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, Importance, and Antiquity of the Rite of Conse- days, especially in Haverty and others. There cration of Churches, Lond. 8vo, 1844.

are many differences, however, in the various The choir of the new structure of St. Paul's Cathedral was opened on Dec. 2, 1697, being the Thanksgiving Brehon laws. In these ancient times, as ABHBA

statements, but all agree in their descriptions of the day for the Peace on the treaty of Ryswick, on which oc. casion a prayer was simply added, by the King's direc- knows, the leaders of the septs alone held land, tion, to The Form appointed for the day, and used in the passing, not from father to son, but to the best Communion Service. Dugdale's St. Pauls, edit. 1818, qualified to defend it. This of course was tanistry. p. 172.)

The knotty point is, whether what we know as true Cantova.- A Jesuit named Cantova once wrote gavel-kind was common in Ireland. Dr. Millar an account of the Carolinians. This is all I am thinks not, because, though the inferior tenants able, after searching a good many biographical of the chief generally held their lands only at will, dictionarieş, to find about him. Will some one still they were allowed to remain in possession tell me who he was, when he lived, and what he during life, when the estates passed entirely from wrote ?

MATHEMATICUS. them, and a new distribution took place. There [lis name occurs in the Nouvelle Biographie Générale,

are two or three pages on this head in Gordon's viii. 532: “ Jean-Antoine Cantova, missionnaire et thé- | History of Ireland, and in Haverty's History, &c. ologien italien, de l'ordre des Jésuites, natif de Milan, By the second class of tenure, I allude more vivait dans la première moitié du dixhuitième siècle. Il se particularly to the parcelling out of the country rendit en 1717 comme missionnaire d'abord en Mexique, ensuite aux Philippines et aux Carolines. C'est dans une

to the English nobles by Henry II., and the des îles de ce dernier groupe qu'il fut assassiné. On a

almost nondescript titles to land which were comde lui: Vita et mors Alosii Cantove, canon. S. Stephani mon until, at all events, the reign of James I., majoris. Milan, 1717.”]

when the Commission of Grace was issued, by

which the Irish lords and septs, by giving up their Governors OF GUERNSEY.-Will you be kind claims by the ancient Irish titles to their lands enough to give the names of the governors of and estates, were confirmed in the possession of Guernsey during the reign of Elizabeth ?

the same by the English governors. A history of INQUISITUS.

the above, interspersed with many valuable re[The following names are given in Berry's History of ferences on the ancient tenures of Irish lands, Guernsey, edit. 1815, p. 214:

will be found in Davies's Historical Relations, in “ 1553. Sir Leonard Chamberlain

} Joint Governors, 1555. Francis Chamberlain

Millar's Historical View of the English Gorern1570. Sir Thomas Leighton.

ment, in Howard's Treatise on the Revenue, &-c., of Lord Zouche

Ireland, in Leland's History of Ireland, and in 1580. Thomas Wigmore, Lieut.-Gov. and Bailiff, Wakefield's Statistical Ireland, &c. &c. 1581.]

By the third kinds of tenure, I mean those now in ordinary use, especially the systems adopted

towards their successive tenants by the heirs of Replies.

the original holders of the king in capite, by knight's TENURES OF LAND IN IRELAND.

service, and in soccage; also the different kinds of

leases now common, and above all by the tenancy (3rd S. iv. 395.)

at will; which last tenure, if tenure it can be In reply to ABHBA's Query, as to the best works called, De Raumer, a German writer on Ireland, upon this subject, I think there is no work pub- declares to be far inferior to that of the lowest lished treating exclusively upon this matter, and serfs. The best chapters on present occupancies except he takes the trouble to abstract for himself are to be found in French authors; for instance, portions of old books and papers, collect notes, in De Lavergne's Essai sur l'E'conomie rurale de &c. to some score of antiquarian works, or in- | l'Irelande, g-c.; in Perraud's E'tudes sur l'Irlande terest in his favour, as correspondent, some contemporaine, 1862; in De Hauranne's Lettres sur savan of the Irish societies or some learned law- L'Irlande ; in Regnault's L'Irlande ; in De Beauyer, he must be content with but meagre results. mont's L'Irlande, and a host of others.

