Imágenes de páginas

seated on the throne, after the decisive battle near rise to their institution, though the Knights of the walls of Toro, she exacted from many of the Santiago were originally intended to protect pilnobles—especially the Marquis of Cadiz—the full grims from the incursions of the Saracens on their restitution of the domains, and royal fortresses way to the shrine of St. James at Compostella, in which had been wrested from the crown. (See Galicia. Theseorders gradually became so rich and Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella, vol. i. p. 255, ed. so powerful, that, in the time of Ferdinand and IsaLondon, 1849.) Similar concessions were de- bella, the rents of the Mastership of Santiago manded and obtained from the Duke of Medina amounted to 60,000 ducats, those of Calatrava to Sidonia. Moreover, " the grandees were prohi- 45,000, and those of Alcantara to about 40,000; bited from quartering the royal arms on their while, at the same time, there was hardly a district escutcheons, from being attended by a mace- or province which was not covered with their bearer and a body guard, from imitating the regal castles and religious houses. Hence the possessors style of address in their written correspondence, of the “Grand Masterships," from the extensive and other insignia of royalty which they had patronage and the authority which they obtained, arrogantly assumed" (ut suprà, p. 268.)

were raised almost to the level of royalty itself. It was necessary, however, to proceed with great Isabella, by the assistance of the Pope, gracaution in dealing with such a powerful and jeal- dually managed to have the control of these ous body as the Castilian aristocracy. The Ca- military orders vested in herself and her consort, tholic sovereigns, by little and little, soon cur- who were thereby enabled to reform the various tailed the immense power of the turbulent nobility. abuses which had impaired their ancient disciTwo measures especially promoted this important pline. Afterwards, the affairs of these orders were object to a great extent. The first consisted in conducted by a tribunal called the “ Council of making all official appointments to posts of re- Orders," which took cognizance of all their temsponsibility, depend more on personal merit than poral and ecclesiastical concerns. upon noble birth and rank. Hence we find that Fer- Charles V. reduced the number of grandees to dinand and Isabella often passed over the grandees sixteen families, viz. Medina-Sidonia, Albuquerof the court, and promoted individuals of humble que, Escalona, Infantado, Naxera, Alva, Arcos, origin, but of commanding virtues and talents, Bejar, Medina del Rio-Seco, Frias, Astorga, to the highest civil and ecclesiastical dignities. Aquilar, Benevente, Lernos, and the Dukes of A remarkable instance of this wise measure occurs Segorba and Montalto. (See Dunlop's Memoirs of in the case of the great Cardinal Ximenez, who, Spain during the Reigns of Philip IV. and Charles though not noble by birth, was elevated to the II. vol. ii. p. 378, ed. Edinburgh, 1834.) Every archiepiscopal see of Toledo after the death of noble was not necessarily a grandee. Grandees Cardinal Mendoza. This high post had before of the “first class” were elevated far above the been always filled by men of rank and opulence. rest of the nobility, by their ancient privilege of But in Ximenez, though nobility of birth would remaining covered in presence

of their sovereign. have been an accidental advantage to him, yet its This was the most prized of all their privileges. absence was amply compensated for by the united Those, however, who possessed it were divided into splendour of his virtue and talents.

three classes : 1. Grandees, who covered themThe other measure which the Catholic sove- selves at once, before addressing the king; 2. reigns adopted was the boldest of all, viz. that Grandees, who covered themselves after they had by which the nobles were compelled to contribute spoken, but before they received their answer; a part of their revenues towards replenishing the 3. Grandees, who were only permitted to cover funds of the royal exchequer, the annual revenues when they had made their last obeisance, and of which, under Henry IV. amounted to no more mingled with the crowd of courtiers. Their than 30,000 ducats. The retrenchment seems to titles might be Duke, Marquis, or Count; but a have been conducted with strict impartiality. grandee always bore the ducal coronet, and was (See Crónica del Gran Cardenal de España, cap. addressed by the appellation of Excellencia. The 51, Toledo, 1625, por Señor Doctor de Salazar y same privileges are still enjoyed by certain grande Mendoza.)

