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$ 52.454 Character,

fected in appearance by sloughing of the (a) General. The factor of character

epidermis; and refers to the maturity as reflected in the

(5) The beans, in "Sliced Lengthdegree of development of pods and seeds

wise" style, are reasonably well sliced. and to the tenderness of the pods; to the

(e) (C) classification. If the canned degree of sloughing of the epidermis;

beans possess a fairly good character, a and to the appearance of the slices and

score of 28 to 31 points may be given. portions thereof in “Sliced Lengthwise"

Canned beans that fall into this classifistyle.

cation shall not be graded above U.S. (b) Definitions. (1) "Trimmed pod"

Grade C, regardless of the total score means any pod from which there has

for the product (this is a limiting rule). been trimmed off as far as the end of

"Fairly good character" means that: the space formerly occupied by seed, any

(1) The beans may be nearly mature portion of the pod from which seed has

but are fairly tender in that the units become separated.

may have lost their fieshy structure to (2) "Tough strings" means strings or a considerable extent; pieces of string at least 12 inch in length

(2) The beans are not seriously afwhich will support a 12 pound weight

fected in appearance by sloughing of the for not less than 5 seconds.

epidermis; (3) "Fibrous material” means the

(3) The trimmed pods contain not properly prepared, dried cellulose mate

more than 25 percent, by weight, of seed rial obtained from deseeded pods, in

and pieces of seed; cluding strings, broken or unbroken.

(4) The deseeded pods contain not (c) (A) classification. Canned beans

more than 0.15 percent, by weight, of that possess a good character may be

fibrous material; ' and given a score of 36 to 40 points. “Good

(5) Not more than 20 percent, by character" means that:

count, of the units may possess tough (1) The beans are very young and

strings except that in case there are tender in that the units are full-fleshed

present units at least 27/64 inch or more for the variety, are tender, and are not

in diameter, there are not more than fibrous:

12 strings or pieces of string in 12

ounces, (2) The seeds are in the early stages

will

drained weight, which of maturity;

support a 1/2 pound weight for not less (3) Not more than 5 percent, by count,

than 5 seconds; of the units may possess tough strings;

(f) (SStd.) classification. Canned (4) The beans are not materially af

beans that fail to meet the requirements fected in appearance by sloughing of the

of paragraph (e) of this section may be epidermis; and

given a score of 0 to 27 points and shall (5) The beans, in "Sliced Lengthwise"

not be graded above Substandard, restyle, are well sliced.

gardless of the total score for the prod(d) (B) classification. If the canned

uct (this is a limiting rule); and may beans possess a reasonably good char

also be “Below Standard in Quality

Good Food-Not High Grade”, for the acter, a score of 32 to 35 points may be

following applicable reasons: given. Canned beans that fall into this classification shall not be graded above

Excessive seed and pieces of seed in

trimmed pods; U.S. Grade B, regardless of the total

Excessive fibrous material in deseeded score for the product (this is a limiting pods; and rule). “Reasonably good character" Excessive tough strings. means that:

LOT INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION (1) The beans are young and reasonably tender in that the units may have

$ 52.455 Ascertaining the grade of a

lot. lost their fleshy structure to some extent and are practically free from fiber;

The grade of a lot of canned green (2) The seeds may have passed the

beans or canned wax beans covered by early stages of maturity and have not these standards is determined by the reached the late stages of maturity; (3) Not more than 10 percent, by

1 Determined as outlined in the standards count, of the units may possess tough

of quality of canned green beans (21 CFR

61.11) and canned wax beans (21 CFR 51.16) strings;

promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, (4) The beans are not materially af- and Cosmetic Act.

1

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(b) "Thick-seeded Baby Potato," such as Baby Potato, Baby Fordhook, and Evergreen varieties;

(C) "Thick-seeded," such as Fordhook variety. $ 52.473 Grades of canned lima beans.