For my part, I am myself a student in this I do not know if this will serve Abhba's purmatter, and for better registering my collected pose; but, in conclusion, beg to say that, the Blue memoranda, I have divided all the tenures of Books excepted, there are more modern works in land in Ireland into three classes. Those abori- French upon Ireland than English ones. And I ginal titles, so to say, which were in vogue until do not hesitate to say also that if England's prothe conquest of Ireland ; 2. The transitionary phesied complications do arrive, and Ireland' betenures; and, 3. The systems of holding common comes our Poland, we shall have to read up very in our own day.

many of these books to see clearly what it is References to the first systems are found scat- that' Ireland complains of, and what will pacify tered over every History of Ireland — amongst her.

W. EASSIE. others, in Camden, Keating, &c.; and of late High Orchard House, Gloucester,

MUTILATION OF SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS.

“ restore" or rebuild churches, there is generally

a clause inserted, which strictly enjoins the pre(3r4 S. iv. 286, 363.)

servation of all memorials of the dead, and esMethinks that Vebna has “ put his foot in it.” pecially of all inscriptions. It is true, these inXP. records an instance where some inscribed scriptions are not destroyed; they are preserved slabs, particularising certain memorials relating rather too closely; but for all practical purposes to the Joscelyn family, and ranging in date from they are utterly useless, and but for XP. would 1699 to 1732, have been buried under a com- soon have been forgotten. P. HUTCHINSON, paratively recent pavement of tiles. XP. characterises the act in strong terms. Were he a Joscelyn, or a descendant of those whose memo- I do not think that even antiquaries have much rials have thus been obliterated, feeling injured reason for complaint in the case of church restorathat a wrong had been done both to his ancestors tions when the tombstones, unless of an early or and to himself, he would probably have expressed particularly interesting character, remain in situ, himself somewhat like what he has done. Not and the names, titles, and dates of the persons being a Joscelyn, he has no motive for doing so, commemorated are inscribed in tiles. This is at except to declare his abhorrence of what he con- any rate far better than as has been done at siders as an unfair act to the dead, and an equally Minster Church, for instance, where the slabs, all unfair act to the absent representatives of those but one of recent date, have been cleared clean dead. Has VEBNA ever erected a monument in away out of the church — - some certainly of ina church, or placed an inscribed slab in a chancel, terest in a genealogical point of view. When we to honour or perpetuate the memory of some de- last saw them they were outside the church, some parted ancestor or relative ? To say he values promise, as we understood, having been given that memorial because he has paid so much money that they should be carefully re-erected outside. for it, is to say nothing. Strong as this claim to Considerable delay, however, has occurred even the memorial may be, there are feelings of a far in performing this poor compromise. Has it been higher nature involved in the interest we feel in done now? There is, however, a very common the careful preservation of records of this sort. sort of destruction, far more lamentable than that But we are informed that a board has been fixed of which we are now speaking. I mean that of works to the wall, which declares tbat, Beneath the of art, such as carvings in stone, or wood, semiflooring of this chancellie some monumental slabs, defaced paintings, ancient incised stones, which with inscriptions on them, of which the following would interfere with the nice freshness of a reare copies." Would not the original inscriptions stored church. This rage for making all our be beiter than copies of them placed upon a

churches as like as two peas, and as tame to boot, perishable board ? How long will a paltry board cannot be too much lamented, por sufficiently last? In a few years it will be looked upon as an reprobated. This remark applies quite as much eyesore, and will be taken down; or, if not, Time to foreign restorations, as to what has been done will work its destruction long before he can make in this country. Notbing, however, has in this an impression upon the stones. There is no per- way equalled the reckless and shameless Vandalism manency in this arrangement. Yet Vebna un- which has been committed at the so-called redertakes to defend it. He argues that the tiles storation of Hexham Abbey, disgraceful alike to with which the slabs are overlaid,

all concerned in it.

