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(1) Current make. May be lacking in have definite off-flavors. Is free from characteristic Swiss cheese flavor; may offensive flavors. have only slight off-flavors. Is free from (ii) Cured. Has a characteristic objectionable flavors.
Swiss cheese flavor; but may have pro(i) Cured. Has a characteristic Swiss nounced off-flavors that are not ofcheese flavor; may lack the fineness in fensive. ilavor required in Grade A, and may (2) Body. May be slightly dry and have definite off-flavors. Is free from coarse. May be slightly gassy, but is objectionable flavors.
not bloated or spongy. May be weak. (2) Body. Is not dry and coarse, (3) Eyes and texture. A plug drawn spongy, pasty, or gassy.
from the cheese may be overset, shell or (i) Current make. Is flexible and dead-eyed; have glass, picks, checks, resilient; may be slightly weaker than pinholes; may have overdeveloped eyes, Grade A.
but they must not be more than three (ii) Cured. Is flexible; may be slightly inches in diameter. It is not totally weak.
blind or totally pinholey. (3) Eyes and texture. A full plug (4) Finish and appearance. Rindless drawn from the cheese appears free from type cheese may be definitely uneven in glass, pinholes, overdeveloped eyes, and shape. The wrapper or covering shall may be moderately overset and have a envelop the cheese and protect the surlimited amount of picks and checks; is face but may be wrinkled and soiled to not blind. The majority of the eyes are a definite degree. The cheese may have not less than five-sixteenths of an inch slight mold under the wrapper or coverin diameter.
ing in the current classification and defi(i) Current make. May have dull nite mold under the wrapper or covering glossy or shell eyes. May have occasional in the cured classification but show no dead eyes.
indication that the mold has entered the (ii) Cured. May have dull glossy or cheese. shell eyes. May have some dead eyes. (5) Salt. Is uniform.
(4) Finish and appearance. Rindless (1) Current make. May be fiat or type cheese may be slightly uneven in deficient in salt. shape. The wrapper or covering shall (ii) Cured. May be flat or deficient in fully envelop the cheese, conform closely
salt or may be oversalted. to its shape and adequately protect the (6) Color. May be slightly uneven in surface, but may be wrinkled and soiled
color. to a slight degree. The cheese shall be
(d) U.S. Grade D. U.S. Grade D Swiss reasonably free from mold under the
cheese conforms to the following requirewrapper or covering in the current classi
ments: fication but may have slight mold under
(1) Flavor. May possess off-flavors. the wrapper or covering in the cured
Is free from offensive flavors. classification, provided it can be removed without injuring the commercial value
(2) Body. May be dry and coarse of of the cheese. There shall be no evi
spongy and weak. dence that mold has entered the cheese.
(3) Eyes and texture. May be totally Wrapped institutional cuts shall be free
blind or totally pinholey; may have glass, from mold.
picks and checks, and may have over(1) Current make. Surface may be
developed eyes. slightly rough.
(4) Finish and appearance. Rind(i) Cured. Surface may be rough.
less-type cheese may be uneven in shape. (5) Salt. Is uniform.
The wrapper or covering shall envelop
the cheese substantially protect the sur(1) Current make. May be deficient
face but may have tears or breaks and in salt.
may be wrinkled and solled to a pro(ii) Cured. May be deficient in salt
nounced degree. May have definite mold or slightly over-salted.
under the wrapper or covering in the (6) Color. Is uniform.
current and cured classification but show (c) U.S. Grade C. U.S. Grade C Swiss no evidence that mold has entered the cheese conforms to the following re- cheese. quirements:
(5) Salt. May be uneven, deficient, (1) Flavor. May possess off-flavors. or oversalted.
(i) Current make. May be lacking in (6) Color. May be definitely wavey characteristic Swiss cheese flavor; may or mottled or otherwise uneven in color.
EXPLANATION OF TERMS 3 58.2574 Explanation of terms.
(a) General (1) Current make. Not less than 60 days old.
(2) Cured. Usually more than 6 months old.
(3) Institutional cuts. Multipound, wrapped portions of cheese cut from & larger piece.
(b) With respect to flavor -(1) Slight. Detected only upon critical examination.
(2) Definite. Not intense but detectable.
(3) Pronounced. So intense as to be easily identified.
(4) Objectionable flavors. Flavors, such as, fruity, sour, and yeasty.
(5) Offensive flavors. Weed flavors, such as peppergrass, french weed, wild onion, or garlic and other off-flavors such as fruity, sour, and yeasty to a pronounced degree.
(6) Fruity. A sweetish fruit flavor.
