. 190.

minds with the half-human, half-bestial, horned, and goat-footed representations of the Evil One. The Heathen Symbolism thus adopted in the Middle Ages was itself, however, derived in great measure from primitive Revelation and Tradition, and was countenanced by some mysterious allusions in Holy Scripture. Thus in Isai. xiii. 21, the word we translate "Satyrs," and which in the original signifies rough, hairy creatures, is rendered in the LXX. by daiμóvia, Demons.* I subjoin a passage from Brown's Sacred Tropology, Edinb. 1768. In treating "Of Metaphors respecting Fallen Angels," he observes:

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They are called GOATS, or HAIRY ONES (Lev. xvii. 7; 2 Chron. xi. 15. Heb.) Before God their moral appearance, oft before men, their visible, how unsightly, abominable, and shocking! How they delight in, feed upon, and are filled with the poison of iniquity. Their behaviour, how detestable to every one holy and pure! With what pleasure they perform mischief; what injury they do Christ's militant Sheep! And how oft, under the form of Goats, Satyrs, and other hairy animals, have their Heathenish votaries adored them!"-p. 120.

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In Mr. Mossman's excellent little Glossary of the Principal Words used in a Figurative, Typical, or Mystical Sense in the H.S., &c., Lond. 1854, we find :

"GOAT. (1.) A She-Goat offered in the Levitical sacrifices denoted Penitence. Thomas Aquinas. (2.) Sin itself. Bernard. (3.) Wicked and unclean persons (lost Souls): S. Mat. xxv. 33. Cf. Lev. xvii. 7, where the word translated Devils' signifies in the Hebrew Goats.' (4.) That God will not eat bulls' flesh, nor drink the blood of goats,' Ps. 1. 13, signifies that He will not accept the sacrifice of the Proud. Bernard."—p. 51.

By the Rabbinic writers, the Devil is frequently termed Seirissim, i. e. a Goat; and when the Jews fell into superstition, they used to make a yearly deprecatory offering of a Goat to Satan, which they styled "a Present." Thus, too, Esau, & Béenλos, the great human type of Satan, was rough and hairy like a Goat, and lived in the land of Seir or Edom; and all his names, Esau, Seir, and Edom are used to denote the Evil Spirit. See Stehelin's Traditions of the Jews, Lond. 1732, pp. 191, 200-202. Cf. also, Sir Thos. Browne's Vulgar Errors, b. v. ch. 23, § 17. Among all nations, the He-Goat is the especial emblem of Uncleanness and Lasciviousness, and thus becomes a natural symbol of the Prince of Unclean Spirits. Having shown that the Cloven Foot of Satan represents a Goat's hoof, I shall throw together a few passages relating to the subject.

Abp. Leighton observes, in a Lecture on St.

Mat. vii. 15:

"

"The word Seirim (trans. Devils' in Lev. and Chron., and Satyrs' in Isaiah) simply imports Goats; and the object worshipped by the Israelites under that name, was doubtless the Mendes of the Egyptians, or, as the Greeks called that pantheistic divinity, the Universal Pan."-Faber's Many Mansions, 2nd ed. p. 260.

"As for the grand deceiver, the Devil, the vulgar Fable, that in all Apparitions whatsoever there is still the shape of a Cloven Foot, holds true, for there is somethey are." thing in their carriage that, narrowly eyed, will tell what

In the wild scene of the Witch's Kitchen in

Goethe's Faust, Mephistopheles says to the Witch whom he has thrown into a state of rage and

amazement:

"Dost thou know me, thou atomy, thou scarecrow? Dost thou know thy lord and master?... Hast thou no distinguish the Cock's feather? more any respect for the Red doublet? Canst thou not

"The Witch. ( Master, pardon this rough reception. But I see no Cloven Foot. Where then are your two Ravens?

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Mephist. This once the apology may serve. For, to be sure, it is some while since we saw each other. The march of intellect too, which licks all the world into shape, has even reached the Devil. The Northern Phantom is now no more to be seen. Where do you see Horns, Tail, and Claws? And as for the Foot, which I cannot do without, it would prejudice me in society; therefore, like many a gallant, I have worn false calves these many years.".