J. C. J. suited to the sacred character of the spot than memorials sacred only to man.” Why, if there were any validity in such an argument, it would MAJOR CREwe (3rd S. iv. 247.) - Your correjustify the covering over with tiles, any or all the spondent n. desires to find a memoir of Major memorials in Westminster Abbey. Besides, are Crewe. I may premise my remarks by stating I tiles more sacred than stones ? Some years ago a believe he was only a lieutenant in the English quantity of tile flooring in Lichfield Cathedral army; but sixty or seventy years ago it was cuswas taken up to be replaced by stones. This tomary, out of courtesy, to give a person in the alteration did not raise any comments as to unfit army a title of higher rank than he was actually ness. Such principles as are bere advocated, entitled to, and many assumed as a nom de guerre under the misapplied term “ restoration," are the titles of captain, major, &c., while only subaldoing both ourselves and our venerable, and here- terns. There may be found some curious partitofore venerated temples, incalculable mischief. culars of the gentleman in question in an AutoThose inscriptions might prove to be valuable biographical Memoir of Sir John Barrow, Bart., title-deeds to some one some day; but buried, late of the Admiralty, 8vo, Lond. 1847. He apconcealed, and inaccessible as they are, those who pears to have been an attaché, at p. 46, to Sir G. might benefit by the evidence are now robbed of Staunton's embassy to China, and at pp. 51 and it. In some Faculties granted for permission to 52, we have his history and character:

are more

" Mr. Crewe, a young gentleman hanging loose on "TW Xplotiav] Id est Catholicorum. Nam hi soli society and a frequenter of the gaming-table, was the son Christiani. Unaque est Ecclesia Christiana Catholica. of the celebrated wit and beauty of her day—so beautiful, Nec aliter etiam nunc Itali Catholicos nisi Christianorum indeed, that Madame D'Arblay says, “she uglifies every vocabulo designant. Revocat ea vox mihi in memoriam thing near her.' Admired by George Prince of Wales, quod mihi super ea re in Italia altero itinere evenit. Narand adored by Charles Fox, she became the standing rabam Abbati cuidam, rogatum me Montispeli a decurione toast of the Whigs, was consecrated as their patroness by militari, quum illic Biblia a Majore arcis utenda peterem, the Prince of Wales, who, on some great occasion, gave illeque summopere eapropter mihi irasceretur, Num as a toast

Biblia liber hæreticus esset ?' caussæ id conjectans, cur Buff and Blue,

ita graviter Major mihi offensus fuisset. Hic bonus And Mrs. Crewe.'

Abbas, nihilo militari homine eruditior, “Signor mio,' Mrs. Crewe was also a great favourite of Lord Macartney; P. 130.

quæsivit, • la Bibbia, è questo un libro christiano?" and she being most desirous of removing her son out of

H. B. C. the temptations of London, earnestly entreated his lord

U. U. Club. ship to take him to China. The only condition,' said his lordship, on which I can possibly allow him to go is a most “ROBERT ROBINSON" AND " Cousin PHILLIS."solemn pledge, on his honour, that he will not touch either cards, or dice, or other instruments of gambling; Prof. De Morgan's interesting article on “Ro

There are some curious coincidences between either on board ship or at any place where we may stop.' He gave the pledge and broke it-lost to one of the lieu- bert Robinson” (3rd S. iv. 340), and a story called tenants of the Lion,' it was said, some thousand pounds, not “ Cousin Phillis," in the November number of any part of which could he pay; and it was also said he the Cornhill Magazine, e. g. : had compounded the debt for an annuity of as many hun. dred pounds as he had lost thousands. My cabin on the “• Your father up at three! Why, what has he to do passage home was on the lower deck, and scarcely a at that hour?' night passed in which I was not disturbed by the rattling • What has he not to do? He has bis private exer. of dice, or by Mr. Crewe's scraping on the bass-viol. He cise in his own room; he always rings the great bell, was a most gentlemanly good-natured young man, and

which calls the men to milking, &c. . . . He has often to was urged on by an old Scotch lieutenant, who ought to whip-cord the plough-whips; he sees the hogs fed; he have known better. Mr. Crewe succeeded his father, who looks into the swill-tubs,' &c."- Cornhill, p. 627. had been created a baron in 1812 [1806], and died in 1835."

It is perfectly obvious that these details are I think the above may be satisfactory in reply

taken from Robinson's letter to Henry Keane, to n. from AN OCCASIONAL CORRESPONDENT.