dees in the court of her Catholic Majesty, IsaThe policy adopted by Ferdinand and Isabella bella II. in reference to the military orders of Castile, also I believe that the title of Duque necessarily tended to curtail the power of the grandees, and implies “grandeeship," but it by no means folto centre it solely in the sovereigns. The subject lows that every grandee is a duke The rank is fully discussed by Spanish writers, and also by of a grandee is conferred by the sovereign adMr. Prescott. The history of the three great mili- dressing the individual with the word cubraos, tary orders in the peninsula is exceedingly interest- cover yourself.” Hence the dignity, as in the ing. They were composed of the Order of Santiago case of a cardinal, is called a hat. It was (and of Compostella, of the Knights of Calatrava, and of no doubt is still) the ambition of many gran. the Order of Alcantara. The Moorish wars gave dees, to unite in themselves as many grandee


A person

ships as possible, by the marriage of heiresses, with my life and family, I lay at your Excellency's &c. ; for dignities descend through females, ad in

feet.' finitum, and the names and titles are assumed by Most of the grandees of the present day reside the husbands, who take great pride in having at Madrid. A great improvement has taken place " four or five bats." Each hat brings with it amongst them, both as regards their piety, literary whole string of family names, whence comes the pursuits, loyalty, and love for their country's wel. amusing story of a benighted grandee, who fare.

J. DALTON. knocked at a lonely inn; and being asked the

usual question—“Quien es ? ("Who is there?”)
replied, “Don Diego de Mendoza Silva Ribera

Guzman Pimental Osorio Ponce de Leon Zuniga,
Acuña Tellez y Giron, Sandoval y Roxas, Velasco."

“N. & Q.” is the new Foundling Hospital for “. In that case,” interrupted the landlord, shutting Wit; the receptacle, not only of original articles, his window, “ go with God; there is not room for but of literary waifs and strays of every kind half of you.” (See an article in the Quarterly,

an universal anonymiana, scrapiana, omniana, and No. cxxiii. entitled “Spanish Genealogy and He- de-quibusdam-rebus-ana. Here are garnered flyraldry.". It is there that Mr. Ford, who evidently | leaf scribblings and marginalia of old-world bookwrote the article, mentions this story.)

lovers, unpublished (why do people say

unSpanish heralds classify blood, like we do Ad- edited,” which ought to mean, if English at all, mirals, into red and blue. Simple blood is the quite a different thing ?) letters of eminent men, vulgar blood of the base-born plebeian ; but red and their forgotten anecdotes, deedes, and blood is the noble fluid which is found only in the gestes." Here, too, are appropriately localised, veins of the hidalgo ; while the sangre azul, the as it were, matters of interest and importance to blue blood, par excellence, flows only in a grandee literary men, which, although actually in print, of the first class! The least mixture of Moorish are buried in scarce, forgotten, ephemeral, or or Jewish blood is supposed to taint a whole purely local publications unknown or inaccessible, family to the most distant generations.

and to wbich reference neither could nor would be free from tainted blood is defined by law Chris- made; while, on the other hand, no future editor tiano viejo, limpio de toda mula ruza y mancha,

or biographer will consider his duty performed “An old Christian, clean from all bad race and till he bas searched the Index of “ N. & Q.” for stain.” (Doblado's Letters from Spain, Letter II. anything that may give value and completeness to London, 1822.) It is, however, quite true that his own labours. many of the Spanish grandees derive a large

Thus it is that I have thought fit to transcribe portion of their blood both from Moors and Jews. a most interesting letter of S. T. Coleridge, which,

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the so far as I know, has oniy appeared in a defunct wealth of the grandees was almost fabulous. local periodical-- The Birmingham Iris and MidMost of their families were connected with indi-land Counties Monthly Magazine for April 1839. viduals who were or had been viceroys in Mexico This magazine - one of the thousand-and-one or Peru, and hence enormous quantities of gold abortive attempts to establish a local literary and silver plate were exbibited on their side- periodical in this town—was set on foot by Mr. T. boards on grand occasions. Some grandees, it is J. Ouseley, then resident here as editor of a said, possessed 1200 dozen of silver dishes, and as local newspaper, but became extinct after a strug. many plates; indeed, a nobleman was considered to gling existence of four months. The letter, adbe poorly provided, who had not at least 800

dressed to the editor himself (?), conveys its own dozen of dishes, and 200 dozen of silver plates ! | history, and is as follows: (Dunlop's Memoirs of the Court of Spain, vol. ii.