(8) Yeasty. Indicating yeast fermentation.
(C) With respect to body—(1) Dry and coarse. Feels rough and sandy.
(2) Firm and smooth. Feels solid; not soft or weak; not rough.
(3) Flexible. Not dry or brittle.
(4) Gassy. Undesirable gas formation.
(5) Pasty. When worked between the fingers, becomes sticky; & paste-Like consistency.
(6) Resilient. Springs back to its original form when compressed.
(7) Spongy. A predominance of open eyes or holes, having characteristics of & sponge.
(8) Weak. Requires uttle pressure to mash, not firm.
(b) With respect to eyes and texture
(1) Indicated. A whole eye or a part or fraction of an eye.
(2) Limited amount. May appear on two triers.
(3) Limited number. Appears on not more than one trier.
(4) Occasional. Not more than ono on a trier.
(5) Blind. No eye formation present. (6) Checks. Small short cracks.
(7) Dead eyes. Developed eyes that have completely lost their glossy or velvety appearance; may be rough.
(8) Dull glossy. Eyes that have lost some of their bright shiny luster.
(9) Glass. Sizeable cracks, usually in parallel layers and usually clean cut.
(10) Overdeveloped eyes. Large holes, commonly known as blow holes, usually in excess of 2 inches in diameter.
(11) Overset. Too many eyes.
(12) Picks. Small Irregular or ragged openings.
(13) Pinholes; pinholey. So-called because the holes are numerous and very small and give the appearance of pinholes.
(14) Shell. Nutshell appearance on wall surface of the eyes.
(c) With respect to finish and appearance-(1) Sound rind. Free of chocks or cracks that enter the body of the cheese.
(2) Wrapper or covering. Flexible material placed next to the surface of the cheese used as an enclosure or covering of the cheese.
(3) Fully envelop. Wrapper or covering properly closed and entirely covering the cheese to prevent it from contamination and desiccation.
(4) Mold under wrapper or covering. Mold spots or areas that have formed under the wrapper or on the cheese. Subpart 0-U.S. Standards for Dry
Whey SOURCE: The provisions of this Subpart o appear at 35 F.R. 19629, Dec. 25, 1970, unless otherwise noted.
DEFINITIONS $ 58.2601 Dry whey.
"Dry whey" is the product resulting by spray drying sweet, fresh cheese whey which has been pasteurized either before
during the process of manufacture at a temperature of 161° F. for 15 seconds or its equivalent in bacterial destruction and to which no alkali or other chemical has been added.
U.S. GRADE $ 58.2602 Nomenclature of the U.S.
grade. (a) Nomenclature. The nomenclature of the U.S. grade is U.S. Extra. $ 58.2603 Basis for determination of
U.S. grade. The U.S. grade of dry whey is determined under this part on the basis of flavor and odor, physical appearance, bacterial estimate, butterfat content, scorched particle content, solubility index and titratable acidity.
§ 58.2604 U.S. grade.
(a) U.S. Extra. U.S. Extra grade dry whey conforms to the following requirements:
(1) Flavor and odor (applies equally to the reliquefied form): Free from nonwhey flavors and odors.
(2) Physical appearance: Has a uniform light color; free from lumps that do not break up under moderate pressure; and practically free from brown and black scorched particles.
(3) Bacterial estimate: Not more than 50,000 per gram.
(4) Butterfat content: Not more than 1.25 percent.
(5) Moisture content: Not more than 6 percent.
(6) Scorched particle content: Not more than 15 mg.
(7) Solubility index: Not more than 1.25 ml.
(8) Titratable acidity: Not more than 0.16 percent. § 58.2605 U.S. Grade not assignable.
Dry Whey shall not be assigned a U.8. Grade for one or more of the following reasons:
(a) Fails to meet the requirements for U.S. Extra Grade,
(b) The alkalinity of ash test when run at the option of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or when requested by the buyer or seller, shows a test result of more than 225 ml. of 0.1 N HCI per 100 grams.
TEST METHODS § 58.2606 Test methods.
All required tests, and the optional test when specified, shall be performed in accordance with “Methods of Laboratory Analysis, DA Instruction No. 918–103 (dry milk products series), Dairy Divisions, C&MS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 20250.” Subpart P-United States Standards
for Grades of Butter SOURCE: The provisions of this subpart P appear at 25 PR. 713, Jan. 28. 1960, unless otherwise noted.
DEFINITIONS 8 58.2621 Butter.
For the purpose of this Subpart P "butter" means the food product usually known as butter, and which is made exclusively from milk or cream, or both, with or without common salt, and with
or without additional coloring matter, and containing not less than 80 percent by weight of milk fat, all tolerances baving been allowed for. 8 58.2622 Cream.