Esq. :

“ Rose at three o'clock, &c. . . Rang the great bell, and SETTLE'S “ EUSEBIA TRIUMPHANS” (3rd S. iv. roused the girls to milking Whip-corded the boys' 394.)—The arms upon this book are, no doubt, plough-whips ; saw the hogs fed; examined the swill

tubs,” &c. those of Stanhope, quarterly ermine and gules, and it was probably bound for presentation to But the question_is, whether the resuscitation General Stanhope, who became one of the prin- of this dissenting Parson Trulliber from a pretty cipal Secretaries of State on the accession of general oblivion has been brought about by a George I.; and was created Viscount Stanhope singular coincidence, without any communication of Mahon, in the island of Minorca, in 1717 : the between his two revivers ? C. W. BINGHAM. lineal ancestor of our noble President at the Society of Antiquaries.

Hugh STUART Boyd (2nd S. vii. 284, 523.) J. G. N.

This celebrated Greek scholar was born at Edge

ware, Middlesex, and admitted a pensioner of SIGABEN AND THE MANICHÆANS (3rd S. iv. 163, Pembroke Hall, July 24, 1799, being matriculated 279.) – I have the pleasure of verifying Arch- Dec. 17, 1800. He left the University without a deacon Cotton's suggestion that by “Sigaben" is degree. His death occurred at Kentish Town, meant Euthymius Zigabenus, whose Victoria et May 10, 1848, aged 67. Triumphus and Forinula recipiendi eorum, qui

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. Manichæorum et Paulicianorum hæresi ad puram et Cambridge. veram nostram fidem Christianorum convertuntur, MATTHEW BRETTINGHAM (2nd S. vi. 245, 246.) were printed by Tollius in his Insignia Itinerarii Matthew Brettingham, architect, died August 19, Italici, Traj. ad Rhen. 4to, 1696. Of the latter 1769, aged 70, and was buried at St. Augustine's, work only a fragment remains, which begins Norwich, where is a monument commemorating

him, erected by his son of the same name, who « Δεηθέντες ύλης της μηδέπω ούσης, μήτε βυρσών και | died March 18, 1803, aged 78, and who also lies νεύρων, και σωμάτων, και ιδρώτων, των πονηρών αρχόντων | there interred. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. ούς και Μάνης ανέπλασεν,” p. 126.

Cambridge. A note of Tollius, though not necessary to this

Pascha's PilgrIMAGE TO PALESTINE (3rd S. j. reply, is perhaps curious enough for reprinting, 12.) – Jean van Paesschen, Joannes Paschasius, as his book is not common :

Pascha or Pasqua, is mentioned by Valerius An

thus : —

dreas, Foppens, and especially by Paquot, who I copy from a guide-book, and believe the intakes special notice of the Spiritual Pilgrimage, ventory is given by Gunton. whereof several, though defective manuscript If the piscine were inserted for images, would copies were in existence, before Calentijn pro- they not have been placed, by preference, on the cured the accurate edition. Pascha, however, north side, or dexter of the altar, wherever it never visited the Holy Land, neither does he was? The fact of their being insertions is clearly attempt a description of that country; his work accounted for by the rood-lofts themselves being is a pious treatise, in which the writer dwells later erections.

PETERBURGIENSIS. upon the spiritual panoply of his pilgrim, who, ALLEGORICAL PAINTING (3rd S. iv. 393.) – The not being able bodily to journey to Jerusalem, painting about which Mr. MacLean inquires is still wants to guide his steps to Zion in spirit. -V. D. N. in the Navorscher, vol. xii. (2nd S. vanity of human life, and the things of this world.

no doubt an allegorical representation of the vol. ii.) p. 144.

John H. VAN LENNEP. Zeyst, near Utrecht.

The emptiness of riches, beautifully shown in the

lady, who also symbolises the world probably. MICHAEL JOHNSON OF LICHFIELD (3rd S. iv. There is the winged hour-glass, to tell of tinie 388.)— The following is a very trifling correction flying away; the flowers telling the same story. of one of Mr. Bates's entries, but I send it We have also the vanity of riches and greatness because accuracy, even in small matters, is always in the crown trodden underfoot, the money fallacceptable to "N. & Q." I have before me a ing; the candle signifies life, which may easily copy of Floyer's work,—The Preternatural State be extinguished; and, lastly, the cards, musical of Animal Humours Described, &c. The imprint instruments, and the like, show how vain are man's is as follows:

sports and amusements. “ London : Printed by W. Downing for Michael John- I have in my own possession a very well painted son, and are to be sold by Robert Clavel, Sam. Smith, and curious painting, by D. Teniers, signed, of and Benjamin Walford, in St. Paul's Church Yard. 1696.”

