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SPEAK BY THE CARD" (3rd S. ii 503, &c.)— I subjoin the following quotation from Hooker's Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, which may serve to throw additional light on the exact meaning of this saying. It occurs in book i. chap. ii. § 5, Keble. Speaking of the Eternal Law, which "God himself hath made to himself, and thereby worketh all things whereof he is the cause and author," he terms it that Law which hath been the pattern to make, and is the card to guide the world by." This guiding Law is what Hooker terms further on, "the first Law Eternal;" or more fully, "that order which God, before all ages, hath set down with himself, for himself to do all things by." Of course, it is not to be identified with Plato's doctrine of the 18éa; indeed, our author expressly disclaims this tenet of the Ultra-Realistic or Platonic schools. In the above quotation, card would evidently seem to bear the sense of "chart." The Encyclopædia Londinensis defines card to be "the paper on which the winds are marked under the mariner's needle," and quotes the following lines of Pope :
GODOLPHIN: WHITE EAGLE (3rd S. iii. 448.)— I believe that, even Editorial answers in "N. & Q.," are not exempt from comment. It seems highly improbable that Carew should have given the exed.planation "white eagle," without some grounds of apparent probability at least. First then, the Cornish form of the name is Godolghan, or Godolcan (or Godalcan): the last syllable may be the adjective can, white. Godol, or Gedol, may have been a Welsh or Cornish word unknown to the dictionaries, signifying "eagle" (probably as a descriptive epithet, etymologically combatant); even though we have no other voucher than Carew himself. That such a word (whatever be the meaning) existed in Welsh, we may learn from the name of Cors-y-Gedol in Merioneth. Davies Gilbert seems to have imagined English elements in this Cornish name. But although it is possible that Carew may be right in his division and interpretation of the name, there is another explanation to be found, I believe, in Camden. Godalcan is rendered, "wood of tin," as though it were a wood in which there are tin mines (Gôd, mutation from Coit, a wood; and alcan, tin): but while I believe that alcan is an element in the name, the first syllable seems to me to be from Cody, to raise,-"a place where tin is raised." I believe Carew to be quite right as to what the several parts of the Cornish name might mean, though wrong in so dividing the word, and applying them to this particular example; while Davies Gilbert is quite astray.
"On Life's vast Ocean diversely we sail, Reason the Card, but Passion is the gale." W. BOWEN ROWLANDS. CHURCH USED BY CHURCHMEN AND ROMAN CATHOLICS (3rd S. ii. 56, &c.) — The division of the same church between two rival bodies of worshippers, is found in Germany. I recollect remarking, during my stay in Heidelberg some two or three years back, that the principal church of that lovely town-the Heiligengeist-kirche thus allotted to the Roman Catholics and Lutherans: the former occupying the eastern, and the latter the western portion of the sacred edifice. A partition effected a complete separation between the various parts, and the different services went on at the same time without interrupting each other. W. BOWEN ROWLANDS.
CHURCH V. KING (3rd S. iii. 447.)—The incident alluded to is the test offered to Lothaire, King of Lorraine, by Adrian II. in 869; when he made him swear on the Eucharist that he had fully complied with the orders of Nicholas I. as to putting away Valdrada, and taking back his queen, Theutberga. He was shortly after attacked by a fever, of which he died at Piacenza. The same ordeal was proposed at Canossa to Henry IV. by Gregory VII., who had previously subjected himself to it, in token of his being innocent of the charges brought against him by the emperor. Henry, however, declined to take it. The story of Lothaire will be found in his Life in the Biographie Universelle; and is also alluded to in a note at p. 180 of vol ii. of Bowden's Life of Gregory VII., where original authorities are referred to. VEBNA.
The derivation of this Cornish name from Godolghan or Godolcan, “white eagle," is ridiculous. There can be no such compound in Cornish. Scawen says Godolphin in keeping still displayed abroad the white eagle, from the Cornish Gothulgon;" and Gilbert adds, in a note, "Godolanec, in the Phoenician, is a place of tin." Pryce renders the name "the little valley of springs" (go, little; dôl, valley; phin or fince, of springs.) This is a more reasonable derivation; but I am disposed to think that godôl is simply a harsh pronunciation of dôl, and that the name valley;" or Dolfyn," the little spring." may have been originally Dôlnean, "the little
R. S. CHARNock.
THE SONG OF THE BATTLE OF HEXHAM (3rd S. iii. 511.) This song was written by the alleged discoverer, the Rev. George Hunt Smyttan, late rector of Hawksworth, Notts. W. BEAMONT.