(a) “U.S. Grade A” or “U.S. Fancy” is the quality of canned lima beans that possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a normal flavor and odor; that possess a good color; that are practically free from defects; that possess & practically clear liquor; that possess a good character; and that for those factors which are scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 90 points: P: led, That the canned lima beans may possess a reasonably good character and a fairly clear liquor if the total score is not less than 90 points.

(b) “U. S. Grade B" or "U. S. Extra Standard” is the quality of canned lima beans that possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a normal flavor and odor; that possess a reasonably good color; that are reasonably free from defects; that possess a reasonably clear liquor; that possess a reasonably good character; and that for those factors which are scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart the total score is not less than 80 points: Provided, That the canned lima beans may possess a fairly clear liquor if the total score is not less than 80 points.

(c) "U. S. Grade C” or “U. S. Stand. ard" is the quality of canned lima beans that possess similar varietal characteristics; that possess a normal flavor and odor; that possess a fairly good color; that are fairly free from defects; that possess a fairly clear liquor; that possess à fairly good character; and that score not less than 70 points when scored in accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart.

(d) “Substandard” is the quality of canned lima beans that fail to meet the requirements of U. S. Grade C or U. S. Standard. FILL OF CONTAINER AND DRAINED WEIGHTS $ 52.474 Recommended fill of

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1 Indicates limiting rule.

* Indicates partial limiting rule (1.e., does not apply to damage from mechanical injury, such as, broken beans). Subpart-United States Standards for

Grades of Canned Lima Beans SOURCE: $$ 52.471 to 52.484 appear at 18 F.R. 7933, Dec. 9, 1953, unless otherwise noted.

IDENTITY, TYPES, AND GRADES $ 52.471 Identity.

“Canned lima beans” means the canned product properly prepared from the clean, sound, succulent seed of the lima bean plant, as defined in the definitions and standard of identity for canned vegetables (21 CFR 51990) issued pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. § 52.472 Types of canned lima beans.

(a) “Thin-seeded,” such as Henderson Bush and Thorogreen varieties;

tainer. The recommended fill of container for canned lima beans is not incorporated in the grades of the finished product, since fill of container, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. It is recommended that each

con.

container of canned lima beans be filled as full as practicable with beans without impairment of quality. $ 52.475 Recommended minimum

drained weight. The minimum drained weight recommendations in Table No. I of this section are not incorporated in the grades of the finished product, since drained weight, as such, is not a factor of quality for the purpose of these grades. The drained weight of canned lima beans is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a United States Standard No. 8 circular sieve of proper diameter so as to distribute the product evenly, inclining the seive to facilitate drainage and allow to drain for two minutes. The drained weight is the weight of the sieve and the lima beans less the weight of the dry sieve. A sieve 8 inches in diameter is used for the No. 2 size can (307 x 409) and smaller sizes, and a sieve 12 inches in diameter is used for containers larger than the No. 2 size can.

TABL3 NO. I-SIZES OF LIMA BEANS IN CANNED

LIMA BEANS
Word desig. Size of lima beans

nation: (inches in width) Midget.... 2864 Inch in width and smaller. Tiny-. Over 2864 inch to and including

394 inch in width. Small..--. Over 3964 inch to and including

3464 inch in width. Medium... Over 3464 inch to and including

3864 inch in width. Large----- Larger than 3864 inch in width.

FACTORS OF QUALITY $ 52.477 Ascertaining the grade.

(a) The grade of canned lima beans is ascertained by considering, in conjunction with the other requirements of the respective grade, the respective ratings for the factors of color, clearness of liquor, absence of defects, and character.

(b) The relative importance of each factor which is scored is expressed numerically on the scale of 100. The maximum number of points that may be given each such factor is: Factor:

Points Color.

35 Clearness of liquor.

10 Absence of defects.

25 Character...

30

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Total score..

100 (c) "Normal flavor and normal odor" means that the product is free from objectionable flavors and objectionable odors of any kind. § 52.478 Ascertaining the rating of the

factors which are scored. The essential variations within each factor which is scored are so described that the value may be ascertained for such factors and expressed numerically. The numerical range within each factor which is scored is inclusive (for example, “8 to 10 points” means 8, 9, or 10 points). $ 52.479 Color.