the same subject. There is a sort of table or The volume is not a 4to, but a small 8vo. Sir

stand, on which some very finely-shaped vases of John Floyer practised at Lichfield, and his Pre- gold and silver stand. On the left is a fire with the face is dated from that city.

smoke rising; in it some other vessels are being While on the subject of Michael Johnson, I burnt. Below the table is a great chest or coffer

containing jewels and drinking-cups of precious may suggest, as worthy of record in “ N. & Q.,' a recent discovery in his family history, due to

metal. To the left is a group of armour, with

helmet battered and bruised ; and in the forethe industry of Mr. Hannett, as noticed in his Forest of Arden, &c. lately published. Both ground are cards, musical instruments, a horse's

and a man's skull; about the room several bubbles the place and date of Michael's marriage bad remained unknown until Mr. Hannett searched the thread is a crystal-ball representing human life.

are floating, and hanging from the top by a thin parish register of Packwood, near Henley-inArden, where he found the following entry : - If you look closely into it you will see a reflection, “ 1706. Michell Johnsones of Lichfield and Sarah which, upon closer observation, turns out to be

a man's face, no doubt intended for the spectator Ford, maried June ye 19th."

JAYDEE.

himself; and on a white piece of drapery in the MAPS (3rd S. iv. 417.) – I always understood centre of the picture is the legend

Heidel Maps” was the porter to Nicholson the book- Heyt," All is so. I have entered thus fully into seller. In an old book bearing the label which the particulars, because the subject is very cleverly showed it had belonged to Nicholson's library, I treated, and that such subjects were very seldo met with the following lines :

painted by Teniers. In this picture, wbich is “ Vendit, emit, mutat, libros et colligit omnes, about 24 inches by 20, there is not one figure. In Cantabrigiâ Mappesianus homo."

J. C. J. J. H. L.

Titus Oates (3rd S. iv. 373.)- In answer to PISCINÆ NEAR ROODLOFTS (3rd S. iv. 362.)—I, H.'s inquiry for the names of those who suffered at all events, have not bad far to search for an under the accusations of Titus Oates, I copy the instance of an altar being placed in the rood-loft, following from a series of tracts, folio, 1679, conwhich your correspondent “ R. M.” professes to taining the whole of the trials, &c. of the conspithink a very improbable position.

rators, and those who suffered death. The fólIn an inventory of the possessions of the (ca- lowing is the heading to the tract containing the thedral) church of Peterborough, taken Nov. 30, 1539, occurs the following, among many other “ An Account of the Behaviour of the Fourteen Late curious items :

Popish Malefactors whilst in Newgate, and their DisIn the Rood Loft: one Table upon the altar; eighteen

courses with the Ordinary, viz.images, well gilt; one desk of wood; two orfers; one

“ Mr. Staley, Mr. Coleman, Mr. Grove, Mr. Ireland, front of painted cloth."

Mr. Pickering, Mr. Green, Mr. Hill, Mr. Berry, Mr.

names:

P. 94:

Whitebread, Mr. Harcourt, Mr. Fenwick, Mr. Gawen, Mr. At a still earlier period (“ Names," ibid. 369), Turner, and Mr. Langhorn.”

1784-1789, I was the almost daily customer of The next tract in the series is this:

good old Dame Severn, who vended apples and .“ The Tryals and Condemnation of Lionel Anderson, apple-tarts in Edgar Street, Worcester, where alias Munson; William Russel, alias Napper; Charles

cadunt altis de turribus umbræ" of the Saxon Parris, alias Parry: Henry Starkey, James Corker, and king's palace. Were it but for his architectural William Marshal, for High Treason as Romish Priests, sympathies towards this venerable pile, at least &c., 1680."

a hundred years older than its Norman namesake The next and last tract, giving the names of in London, Mr. Walker will be as content, perthose who suffered death, has this heading :

haps, to identify his prænomen with the Vigornian "The Spirit of Popery speaking out of the Mouths Pomona, as with the river-spirit immortalised in of Phanatical Protestants, or the last Speeches of Mr. Milton's Comus. John Kid and Mr. John King, Two Presbyterian Ministers, who were executed for High Treason and Rebellion