“2nd September, 1826. p. 381). The pride and indolence of many of the

“ Oh it is sad, Sir, to know distress, and to feel for it, grandees were almost as proverbial as their opu

and yet to bave no power of remedy. Conscious that my lence. Lady Fanshawe, in her Memoirs (ed.

circumstances have neither been the penalty of sloth,

nor of extravagance, or vicious habits, but have reLondon, 1830, p. 168), gives a curious instance of sulted from the refusal, since earliest manhood, to sacrithe former in the following account:

fice my conscience to my temporal interest, and from a

practice of writing what my fellow citizens want, rather “ That afternoon the Duke of Albuquerqne came to visit than wbat they like, I suffer no pang of shame, in avowmy husband, and afterwards me, with his brother, Don

ing to you that I do not possess as many shillings as you Melchor de la Cueva. As soon as the duke was seated mention pounds : and that if I were arrested for a debt of and covered, he said : Madam, I am Don Juan de la

eight sovereigns, I have no other means of ocuring the Cueva, Duke of Albuquerque, Viceroy of Milan, of His money but by the sale of my books, – that are to me the Majesty's Privy Council, General of the Galleys, twice Grandée, the first Gentleman of His Majesty's Bed

staff of life. The whole of my yearly income does not chamber, and a near kinsman to His Catholic Majesty, clothes, shelter, food, and medicine; the rest I owe to the

amount to the prime cost of my necessary maintenance,whom God long preserve!' and then rising up, and mak

more than brotherly regard of my disinterested friend, ing me a low reverence, with his hat off, he said— These,

Mr. Gillman; to whose medical skill I owe it, under God,


of the poems.

that I am alive; and to whose, and his amiable wife's Georgio Mylio." It is dedicated to Augustus, unceasing kindness, I am indebted for all that makes life

Duke of Saxony. This also had belonged to endurable. Even when my health is at the best, I can only exert myself for a few hours in the twenty-four, and Melanchthon, as it contains very many notes in his these I conscientiously devote to the completion of the

handwriting: Both these works are beautiful great works, in the matter and composition of which, I copies, but they had been bound after leaving the have employed the last twenty years of a laborious life- possession of the original owner, and the careless if hard thinking and hard reading constitute labour. But binder had slightly cut in some places the margin, for the last six months such has been the languor and

and thus injured partially some of the notes. debility of my frame-languor alternating with severe pain, that I have not been able to maintain the scanty

Bayle, in a note on the life of Melanchthon, mencorrespondence with the few friends I possess. By publi- tions his daughter's marriage to Sabinus; and cations I, or rather two or three generous friends, have after eulogising the poetry of the latter, reveals lost about 3001. ; for I cannot, at least will not, write in re- the heart-burnings between the son-in-law and views; and what I can write, the public will not read. So that I have no connection with any magazine, paper,

the father, arising out of Melanchthon declining in or periodical publication of any kind; nor have I had any way to assist him in his ambitious views. interest enough to procure, in any review or journal, even This family discord is singularly confirmed by the the announcement of my last work—the "Aids to Re- autograph statement of Melanchthon in the very flection.' I neither live for the world nor in the world. remarkable note which he has written on the title

“I read your poem not without pleasure, or what would have been pleasure, could I have detached the lines from

Sabinus's wife, Anne, died at Königsberg in the distress of their writer. My utter want of access to all the editors of magazines, and of influence with the

1547 ; Sabinus died in 1560, the same year with London publishers, will explain my remitting them to

his father-in-law. His wife was but fourteen you, together with your letter, which no eyes but mine when he married her at Wittenberg, Nov. 16, 1536. have seen since its receipt; and with most sincere wishes that the occasion of this correspondence may be of short beautiful. His only sister married Gaspar Peucer

She was an excellent Latin scholar, and very continuance, and that I may, without knowing it, hereafter meet you more than a conqueror over your present

in 1550. Of Melanchthon's genuine piety and perplexity, I remain, Sir, with every kind wish, and dis- amiable disposition, Bayle has this anecdote. A tressed that I have that only to offer,

gentleman one day found Melancthon with a book “Yours respectfully,

in one hand, and rocking a child with the other. “S. T. COLERIDGE."

Observing the surprise of his visitor, this excel.

