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EMERGENCY PETROLEUM ALLOCATION ACT OF 1973
AN ACT To authorize and require the President of the United States to allocate
crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products to deal with existing or imminent shortages and dislocations in the national distribution system which jeopardize the public health, safety, or welfare; to provide for the delegation of authority; and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the "Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973”. (15 U.S.C. 751 note]
FINDINGS AND PURPOSE
Sec. 2. (a) The Congress hereby determines that
(1) shortages of crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products caused by inadequate domestic production, environmental constraints, and the unavailability of imports sufficient to satisfy domestic demand, now exist or are imminent;
(2) such shortages have created or will create severe economic dislocations and hardships, including loss of jobs, closing of factories and businesses, reduction of crop plantings and harvesting, and curtailment of vital public services, including the transportation of food and other essential goods; and
(3) such hardships and dislocations jeopardize the normal flow of commerce and constitute a national energy crisis which is a threat to the public health, safety, and welfare and can be averted or minimized_most efficiently and effectively through
prompt action by the Executive branch of Government. (b) The purpose of this Act is to grant the President of the United States and direct him to exercise specific temporary authority to deal with shortages of crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products or dislocations in their national distribution system. The authority granted under this Act shall be exercised for the purpose of minimizing the adverse impacts of such shortages or dislocations on the American people and the domestic economy. (15 U.S.C. 751]
SEC. 3. For purposes of this Act:
(1) The term "branded independent marketer" means a person who is engaged in the marketing or distributing of refined petroleum products pursuant to
(A) an agreement or contract with a refiner (or a person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with such refiner) to use a trademark, trade name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or name owned by such refiner (or any such person), or
(B) an agreement or contract under which any such person engaged in the marketing or distributing of refined petroleum products is granted authority to occupy premises owned, leased, or in any way controlled by a refiner (or person who controls, is controlled by, or is under
common control with such refiner), but who is not affiliated with, controlled by, or under common control with any refiner (other than by means of a supply contract, or an agreement or contract described in subparagraph (A) or (B)), and who does not control such refiner.
(2) The term "nonbranded independent marketer" means a person who is engaged in the marketing or distributing of refined petroleum products, but who (A) is not a refiner, (B) is not a person who controls, is controlled by, is under common control with, or is affiliated with a refiner (other than by means of a supply contract), and (C) is not a branded independent marketer.
(3) The term "independent refiner" means a refiner who (A) obtained, directly or indirectly, in the calendar quarter which ended immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act, more than 70 per centum of his refinery input of domestic crude oil (or 70 per centum of his refinery input of domestic and imported crude oil) from producers who do not control, are not controlled by, and are not under common control with such refiner, and (B) marketed or distributed in such quarter and continues to market or distribute a substantial volume of gasoline refined by him through branded independent marketers or nonbranded independent marketers.
(4) The term “small refiner" means a refiner whose total refinery capacity (including the refinery capacity of any person who controls, is controlled by or is under common control with such refiner) does not exceed 175,000 barrels
(5) The term "refined petroleum product" means gasoline, kerosene, distillates (including Number 2 fuel oil), LPG, refined lubricating oils, or diesel fuel.
(6) The term “LPG” means propane and butane, but not ethane.
(7) The term "United States” when used in the geographic sense means the States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico,
and the territories and possessions of the United States. [15 U.S.C. 752]
Sec. 4. (a) Not later than fifteen days after the date of enactment of this Act, the President shall promulgate a regulation providing for the mandatory allocation of crude oil, residual fuel oil, and each refined petroleum product, in amounts specified in (or determined in a manner prescribed by) at prices specified in (or determined in a manner prescribed by) such regulation. Subject to subsection (d), such regulation shall take effect not later than fifteen days after its promulgation. Such regulation shall apply to all crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products produced in or imported into the United States.