(a) General. (1) The color for all types of canned lima beans in this subpart is based on the predominating and characteristic color of the exterior surface of the canned lima bean when compared to the U.S.D.A. permanent plastic color standards for Canned Thin-Seeded Lima Beans.

(2) A set of these color standards is available for public inspection, and information in regard to procurement of sets may be obtained from the Processed Products Standardization and Inspection

SIZES

$ 52.476 Sizes of lima beans in canned

lima beans. The size of lima beans is not a factor of quality of canned lima beans for the purpose of these grades. The size of a lima bean is determined by measuring the greatest width through the center at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the bean. The designations of the various sizes of lima beans packed as canned beans are shown in Table No. II of this section.

Branch, Fruit and Vegetable Division, Consumer and Marketing Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., 20250.

(i) “Green” with respect to all types of canned lima beans in this subpart means that the color of the individual lima bean possesses as much or more green color than the "U.S.D.A. Color Standard for Canned Thin-Seeded Green Lima Beans”.

(ii) "White" with respect to all types of canned lima beans in this subpart means that the color of the individual lima bean is lighter than the “U.S.D.A. Color Standard for Canned Thin-Seeded White Lima Beans".

(b) (A) classification. Canned lima beans that possess a good color may be given a score of 32 to 35 points. “Good color" means that the lima beans, regardless of type, possess a bright typical color and meet the following additional color requirements for the respective types:

(1) Thin-seeded types; Thick-seeded Baby Potato type. (i) Not less than 90 percent, by count, of the lima beans are "green" defined as aforesaid, and not more than 10 percent, by count, may be lighter in color: Provided, That not more than 1 percent, by count, of all the lima beans are white, or

(ii) Not less than 97 percent, by count, of the lima beans are "green," defined as aforesaid, and not more than 3 percent, by count, may be lighter in color or white lima beans.

(2) Thick-seeded type. Not less than 90 percent, by count, of the lima beans are “green," defined as aforesaid, and not more than 10 percent, by count, may be lighter in color: Provided, That not more than 3 percent, by count, of all the lima beans are white.

(c) (B) classification. If the canned lima beans possess a reasonably good color, a score of 29 to 31 points may be given. Canned lima beans that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B or U.S. Extra Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Reasonably good color” means that the lima beans, regardless of type, possess a typical color and meet the following additional requirements for the respective types:

(1) Thin-seeded type; Thick-seeded Baby Potato type. Not less than 50 percent, by count, of the lima beans are

"green," defined as aforesaid, and not more than 50 percent, by count, may be lighter in color: Provided, That not more than 25 percent, by count, of all the lima beans are white.

(2) Thick-seeded type. Not less than 50 percent, by count, of the lima beans are "green," defined as aforesaid, and not more than 50 percent, by count, may be lighter in color: Provided, That not more than 25 percent, by count, of all the lima beans are white.

(d) (C) classification. Canned lima beans that possess a fairly good color may be given a score of 26 to 28 points. Canned lima beans that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade C or U. S. Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Fairly good color" means that the lima beans, regardless of type, possess a typical color and meet the following additional requirements for the respective types:

(1) Thin-seeded type; Thick-seeded Baby Potato type. Less than 50 percent, by count, of the lima beans are “green,” defined as aforesaid, and all of the lima beans may be white.

(2) Thick-seeded type, Less than 50 percent, by count, of the lima beans are "green," defined as aforesaid, and all of the lima beans may be white.

(e) (SStd) classification. Canned lima beans that are definitely off color or fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section may be given a score of 0 to 25 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). (18 F.R. 7933, Dec. 9, 1953, as amended at 25 F.R. 2005, Mar. 9, 1960) $ 52.480 Clearness of liquor.

(a) (A) classification. Canned lima beans that possess a practically clear liquor may be given a score of 9 or 10 points. “Practically clear liquor" may be given a score of 9 or 10 points. "Practically clear liquor" means that the liquor may be slightly cloudy and that not more than a small amount of sediment is present.