UNIPODS: MUSKY H-— (2nd S. xi. 428.)—I have little doubt that "Musky H-" is intended for Admiral Hawke. From what I have read about him (I forgot where), my impression is that he had the reputation of a "fine gentleman."
Hawke, in 1758, was "under a cloud," on account of his recent abortive expedition to the
"Ye sailors cheer each honest name,
Who clothed with honour shone; Your Hawke, who Albion's thunder hurl'd When Chatham's genius awed the world, Lays truth before the throne!" N. F. H. for Wit, ii. 161. This family is now flourishing in Yorkshire at their patrimonial seat, Scarthingwill Hall. It was once alienated, but was recovered by a fortunate marriage. W. D.
CHRISTIE (3rd S. iii. 478) is doubtless one of the nicknames of Christopher, and Stopher may be from the last part of the name. From the other nickname, Kit, we have Kitchen, "little Kit;" while Kitchener and Kitchiner are perhaps from cyttenere, an old word for a citizen. R. S. CHARNOCK. PLATFORM (3rd S. ii. 426, 475.) Shakspeare uses the word in the First Part of Henry VI,
Act II. Sc. 1:
PRAED'S POEMS (3rd S. ii. 519.) I notice that J. P. O. suggests a reason for the publication of Praed's Poems in the United States. He was descended, I believe, from a branch of that family which continued in England; and to which belonged a Stephen Winthrop, an eminent London merchant, who died about 1750. I think Miss Mitford was hardly just in terming his name "the vulgar abomination of this conglomeration of inharmonious sounds." Winthrop is more correctly spelled Winthorpe, and not so very inharmonious. Was not the other a compound name, MackworthPraed, and the result of the alliance of the two families?
The reason of the publication here was the admiration felt by the late Dr. Rufus W. Griswold
for the poet. After waiting for the appearance of a complete collection of Praed's poems, Mr. Griswold published a volume of such as he could gather, and it ran through several editions.
In 1859, I edited another edition in two volumes; adding whatever I could, though I believe not to the acceptance of most of my critics. I do not repent of the step, because I think that these successive editions have kept alive the interest in the author; and have made him known, though imperfectly, to thousands of readers here who will eagerly seek a more complete issue.
I believe I have the best authority for saying that the work of preparing a proper edition has been placed in hands most suited to it.
W. H. WHITMORE.
Boston, U. S. A.
STRADELLA (3rd S. iv. 9.) — Alessandro Stradella wrote numerous cantatas, &c. One of the most interesting of his works is a serenata, from which Handel has borrowed much for "Israel in
Egypt;" the oratorio of "San Giovanni Battista" is also an important work, and contains an aria, "Anco in cielo," bearing some resemblance to Meyerbeer's" Ré del cielo" in the Prophète. Stradella's published songs are "Se i miei sospiri," or "Pietà Signore," "Anco in cielo," and "Se nel ben." Amongst those in MS. will be found "San Giovanni Battista" (an oratorio), a serenata, sixteen duets, thirty-one Italian madrigals, “Idalma," opera (this is doubtful), twenty-eight duets, and various motetts, &c. R. E. L.
PRINCE CHRISTIERN OF DENMARK (3rd S. iii.
477.)-Your correspondent, T. J. BUCKTON, has mistaken my query (3rd S. iii. 407), and indeed I do not see how he has answered it at all. He has. merely given the reigning sovereigns since Christiern III., and should therefore have written No.
in his list, as Christiern VIII., and his son as Frederick VII. But what I want is the direct male descent of Prince Christiern from Christiern III., through a son John, who was, I believe, Duke of Holstein. G. W. M.
BURNING ALIVE (3rd S. iv. 5.)—JEAN LE TROUVEUR says:
"Burning alive was no more a reality than John Doe and Richard Roe; and the obstinate retention of the form of the sentence, for generations after it had ceased to be executed, proves not the cruelty of our ancestors, but the extraordinary pedantry of our lawyers," &c.
