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growing a few feet from the edge of the water. Is this form found in other places ?

I have collected from the same rootstock (I think) in two successive years, two specimens of Trillium erythrocarpum Mx., with pistillate flowers and nine petals. The extra petals took the place of the stamens, and were colored like the others, but were somewhat smaller in size.-S. N. COWLES, Otisco, N. Y.

THE CEDARS OF LEBANON. – Dr. Hooker makes the following interesting communication to a recent number of the “Gardeners' Chronicle”:" The Rev. M. Tristam, F. L. S., informs me of a most interesting discovery lately made in the Lebanon, viz., of several extensive groves of cedar trees, by Mr. Jessup, an American missionary, a friend of his own, to whom he pointed out the probable localities in the interior. Of these there are five, three of great extent, east of 'Ain Zabalten,' in the southern Lebanon. This grove lately contained 10000 trees, and had been purchased by a barbarous Sheikh, from the more barbarous (?) Turkish goyernment, for the purpose of trying to extract pitch from the wood. The experiment of course failed, and the Sheikh was ruined, but several thousand trees were destroyed in the attempt. One of the trees nieasured fifteen feet in diameter, and the forest is full of young trees, springing up with great vigor. He also found two small groves on the eastern slope of Lebanon, overlooking the Buka’a, above El Medeuk; and two other large groves containing many thousand trees, one above El Baruk, and another near Ma’asiv, where the trees are very large and equal to any others; all are being destroyed for firewood. Still another grove has been discoyered near Duma, in the western slope of Lebanon, near the one discovered by Mr. Tristram himself. This gives ten distinct localities in the Lebanon, to the south of the originally discovered one, and including it. Ehrenberg had already discovered one on the north of that locality, and thence northwards the chain is unexplored by voyager or naturalist.”. Quarterly Journal of Science, London.

ZOÖLOGY. THE CROW A BIRD OF PREY. - In confirmation of what Mr. Naumann has stated in regard to the crow as a “bird of prey,” Mr. H. G. Bruckart, of Silver Spring, Lancaster County, stated before the Linnean Society, of Lancaster City, at its January meeting, that in his neighborhood it is not an uncommon occurrence, and especially not in the spring of the year, when they have had a winter's fast, and hens take their young broods abroad. Indeed he has known them to venture into barn-yards, and carry off young chick ns. We know that the corvine appetite craves the eggs of other fowls, and this characteristic is only a farther advance in that direction. We have now a formidable “Crow Roost” on the Conestogo, in this county, about six miles south of Lancaster City, but with their usual cunning, I have not yet learned that they “tease sheep near


home.” The gentleman upon whose farm the “roost” is located, says they rise up every morning, and after forming four divisions, the one flies east, another west, another north, and another south, returning again in the evening. About the same number fly in these same directions, and about the same hours every day. – S. S. RATHVON.

How to COLLECT MYRIAPODS. — The following letter from the late Mr. Newport of England, was written to his friend, Mr. Doubleday, of the same country. The latter had volunteered the services of Dr. T. W. Harris, with whom he had formed a close intimacy during his sojourn in this country, in collecting material to aid Mr. Newport in his studies upon the Myriapods. Mr. Newport was one of the highest authorities in this group. As it gives, in a familiar form, the more important directions necessary for collecting Myriapods (Centipes, etc.), we publish it hoping to call attention to these interesting animals. Those who wish to study our native species, are referred to the papers of Dr. Wood, in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, and in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 1865.


CAMBRIDGE TERRACE, Dec. 22, 1842. MY DEAR SIR:- In accordance with your suggestion, I now send you a few observations respecting those Myriapods which I so much desire to possess. You are aware that I should delighted to obtain any specimens of Myriapods from the United States, and that the localities being added would make them much more valuable. I would suggest that in

stead of drying the specimens, the whole be preserved Fig. 24.
in strong spirit, as a great many may be stowed away
in that manner without receiving any injury, and can
afterwards be dried, if required, as specimens for the
cabinet. As far as my own wishes are concerned, I
would much prefer all specimens in spirit, and should
he greatly obliged by having as many specimens, even
of the same species, as can be collected. There cannot
be too many, especially of the true Scolopendra, Cer-
matia, Lithobii, Glomeridæ and Polydesmida [Fig. 23,

Polydesmus erythropygus Brandt). The last two of these families, owing to the great hardness and impenetrability of their tegument, do not preserve well, unless the spirit can be made to enter their interior. I would suggest, therefore, that every specimen of these two families, as well as of the true Juli [Fig. 24, Julus multistriatus Walsh) and the Cermatia, or Shield-bearers, be once or twice pierced with a strong needle in the middle and posterior parts of the body, to allow the spirit to enter. They would then be well preserved and fit for an examination of their interior anatomy, which is my object in obtaining many specimens of the same species. If I understood you rightly, the Cermatia are very common in America. I am exceedingly gladi, as I cannot yet

Fig. 23.