WILLIAM BATES. lent man discoursed so piously on the duties of Edgbaston.

parents that the stranger went away deeply im

pressed by what he saw and heard. PHILIP MELANCHTHON AND HIS SON-IN-LAW. A notice of a literary curiosity of some interest

EARLY SURNAMES. may not be unacceptable to the readers of “ N. & Q.” It is the first edition of the poems of

[NO. IV.] George Sabine, the son-in-law of Philip Melan- The subjoined surnames are to be met with in chthon, in whose possession it had been, and who the Court Rolls of the Manor of Gillingham, Dorseems to have carefully perused it.

set, now in the possession of the Marquis of The following is a copy of the title:

Westminster. These records form a very fine and “Georgii Sabini Brandeburgensis Elegiæ, argumentis almost unbroken series between the years 1290 utiles ac variæ, et carminibus elegantibus compositæ, et and 1690, and are about 400 or 500 in number. nunc primum conjunctim expressw. Lipsiæ, in officina In selecting the following specimens of curious Valentini Papæ. Anno MDL."

nomenclature, most of which do not appear in On the title-page is written in the distinct hand Mr. Lower's standard treatise, it has been deemed of Melanchthon

unnecessary to give more than the reign in which “ Sabinus Philippi Melan. gener factus, anno c. 1536.”.

the names occur,

in order to avoid a complication This was evidently written shortly after the pub

of figures : lication; and at a later period there was added

Edw. I.- Amicia Godesengel, Gilbert le Snake, “Qui postea semper ad magnas dignitates et opes as

Joh. de Cruce (Cross is a modern Dorset name), pirare cæpit, donec a socero per discidium separatus in

Anastasia Scoketilor Skoketil, John le Glywere, NiBorussiam ad Academiam venit. Socer non ægre ferebat cholas, son of William le Eorl"; Peter le Cheyndut, ejus insolentiam ut qui semper humilitatem amare et sec- William Wlechwater, John le Vilur, John Pley; tari solebat. . M."

stret, Walter Gompe, Thomas le Melkere, Richard It bears evidence of Melanchthon's anxious re- le Packere, John and William le Coyt, Hugh le vision, and is full of his autograph notanda. Pipe, Robert le Wulfische, Roger le Gandere

, There is bound up with it “Declamatiuncula cum Robt. le Gentil, Hen. le Dykere, Rog. le Ghonge, carmine elegiaco et Sapphico de salutifera nativitate John Fughelere, Will le But, Hen. le Sope, Thos

. servatoris ac domini nostri Iesu Christi. Autore le Vox (Fox occurs further on in the rolls), Walt.

J. M.

le Ermite, Ric. Schaunk, Matilda le Swones, Wm.

“ KING RICHARD III.: “PUSH ALONG-KEEP le Machun, John Dogerel of Wincanton, Somerset (there are Dogerels even yet at Gillingham);

MOVING.” Thos. Blikenin, Hugh le Yrays (Irish still exists in the county), Thomas Strikemeche, Wm. Lote- In the good old city of Durham some forty-five rype, Joh. Blakyernstak, Roger le Swynheler (a years ago there was a favourite comedian, whose sopig doctor ?), Walter Shepeshened, Constantia le briquet of “ Push along-Keep moving" had been Balleres, Christina la Lormineres, Ric. le Nor- acquired by his habit of singing that then popular therne, John Tougud (Too-good), Ric. le Wym- song on all possible occasions. It chanced that plere, William Bakerman, William le Priche,

towards the end of a theatrical season the actor Adam le Pope, Benedict de Piro, Joh. Charen- was waited upon by some of the merry“ wags of chons.

Durham," who promised him a bumper if he would Edw. II.—Hen. le Soper, Godwin Gulofr, Thos. play Richard at his approaching “benefit.” (These le Deer, Peter Damegoude, Hen. le Cholomr, Thos. were the same "wags ” who so strongly insisted le Hopere of Byndon, Wm. Levelief, John Lyte

that the “monody on the burial of Sir John grey, Thomas le Somenour; Adams, son of John Moore" was written by Dr. Marshall of DurFynybird, Wm. Musket, Wm. Makepays, Alice ham.) After some misgivings and demưrs, the

Tredegold, John Metegod, John fil John Atte actor, who really was a worthy obliging fellow, Bottine, Alice Faderes, Robt. Hyldebrond, Thomas consented for that particular occasion to exchange le Smeremonger (smeremonger means a seller of the sock for the buskin. The eventful night at butter, oil, cheese, &c.), John le Porkere, Ric, le length arrived, and the little theatre was crammed Saghiere (sawyer ?), Thomas Boderstak.