To be drawn on a hurdle and burned alive was the sentence of the law on women convicted of petit treason. By 30 Geo. III. c. 48, hanging was substituted for burning; and by 3 Geo. IV. c. 114, petit treason was placed on the same footing as murder. The pedantry of lawyers has nothing to do with sentences, and a judge before the 30 Geo. III. c. 48, had no more power to order a petit traitor to be hanged than to be boiled. Up
to that time many women were strangled contrary to law, and I believe one or two, from carelessness or mismanagement, legally burned. H. B. C.
U. U. Club.
BLACK MONDAY (3rd S. iv. 6.)-My friend, MR. NORTH, may rest assured that the term "Black Monday," in the extract from the parish accounts of St. Martin's quoted by him, refers to Easter Monday, and to no other day; for, although, as is very probable, neither the Mayor of Leicester, nor few, if any, of his municipal subjects might be aware of its origin (as stated by Mr. Halliwell), we know that a popular epithet, or nick-name, is as tenacious of existence as a cat, and may be in common use long after its origin may have passed beyond "the memory of the oldest inhabitant."
The reason why the Mayor commanded the bells to be rung on that day is to be found in the fact, that an annual hunting took place on the Dane's Hills, near Leicester, on Easter Monday, which was attended by the Mayor and Corporation in state, the proceedings ending with a feast at the Mayor's expense.
There is an entry in the Hall Book, dated 1633, of the ten occasions in the year, appointed for the wearing of scarlet robes, the seventh being Easterday and Blacke Munday."
The word inσTaσis is appropriate to medicine, as an abscess, or sediment; to architecture, as the base of a temple. Metaphorically it meant ground-work, argument, firmness (2 Cor. ix. 4; xi. 17; Euseb. Hist. v. 1), a resolution, reality as opposed to appearance (Heb. i. 3, Aristot. Mundo, iv. 19; Artemidor. Onirocr. iii. 14); substance or nature, and finally, in Greek dogmatic theology, persona, or person of the Trinity, the idea being borrowed from the Latins.
Quotations from the Greek and Latin fathers, showing their use of these terms, would be tedious
Ambrose, De Fide, iii. 7, p. 74 a; Augustin, De Trinitate, vii. 5, p. 861 a.
and unsatisfactory. The Greeks impugned the poverty of the Latin tongue (Greg. Naz. Orat. xxi. p. 46.) Dr. Hampden says: "The theological vocabulary of the Latins appears not to have been settled before the writings of Augustine." (Bampton Lectures, p. 471.) But Augustine's terminology is not up to the standard of the present age or that of the Scholastic Fathers; thus he speaks of the three persons as tres substantiæ (De Trin. vii.) Aquinas says that substantia answers to hypostasis in Greek (Summa, xxix. 3), which is true only as to previous and erroneous use. The Athanasian Creed applies the word substance in two distinct senses, in the expressions "God of the substance of the Father, and man of the substance of his mother," where the meaning in modern phraseology is God of the essence or spiritual substance of the Father, and man of the fleshly substance of his mother. (See Hampden's Bampton Lecture, iii. pp. 126, 469.) T. J. BUCKTON.
FIRST DANISH INVASION (3rd S. iii. 467.)There is no historical authority for the impression that England was first invaded by Normans from
France. Bede and other authorities date the first invasion in 787; but Snorre, speaks of Ivar Vidfadme, King of Scania, in the sixth or seventh cen. tury, who subjected to himself a fifth part of England or Northumbria. (Turner's Anglo-Saxons, iv. iii. 474.) It was not till 796 that the Normans commenced infesting the coasts of the empire of the Franks. (Koch, i. 79.) The palaces built by Charlemagne at Nimeguen and Aix-la-Chapelle were burnt by the Normans in 881 and 882, when they sacked Liege, Maestricht, Tongres, Cologne, Bonn, Zulpich, Nuys, and Trèves (Koch, i. 81.) They first invaded Ireland in 795. They established a colony in Iceland in 874, and the empire of Russia in 850. The power of Charlemagne, who died in 814, preserved France from their incursions; but in the reigns of Charles the Bald and Charles the Gross, 840 to 887, that country suffered greatly from the Normans. Their ravages were extended to Spain, the Balearic Isles, Italy, Greece, and the shores of Africa (Koch, i. 81.) The words "triduò, flantibus Enris, vela penduntur" (Script. Rer. Dan. i. 236) which are Thierry's authority, apply, I conceive, to the three days they were under sail from shore to shore; thus the distance being about 360 miles, gives a rate of five miles the hour, and this would bring them to the east coast of England only, whence they would proceed to the south coast in about three days more with favourable winds. Thierry has not regarded this question from a nautical point of view. T. J. BUCKTON.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, as all know, ascribes the first incursion of the Danes into Eng
land to the year 787. It may be doubted, however, whether this is the correct date. It is not improbable that it is a postponement.