The term "cream" when used in this subpart P means cream separated from milk produced by healthy cows. The cream shall be pasteurized at a temperature of not less than 165° F. and held continuously in a vat at such temperature for not less than 30 minutes; or pasteurized at a temperature of not less than 185° F. for not less than 15 seconds; or it shall be pasteurized by other approved methods giving equivalent results.
U.S. GRADES 8 58.2625 Nomenclaturo of U.S. grados.
The nomenclature of U.S. grades is as follows:
(a) U.S. Grade AA or U.S. 93 Score.
(d) U.S. Grade C or U.S. 89 Score. 8 58.2626 Basis for determination of
U.S. grade. The U.S. grade of butter is determined on the basis of classifying first the flavor characteristics and then the characteristics in body, color, and salt. Flavor is the basic quality factor in grading butter and is determined organoleptically by taste and smell. The flavor characteristic is identified and together with its relative intensity is rated according to the applicable classification. When more than one flavor characteristic is discernible in & sample of butter, the flavor classification of the sample shall be established on the basis of the flavor that carries the lowest rating (see Table I). Body, color, and salt characteristics are then noted and any defects are disrated in accordance with the established classification (see Table II). The final U.S. grade for the sample is then established in accordance with the flavor classification, subject to disratings for body, color, and salt; when the disratings for body, color, and salt exceed the permitted amount for any flavor classification the final 0.8. grade shall be lowered accordingly (see Table III). $ 58.2627 Specifications for U.S. gradca
of butter. The specifications for the U.S. grades of butter are as follows:
(a) U.S. Grade AA or U.S. 93 Score. U.S. Grade AA or U.S. 93 Score butter conforms to the following: Possesses a fine and highly pleasing butter flavor. May possess a slight feed and a definite cooked (fine) flavor. It is made from sweet cream of low natural acid to which & culture (starter) may or may not have been added. The permitted total disratings in body, color, and salt characteristics are limited to one-half (12). For detailed specifications and classification of flavor characteristics see Table I, and for body, color, and salt characteristics and disratings see Table II.
(b) U.S. Grade A or U.S. 92 Score. U.S. Grade A or U.S. 92 Score butter conforms to the following: Possesses & pleasing and desirable butter flavor. May possess any of the following flavors to a slight degree: Aged, bitter, coarseacid, flat, smothered, and storage. May possess feed and cooked (coarse) flavors to a definite degree. The permitted total disratings in body, color, and salt characteristics are limited to one-half (12), except, when the flavor classification is AA, a disrating total of one (1) is permitted. For detailed specifications and classification of flavor characteristics see Table I, and for body, color, and salt characteristics and disratings see Table II.
(c) U.S. Grade B or U.S. 90 Score. U.S. Grade B or U.S. 90 Score butter conforms to the following: Possesses a fairly pleasing butter flavor. May possess any of the following flavors to a slight degree: Lipase, malty, musty, neutralizer, scorched, utensil, weed, whey, and woody. May possess any of the following flavors to & definite degree: Aged, bitter, coarse-acid, smothered, storage, and old cream; feed flavor to a pronounced degree. The permitted total disratings in body, color, and salt characteristics are limited to one-half (12), except, when the flavor classification is AA, & disrating total of one and one-half (142) is permitted and when the flavor classification is A, a disrating total of one (1) is permitted. For detailed specifications and classification of flavor characteristics see Table I, and for body, color, and salt characteristics and disratings see Table II.
(d) U.S. Grade C or U.S. 89 Score. U.S. Grade C or U.S. 89 Score butter conforms to the following: May possess any of the following flavors to a slight degree: Barny, sour, wild onion or garlic, and yeasty. May possess any of the following flavors to a definite degree: Lpase, malty, musty, neutralizer, scorched, stale, utensil, weed, whey, and woody. The permitted total disratings in body, color, and salt characteristics are limited to one (1), except, when the flavor classification is A, a disrating total of one and one-half (112) is permitted. For detailed specifications and classification of flavor characteristics see Table I, and for body, color, and salt characteristics and disratings see Table II.
(e) General. Butter of all U.S. grades shall be free of foreign materials and visible mold. Butter possessing & flavor rating of AA or A and workman. ship disratings in excess of one and onehalf (112) shall be given a flavor rating only; butter possessing & flavor rating of B or C and workmanship disratings in excess of one (1) shall be given a flavor rating only. TABLE I-CLASSIFICATION OF FLAVOR CHARACTERISTICS