from floor to ceiling by an audience impatient for Edw. III. - Thomas le Oxenhurde (Cowhurd the fun. On the rising of the curtain, Gloucester occurs in these rolls), Roger Melksopp, Joh. le was so bewildered by the unusual compliments Lord, Ric. fil Ric, le Halte, Walter Toulth, Steph. le which greeted him, that he for some minutes Weytere, Mich. le Pleire, Agnes Faderfadul, John stood with rolling eyes, and open mouth, quite Twentimark, Robt. Schermtail, Thomas le Hosti- unable to comply with a request from the “

“wags? ler, Joh. le Taverner, Wm. Hyllary, Edith Fayr- in the pit, to "leave off his damnable faces and place, Joh. Peccator, Roger Holylond, Joh. le begin," or of one from the gods,” to “push along Threscher, Joh. Bakhous, Robt. le Sunyere, Wm. -keep moving." At length, by a frantic effort Wellifedde, Ric. le Bolte, Robt. le Senyoghere to do or die,” he look up to the ceiling, waived (senior?), Walter Pylewyne, John Chacebal, his arms affectedly, and shouted “Now is the Roger le Hoy, Roger Porcheman, Richard Cuke- winter," &c. in tones so sepulchral, and style so man, William Broketouth, Joh. de Culverhous, absurdly bombastic, that his hearers actually Wm. Mureweder, Walter Lugg, Margery Alte roared again; and, until his death on the stage, to Wodesend (local in Gillinham), Walter Peny- display his swordmanship, such a “Richard strong, Thos

. Reynaldyn, Thomas Sureman, John in the field” as would have greatly astonished Springalday, John Verkeday, John Bonswayn, the shade of Shakspeare bad it been present. John Goldwegg, Joh. le Threscher.

Richard, poor fellow, fought well, but Richmond Rich. II. — Ric. Workman, Joh. le Man, John was too much for him ; and he was killed, and Doo or Do, Joh. Canyngmerch, Joh. Sleywroghte, about to be taken away to be buried prematurely, Geoffry Knappecalte, Joh. Goldhoppe, Ric. North-wlien, on a simultaneous demand by pit, boxes, most, Robert Dogg, Alice and Robt. Bryghtnet, and gallery for “ Push along-keep moving,” up Joh. Sexteyn, Nic Spelemaker, Joh. Kullepeke, jumped the dead monarch, and gave the song in John Aquebagelus (aque-bajulus, water carrier ?), his best style. Having accomplished this astoundThomas Gondsgrom.

ing feat, he very gravely lay down again, stiffened Hen. IV.—Joh. Hogeman, Wm. Goldreve. his limbs, and was carried off feet foremost amid a Hen. V.-Joh. Cutberd, Hugh Proteman. demonstration of approval which threatened the

Hen. VI.—Simon de Peterespeny, Thomas Tu- safety of the house. There was a great attempt berer, John Homer, Jane, wife of Thomas Dawe to encore this “sensation” scene, but the actor (" a common scold, and disturber of the peace.") was only too glad to escape by making the bearers

Edw. IV.-Joh. Dur (“ native of the Abbot of “push along-keep moving” until he was seen Middleton "), John Spedehome.

The actor, now a veteran artist of no Hen. VIII.—Thomas Honyball,

mean note, is still alive, and is wont to amuse his It will be observed that the more peculiar sur- friends at social gatherings with the story of Richard names become very much rarer after Edward III. III. and “Push along — keep moving ;” but I until they are almost lost, comparatively speaking, never could learn if his Richard was a serious or in the days of the later Henries.

4. Y.
a comic effort.

R. W. Dixon.
Seaton-Carew, co. Durham.


no more.

allowed to pass.