In the Collection of letters of S. Boniface and others published by Dr. Giles, there occurs an epistle from Bregwin to Lull, the successor of S. Boniface. Dr. Giles attributes to this epistle the
date "circ. A.D. 761."
The proem of the letter is in these words: "Dies multi elapsi sunt, ex quo sollicitus præoptabam, ut Deo favente, tandem aliquando prosperum iter legatarii nostri perveniendi ad Beatitudinem vestram invenire potuissent; quia per hos scilicet proxime decurrentes priores annos, plurimæ ac diversæ inquietudines apud nos in Britanniæ vel in Galliæ partibus audiebantur existere, et hoc videlicet nostrum desiderabile propositum sæpius impedivit, et perterrendo valde prohibuit de nostra aliquos ad vos dirigere per tam incertas tamque. crebris infestationibus improborum hominum in provincias Anglorum seu Galliæ regiones. Nunc vero, pace ac tuitione nobis a principibus indubitanter undique promissa, misimus ad vestram Venerabilem Fraternitatem hunc præsentem fratrem istarum præsentium literarum bajulum, &c."-S. Bonifacii Opera, vol. i. p. 245, epist. cxx.
These passages can refer to the incursions into England and France of no other barbarians than the Danes; but the date of the epistle clashes materially with the epoch assigned by the chronicle.
Is Dr. Giles's imputed date correct? (See his own warning Postscriptum to the first volume.)
H. C. C.
PROVERB: "THE GRACE OF GOD IN HIGHLANDS" (2nd S. xii. 309, 357.)- Pennant records an ill-natured proverb applicable to the people of the Carse of Gowrie in Perthshire:
They want water in the summer, fire in the winter, and the grace of God all the year round." (Chambers's Journal, 1834, p. 79.)
JOB J. BARDWELL WORKARD, M.A. ABBOT WHITING'S WATCH (3rd S. iii. 448, 476.) As Abbot Whiting's watch has been made a subject of inquiry in "N. & Q.," perhaps the following notice of a portion of its history, previous to the Duke of Sussex's sale, may not be unacceptable.
The Rev. Richard Warner, in his History of Glaston, tells us (p. lxxiv.) that the watch and the abbot's private seal appending, were at that time (1826) in the possession of the Rev. John Bowen, Minister of St. Margaret's Chapel, Bath, holding also other preferments in the county of Somerset, and well known for his musical partialities. Mr. Warner has added that Mr. Bowen purchased it in 1783 of Mr. Howe, a watchmaker, at Bishop's Lydeard, Somersetshire, who had acquired it at a sale by auction of the goods of the Rev. Mr. Paine, who had lived to the age of nearly 100 years, and in whose family a tradition had been held that the watch and seal had been successively worn by himself, his father, and his grandfather, and that they had been purchased
by an ancestor of the grandfather at the sale of Abbot Whiting's personal property after his execution, and the dissolution of the monastery. On Plate xvII. in the History of Glaston, is given a representation of the watch and seal. X.A. X.