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Any one who wishes to make out the history of this notion, must investigate the incorporation of the heathen evil spirit with that of the New Testament. He may find his first references in an Appendix to the Dictionnaire des Sciences Occultes, Paris, 1846, 2 vols. 8vo, a part of the Abbé Migne's enormous undertaking. This dictionary contains a great quantity of matter connected with dæmons, and the old stories about them. Possibly some volume of the collection is more directly devoted to our subject, but I cannot find one in the list.

There is a long discussion in the Mirabilia Angelorum ac Dæmonum, the first book of Gaspar Schott's Physica Curiosa, Herbipoli, 1662, 4to. Many references will be found here. There is

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racter, drawn by a contemporary hand, an ardent love of home is not, I believe," one of the qualities with which the Admiral is accredited. Your correspondent is a little hard upon me, when he asserts that there is absolutely no support for my remarks to the effect, that Drake's heart was so much absorbed in his enterprises as to induce the idea that he sat loosely to the ties of married life. On this point your correspondent shall answer himself. With reference to my note, that Drake's marriage took place July 4, 1569, he

says:

One of the most interesting ancient representations of Satan occurs in the MS. of Cadmon, in the Bodleian, Oxford. The whole series of illustrations has been well facsimilied for the Archeologia.

J. C. J.

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SIR FRANCIS DRAKE.

(3rd S. iii. 506; iv. 189, 241, 271.) Before quitting the subject of Sir Francis Drake's first marriage, and while giving my best thanks to your correspondent for his conclusive answer to my inquiry, I should like to correct a mistake into which he has inadvertently fallen.

jugal affection; but (I ask any impartial person) I may be imagining too high a standard of condo these voyages, waiting so immediately on marriage, indicate the ardour of a bridegroom, or even the ordinary attachment to home of a husband? Are they not rather signs of a master passion of that high-souled courage, and that indomitable energy, which conquered fortune and won an everlasting fame? When to Drake's frequent and prolonged absences is added the fact of his wife having lived (in St. Budeaux village, as far as we can judge,) so obscurely as to have slipped out of memory altogether, and superadded the existence of a local tradition, which points at a woman left in lengthened uncertainty of her husband's fate, I think that my "insinuation" cannot be called quite baseless. every respect for your correspondent's opinions, I may observe that the data on which to found an estimate of Drake's character are sufficiently patent to account for, if not to justify, diverse conclusions. But, although I have ventured to speculate on a particular topic, I am not a whit the less sincere in my admiration of the many rare gifts that so pre-eminently distinguished this brave and magnanimous sea-king.

I have not applied a single epithet of disparagement to Saltash. An ancient borough, and sessed of important jurisdiction, it was, as he a town of some consequence in Drake's time. But what then? There is no more connection between Saltash and the "out-of-the-way and humble village" of which I spoke, than there is between Westminster and Bermondsey: for, similarly, the two places lie actually in different counties, and on contrary sides of the dividing river. It was at St. Budeaux, in Devonshire, and not at Saltash, in Cornwall, that Drake married Mary Newman. At St. Budeaux, some thirteen and a half years later, Mary Drake was buried. It is quite needless to appeal to any

JOHN A. Č. VINCENT.

Plymouth.

Sir F. Drake, I have been looking over my notes
Since my Note to you (antè p. 272) respecting

resident in " the three towns" for a confirmation

of the statement how exactly the description-respecting Plymouth, and I find that I have the

"out-of-the-way and humble"-fits St. Budeaux; or of the assertion, that the village retains no traces of having been other than what it is at the present day-an obscure and retired spot.

No Englishman, and especially no west countryman, can fail to regard Sir Francis Drake as one of the foremost heroes in our annals; and yet this confessedly great man may not unjustly be thought to fall somewhat short of absolute perfection. In the minute portrait of Drake's cha

pos

With says,

following:

"25th January, 1582. The Lady Marie, the wife of Sir Francis Drake, Knt., buried."

The words in italics are in red ink. This is an Plymouth; which registers commence the year extract from the register of St. Andrew's church, burial be recorded as above as well as at St. previous, viz. 1581. How can the entry of

* As well as my memory serves me, for I have here no books to refer to.

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