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the proposal that he should alter Walter Scott

was hardly out of his face when he told me of it I have been from boyhood a reader of these

a few hours after — even the alterations made works, and I look upon any tampering with the during Scott's life should be looked at with sustext as a literary offence of serious character. picion. For he may have left more to his son-inBefore proceeding to point out one, of a very law than he intended. A. DE MORGAN. aggravated kind, I will state an anecdote told me by Dr. Lardner at the time when it happened. As soon as the “ History of Scotland" appeared

Minor Notes. in the Cabinet Cyclopædia, Mr. Lockhart called on Dr. Lardner, the editor, in somewhat of a

New EDITION OF Bishop BERKELEY'S “Works." fume. He pointed out scotticisms, solecisms, &c., I beg to inform you that a new edition of Bishop and asked how they could possibly have been Berkeley's Works has been undertaken by Pro

Why, what could I do?” said fessor Fraser of Edinburgh, for the delegates of Lardner. “Do !" returned Lockhart, “alter them, the Oxford Clarendon Press. Professor Fraser to be sure!” “ Alter Scott's writing!" said Lard will have access to important unpublished MSS., ner; “I should never have thought of taking such including the Bishop's Commonplace Book, and a liberty !" “ We always do it,” replied Lock- other matter in possession of the Rev. H. J. Rose. hart; “Scott is the most careless fellow in the It will much enhance the value of this edition, if world, and we look at all his proofs.”

those of your readers who are in possession of This was all very well, as long as Scott was biographical facts, letters, or important annotated alive to sanction the alterations. A search through editions, or any unpublished works of Berkeley; editions, will ascertain whether what follows was

not hitherto included in collected editions, will permitted by him: if so, his right hand had for-communicate to the editor, Professor Fraser, 12, gotten its cunning; if not, there is proof of med- Rutland Street, Edinburgh, or to me. dling not guided by knowledge. I think it not

ALEXANDER MACMILLAN, improbable that a practice tolerated during Scott's Publisher to the University of Oxford. life may have been continued, after his death, in

23, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. a mode to which writers in general would not The Ostrich, An EMBLEM OF FAITH. — have been subjected.

“ From the drum of the cupola hangs an elegant brass In the Antiquary, as all know or ought to know, coronal, and from this are suspended silver lamps, small Mr. Dousterswivel attempts an astrological dis- Byzantine pictures, and ostrich egys, which are said to covery of hidden treasure. He writes on a silver symbolise faith according to a strange but beautiful fable,

that the ostrich hatches its eggs by gazing steadfastly at plate: “Schedbarschemoth Schartachan, dat is, them.” — H. F. Tozer's l'isit to Mount Athos: Vacation de Intelligence of the Intelligence of de Moon; | Tourists, p. 103. and I make his picture like a flying serpent, with

E. H. A. a turkey-cock's head.” In the first edition (1816) it was "“ Intelligency of the Intelligence:" this noticed at sunset that the sky, though blue, and

The Sky AT Sunset. – I have frequently was soon altered, as above. In all the recent editions, it is altered into “ Emblem of the Intelli- bourhood of the setting sun, and for some degrees

perhaps intensely blue elsewhere, yet, in the neighgence;" in which are two gross blunders. First, above the horizon, becomes of a cold, but very the flying serpent is made to be the picture of an emblem.

delicate greyislı white, or silvery grey, the coldSecondly, Scott's accurate transcript from Cornelius Agrippa is defaced. If there be brightened, up by a pink or yellow tinge.. What

ness being, however, in parts either warmed, or anything which is more visible than another in old magic and alchemy, it is the tendency to re- haps, that the yellow and red rays from the setting

is the cause of this change of colour? Is it, perduplication of terms: the predecessor of this very “ Intelligence of Intelligence,” in Agrippa, is the it and form a sort of white ? * At all events, it is

sun falling upon the blue of the sky, combine with demon of the demons.

Budget of Paradoxes,” No. II., Athenæum, No. 1877, Oct. the sky becomes thus pallid, and small clouds

only where the rays of the setting sun fall that 17, 1863. Scott aimed at correctness in his accounts of red, yellow, orange, or salmon-colour. No doubt

underlying this changed sky may be seen tinged old demonology, &c.; and he read largely on the most of your readers have noticed the fact, and subject. There can be no greater offence against many, perhaps, may suggest a better explanation. his text, than to bungle it into inaccuracy on

F. CHANCE. points of magic. I do not know how far license may have been extended; but I should hope that

THREE OF THE MOST POPULAR BOOKS IN ENGthe next edition of the novels will be carefully LAND IN 1594. — Looking through Bishop King's read with the originals. If the anecdote which I heard be correct and Lardner's astonishment at

The pink or yellow tinge would thus arise from an excess of red or yellow rays.

See my

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