MOSSING A BARN (3rd S. iv. 28.)-It is now generally the practice, especially in exposed situations, to "point" the inside of the roof of a barn similarly to that of a house, i. e. to plaster up the joints between the slates so as to prevent driving rain and snow from finding an entrance. Formerly the same end was attained by "mossing the roof; in other words, by stuffing the joints and crevices in the slates, from the outside, with dry moss or other suitable material. The slates then, as now, were laid on laths and spars. In proportion as blue slate has been introduced, mossing has been discontinued. Your correspondent will still find, in some wild out-lying districts of Lancashire, where the native rough grey (stone) slate is used, the old custom re
J. M. H.
TWILLED BRIMS: FLORAL CROWNS (3rd S. iii. 464.)-S. H. M.'s explanation that "Thy banks" are the banks, not of rivers, but of Ceres and cereals, and mine that the relative "which" has reference to these banks, and not to their "twilled brims;" and that the "chaste crowns were primrose wreaths, agree with and support one another, and this unintentional agreement may be taken as a further proof of their correctness. Another proof is to be found in the now easy interpretation of twilled. In modern French, the word touiller is used, I believe, in a more restricted and technical sense; but Cotgrave gives it as meaning "filthily to mix or mingle. . . . Also, to bedirt, begrime, besmear, smeech, or beray." And in evidence of its use as an agricultural term, we find under touillé the old saying, "Avoine touillée croist comme enragée" "In miry ground oats grow like mad." Shakspeare, therefore, companioning the strange and foreign word pioned with another, has used twilled as derivable from this root; and the digging and bemiring of the brims or edges of the banks is the "ditching" and throwing up of the dug soil mentioned by S. H. M. Moisture is favourable to primroses, and the earlier showers of February and March produce that miry state of the ditch bottoms which is euphemised by twilled. BENJ. EASY. SERMONS ON INOCULATION (3rd S. iii. 476.)— there is an epilogue to the play of Terence acted In the Classical Journal for 1812, vol. v. p. 158,
at Westminster School, 1811. The subject of vaccination and the attacks made upon it is treated with great humour. Quære, Would it be worth reprinting in “N. & Q."? H. H.
NOTES ON BOOKS.
Portraits of Men of Eminence in Literature, Science, and Art; with Biographical Memoirs. The Photographs from Life by Ernest Edwards, B.A. Parts I. and II. (Lovell Reeve & Co.)
This is a good idea, well carried out. Public taste, which is never wrong in the long run, is so decidedly in favour of the small carte-de-visite size for portraits of notabilities, that a series of such portraits to be successful must consist of what Hamlet so well describes as "pictures in little;" while the want of some short biographies to accompany the portraits, with which everybody's Album is now filled, has long been felt. In the work before us, Mr. Lovell Reeve combines the two desiderata. The first two parts contain excellent portraits of Lord Stanhope and Thackeray, who represent the men of eminence in literature; while the department of science is as fitly represented by Sir C. Lyell and Sir R. Murchison, and that of art by Foley and David Roberts. The biographical memoirs are short, and to the point; and if the work continues to be carried on in the spirit in which it is commenced, it can scarcely fail to be a very popular
The Races of the Old World. A Manual of Ethnology. By Charles L. Brace. (Murray.)
One glance at the extensive list of authorities appended to Mr. Brace's volume, sufficiently justifies his remark, that the facts in ethnology are scattered through such a number of varied works, that it is impossible to take a thorough survey of the subject without a vast deal of labour. It is the object of the work before us to abridge that labour, and to furnish the large number of persons who are interested in the study of history, whether in academies or colleges, or among people of business and professions, in a brief and clear forin; with the latest and most trustworthy results of scholarship and scientific investigation, bearing on the question of races. The manual treats, first, of the leading races in the earliest historical period; secondly, of the primitive races in Europe; thirdly, of the leading races of Asia in the Middle Ages; fourthly, of the modern ethnology of Asia; fifthly, of oceanic ethnography; sixthly, of the ethnology of Africa; seventhly, of the races of modern Europe; and lastly, of the antiquity of man, and the question of unity or diversity of origin. The present treatise, which is rendered more useful by a very full Index, is to be followed by another upon the "Races of the New World."
Lectures on the History of England. By William Longman. Lecture IV., comprising the Reign of Edward I. A.D. 1272 to A.D. 1307; Lecture V., comprising the Reign of Edward II., A.D. 1307 to A.D. 1327. (Longman.)
Mr. Longman is a bold man to venture, after enjoying the sweets of publishing, to encounter the pains and perils of authorship. But boldness in this, as in most other cases, has been attended with success; and those who desire to refresh their memories with the more striking points in the history of England, have reason to be thankful to the incumbent of Chorleywood for inviting Mr.