(b) (B) classification. If the canned lima beans possess a reasonably clear liquor, a score of 7 or 8 points may be given. “Reasonably clear liquor" means that the liquor may be somewhat cloudy and may contain a considerable amount of sediment.

a

(c) (C) classification. Canned lima beans that possess a fairly clear liquor may be given a score of 5 or 6 points. "Fairly clear liquor" means that the liquor may be dull in color but not to the extent that the appearance is seriously affected, and may be rather viscous cream-like, or starchy.

(d) (SStd) classification. Canned lima beans that possess a liquor that is definitely off color for any reason or that contains an excessive amount of sediment may be given a score of 0 to 4 points and shall not be graded above Substandard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is limiting rule). § 52.481 Absence of defects.

(a) General. The factor of absence of defects refers to the degree of freedom from extraneous vegetable matter, from loose skins, loose cotyledons, broken beans, sprouted beans, and from beans that show light discloration or that are blemished or seriously blemished.

(1) "Extraneous vegetable matter" means pods or pieces of pods, leaves, stems, and other similar vegetable matter.

(2) "Broken bean" means bean from which one-half or more of a cotyledon or the equivalent thereof has become detached; or pieces of cotyledon aggregating the equivalent of an average size whole cotyledon.

(3) "Loose cotyledon" means a whole cotyledon which has become separated from the skin.

(4) “Loose skin" means a whole skin or portions of skin aggregating the equivalent of an average size whole skin which has become separated from the cotyledons.

(5) "Light discoloration" means light discoloration of the hilum or other light discoloration which slightly affects but does not materially affect the appearance of the bean.

(6) "Sprouted” means lima beans that show an external shoot protruding beyond the cotyledon or skin.

(7) "Blemished" means blemished by discoloration, pathological injury, insect injury, or blemished by other means, other than by light discoloration which is not considered blemished, to such an extent that the aggregate blemished area materially affects the appearance or eating quality of a bean or any detached piece of a bean.

(8) "Seriously blemished" means

blemished to such an extent that the aggregate blemished area seriously affects the appearance or eating quality of a bean or any detached piece of a bean.

(b) (A) classification. Canned lima beans that are practically free from defects may be given a score of 22 to 25 points. "Practically free from defects" means that the aforesaid defects, individually or collectively, do not more than slightly affect the appearance or eating quality of the product. The following allowances provide a guide for scoring canned lima beans which are practically free from defects:

(1) For each 10 ounces drained weight of beans there may be present:

(1) 1 piece, or pieces, of extraneous vegetable matter having an aggregate area of 316 square inch (42" x 38"') on one surface of the piece, or pieces;

(ii) 3 percent, by count, of loose skins;

(iii) 5 percent, by count, of broken beans and loose cotyledons;

(iv) 1 percent, by count, of sprouted beans; and

(V) 2 percent, by count, of blemished and seriously blemished beans, and of such 2 percent, not more than 44 thereof or 12 of 1 percent, by count, of all the beans may be seriously blemished.

(c) (B) classification. If the canned lima beans are reasonably free from defects, a score of 20 or 21 points may be given. Canned lima beans that fall into this classification shall not be graded above U.S. Grade B or U. S. Extra Standard, regardless of the total score for the product (this is a limiting rule). “Reasonably free from defects” means that the aforesaid defects, individually or collectively, do not materially affect the appearance or eating quality of the product. The following allowances provide a guide for scoring canned lima beans which are reasonably free from defects:

(1) For each 10 ounces drained weight of beans there may be present:

(i) 1 piece, or pieces, of extraneous vegetable matter having an aggregate area of more than 346 square inch but not more than 38 square inch (12" x 34") on one surface of the piece, or pieces;

(ii) 5 percent, by count, of loose skins;

(iii) 10 percent, by count, of broken beans and loose cotyledons;

(iv) 4 percent, by count, of sprouted beans; and

(v) 3 percent, by count, of blemished and seriously blemished beans, and of

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