(b)(1) The regulation under subsection (a), to the maximum extent practicable, shall provide for
(A) protection of public health (including the production of pharmaceuticals), safety and welfare (including maintenance of residential heating, such as individual homes, apartments and similar occupied dwelling units), and the national defense;
(B) maintenance of all public services (including facilities and services provided by municipally, cooperatively, or investor owned utilities or by any State or local government or authority, and including transportation facilities and services which serve the public at large);
(C) maintenance of agricultural operations, including farming, ranching, dairy, and fishing activities, and service directly related thereto;
(D) preservation of an economically sound and competitive petroleum industry; including the priority needs to restore and foster competition in the producing, refining, distribution, marketing, and petrochemical sectors of such industry, and to preserve the competitive viability of independent refiners, small refiners, nonbranded independent marketers, and branded independent marketers;
(E) the allocation of suitable types, grades, and quality of crude oil to refineries in the United States to permit such refineries to operate at full capacity;
(F) equitable distribution of crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products at equitable prices among all regions and areas of the United States and sectors of the petroleum industry, including independent refiners, small refiners, nonbranded independent marketers, branded independent marketers and among all users;
(G) allocation of residual fuel oil and refined petroleum products in such amounts and in such manner as may be necessary for the maintenance of, exploration for, and production or extraction of
(i) fuels, and
(ii) mineral essential to the requirements of the United
(H) economic efficiency; and
(I) minimization of economic distortion, inflexibility, and unnecessary interference with market mechanisms. (2) In specifying prices (or prescribing the manner for determining them), the regulation under subsection (a)
(A) shall provide for a dollar-for-dollar passthrough of net increases in the cost of crude oil, residual fuel oil, and refined petroleum products at all levels of distribution from the producer through the retail level; (B)(i) shall not permit any net crude oil cost increases
(I) which are incurred by a refiner during the calendar month immediately preceding the effective date of this paragraph, or in any month thereafter, and
(II) which are not passed through in prices charged pursuant to such regulation in the 2 calendar months following the calendar month in which such crude oil cost in
creases were incurred, to be passed through by such refiner in any month subsequent to the 2 calendar months following the calendar month in which such crude oil cost increases were incurred, unless the President makes the findings specified in clause (ii)(II)(aa), and such passthrough is consistent with the requirements specified in clause (ii)(II) (bb). (ii) shall not permit the passthrough in any month of
(I) any net crude oil cost increases incurred by a refiner not later than the last day of the calendar month which begins two months prior to the effective date of this paragraph and not passed through by the end of the last calendar month prior to the effective date of this paragraph unless such passthrough is not in excess of 10 percent of the total amount of such increased crude oil costs not passed through as of the last day of the last calendar month prior to the effective date of the amendment promulgated under section 8(a); and
(II) any net crude oil cost increases incurred by a refiner after the effective date of this paragraph, which net crude oil cost increases were not passed through within the 2 calendar months following the calendar month in which such crude oil cost increases were incurred, unless
(aa) the President finds, and reports to the Congress with respect to such finding, that a passthrough of such crude oil cost increases is necessary to alleviate the impact on refiners, marketers, or consumers of significant increases in costs, to provide for equitable cost recovery consistent with the attainment, to the maximum extent practicable, of the objective specified in paragraph (1), or to avoid competitive disadvantage;
(bb) such passthrough in any month of such crude oil cost increases is not in excess of 10 percent of the total amount of such crude oil cost increases as of the end of the calendar month in which the effective date
of this paragraph occurs or any month thereafter; (C) shall provide for the use of the same date in the computation of markup, margin, and posted price for all marketers or distributors of crude oil, residual fuel, and refined petroleum products at all levels of marketing and distribution; and
(D) shall not permit more than a direct proportionate distribution (by volume) to Number 2 oils (Number 2 heating oil and Number 2-D diesel fuel), aviation fuel of a kerosene or naphtha type, and propane produced from crude oil, of any increased costs of crude oil incurred by a refiner; except that the President may, by amendment to the regulation under subsection (a) or by order, permit deviation from such proportionate distribution of costs, if the President finds that refinery operations justify such deviation and further finds that to permit such deviation is consistent with the attainment of the objectives in paragraph (1) and would not result in inequitable
prices for any class of users of such product. As used in this paragraph, the term “effective date of this paragraph" means the effective date specified in section 402(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act.
(3) The President in promulgating the regulation under subsection (a) shall give consideration to allocating crude oil, residual fuel