By-the-bye, Sydney Smith did not invent the at Edinburgh, August 14th, 1679, &c."

baptismal Saba for his daughter; it having been

E. PÅRFITT. preoccupied by an Egyptian princess, the mother TERRIER (3rd S. iv. 126, 300, 335.).

of our Saint George; teste that ancient and au

There cannot be much doubt that this word is of French thentic record, The Seven Champions of Christen

dom. A kinsman of mine own devised a name origin. Roquefort renders terrier

for his daughter more unquestionably original, “ Seigneur qui a beaucoup de terres; juge d'un territoire; religieux chargé du recouvrement des cens et

and prænominated her, Stetta.

E. L. S. autres droits des terres. Chien terrier : Chien qui est pro- Bed-Gown AND NIGHT-Dress (3rd S. iv. 332.) pre à la chasse des lapins, des renards, &c.

The following extract from a Writ of Queen Eli“Li Quens Philippes qui refu,

zabeth's is worth appending to the notes already Diex, quel terrier! Dex, quel escu !

collected in “N. & Q.,” in reference to the above Qui refu Marquis de Boloingne,

subject. It is printed in the Archeologia, xvi. Qui refu li Quens de Borgoingne?'

Bible Guiot, vers. 330.
R. S, CHARNOCK.

“ By The Queene.

“Elizabeth, We will and comaunde you that uppon I have the authority of Thomson's Etymons of the sight hereof ve delyver or cause to be delvy’ed unto English Words for stating that terrier is derived our servaunt Walter Fyshe twelve yards of purple vellat, from the French word terrier, which means a hole frized on the backsyde with white and russet sylke, to in the earth. Thus, se faire un terrier, signifies to Charles Smyth, Page of our Robes, Fourtene yards of

make us a nyght gown. And also that ye delyver to burrow, and the name was doubtless given to the murrye danaske to be emplyde in making of a night dog from its habit of hunting badgers, foxes, or gowne for the Erle of Leycester, &c. rabbits in their holes. The origin of the word

To our trusty and welbeloved s'vant, cannot possibly be connected with shaking, but

George Bredyman, Keeper of our

said Pallaice of Westor.” has its root in the Latin word terra.

S. D. S. ADLERCRON (3rd S. iv. 304, 383.) – Some years

TERESA (3rd S. iv. 412.)–Canon Dalton says: before 1795, when I first heard the story, a gentleman of this name was killed at his own door

“ The great Spanish saint of this name always spells in Park Street, Dublin, by certain

college youths

, her name without the h. I possess her autograp), which who, “hot with the Tuscan grape," night-roamed the city like the “Mohawks” of Queen Anne's

Will he kindly inform me what evidence he has time. "These sprightly lads were the terror of the of the authenticity of the signature of the crazy

nun of Avila," as Ford in his Handbook calls her? town, then badly guarded and worse lighted ; their chamber-key, knotted into the corner of a

I make this inquiry, having recently returned pocket-handkerchief, supplied an academic variety little the law of evidence was known or regarded

from Spain, where I was forcibly convinced how of the Hibernian peasant's ever-ready weapon_a stone, dropped into the foot of his worsted stocking by those who adopted and believed the legends and proved as effectual on the unlucky Mr. Åd- and miracles of the great Spanish saints. lercron.

For the life, death, and miracles of St. Teresa, Other than this domestic tragedy, I never heard |

I would beg to refer your readers to the Handof the gentleman whose janua mortis had been

book of Spain, edition 1855, vol. ii. p. 745.

CLARRY. opened by a college key. Possibly he was a son of the general whose name is chronicled in “Don Quixote" (3rd S. iv. 227, 333.) – If N. & Q.," and haunts my old memory as the Canon DASTON bas not yet found all the informmaiden appellation of a lady, well remembered by ation he desires respecting the translations, &c., me, as the wife of a long-deceased clergyman in of Don Quixote, he will find much, as well as the Westmeath. In Germany it bears (historically various editions of the original, in the Life of perhaps) a royal signification--the eagle's crown. Cervantes by Roscoe (Murray), 1837.

JUVENIS.

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