obtain any of these specimens for dissection. I am not aware whether any of the large Glomeridæ, the proper Sphærotheridæ of Brandt, are found in America, as I should expect they might be. These would be Fig. 25.

very desirable. You are quite aware that young and immature specimens are often found more easily, and in greater numbers, than the full grown and more perfect specimens. This is especially the case with the Myriapoda, which often swarm in the immature state under the rotten bark of trees or felled timber. Now these very young specimens, of all species, are too much neglected by naturalists, and I am particularly desirous of obtaining them. I would recommend that a large quantity of the very smallest Scolopendra [Fig. 25, Scolopocryptops 6-spinosa Say; from Iowa], Scutigeridæ or Cermatia, Polydesmidæ, Cryptops, and Juli be collected. If your

Fig. 26. friend Mr. Harris could obtain them for me, I should feel greatly obliged. The state in which these species are most interesting to me is when they do not exceed one-fourth or one-half of an inch in length. My usual mode

of collecting the young Lithobii, of this country, is to have one or two phial bottles tilled with rectified spirits of wine, and when I see any of the little mortals running away and about to give one leg bail, just to wet my finFig. 27.

ger with saliva and place it upon them, when,
of course, they adhere to it and are easily washed
off by placing my finger on the mouth of the
phial and shaking the spirit against it; or by
washing the finger in the spirit itself. If your friend, by
chance, should meet with any eggs of the Shield-bearers,
or other genera, they would be very desirable, and would, I
have no doubt be perfectly preserved in phials filled with
light mould. The young Scolopendra, or Lithobius (Fig. 26,
L. Americanus Newp.], or Cryptops, or Scutigeridæ, must
not be put together alire in the same phial, as they destroy
each other, but the large Scolopendra may be preserved
alive, singly, in wooden boxes, with moistened earth, for
several weeks, especially if the earth be impregnated with
animal matter. I should be very glad to obtain the Polydes-
mus Virginiensis of Drury (Fontaria Virginiensis of Gray),

and all of these species may be placed together in tin or wooden boxes, without injuring each other, if, supplied with some vegetable mould, rotten leaves, or bark. As a general rule, all the true Chilognatha may be placed together, but the Chilopoda, with the exception of the Geophili, destroy each other. The Geophili [Fig. 27, Geophilus bipuncticeps Wood; from Iowa] I preserve in bottles with vegetable mould and rotten bark, enclosing the mouth of the phial with a piece of bladder, which keeps the specimen secure, and at the same time admits sufficient air for respiration. In this way I have preserved Geophili in the same phial with Juli for many months, and it is better than closing the bottle with a cork.

I think, my dear sir, I have now given you a pretty good list of my desiderata, but I would also, just add, that a collection of Scorpions and Phalangidæ would be equally acceptable. Of these things, as well as of the Myriapods, I would suggest that the very smallest, as well as the very largest specimens of the same species, be collected and preserved in the same way in spirit. In all cases, if the weather be warm, the spirit should be changed when the specimens have been in it for about a month, otherwise they may become rotten and unfit for dissection. With many thanks for your kindness, I remain, dear sir,

Yours, faithfully, E. DOUBLEDAY, Esq.

GEORGE NEWPORT. ON THE DRUMMING OF THE RUFFED GROUSE.*—A writer in “Harper's Magazine" for October, in an article which he heads “Our neighbors the Birds," in speaking of the drumming of the ruffed grouse, says: “the bird resorts to a fallen trunk of a tree or log, and while strutting like a male turkey, beats his wings against his sides and the log with considerable force."

It is a strange thing that a writer who seems to be familiar with birds should make such a statement. He is not singular, however, in this matter, for most if not all writers whose statements I have examined, seem to be of opinion that the drumming is produced by heating the log or their bodies with their wings; neither of which operations could possibly produce the hollow sound which the bird produces. I have not access to Audubon's works, and do not know his opinion. So good an observer as he was is not likely to be mistaken in the matter, and I should like to know his opinion.

The writer in Harper is mistaken when he says the grouse drums while strutting, like a turkey. He stands perfectly still and erect, stretching himself as high as possible, and produces the drumming sound by striking the conter surfaces of his outstretched wings together behind his back, just as you often see boys swinging their outstretched arms behind them, so as to make the backs of their hands meet behind, and opposite the spine. This is the truth and the whole matter. - Dr. Rufus RAYMOND, Brookrille. Ind.

Communicated to the Smithsonian Institution,

Audubon, on page 216 of Vol. I of his Ornithological Biograplıy, says, “The drumming is performed in the following manner: The male bird, standing erect on a prostrate decayed trunk, raises the feathers of its body in the manner of a turkey-cock, draws its head towards its tall, erecting the feathers of the latter at the same time, and raising its ruff around the neck, suffers its wings to droop, and strats about on the log. A few moments elapse, when the birt dress the whole of its feathers close to its body, and stretching itself out, beats its sides with its wings, in the manner of the domestic cock, but more loudly, and with such rapidity of motion, after a few of the first strokes, as to cause a tremor in the air rot unlike thic rumbling of distant thunder.” – EDITORB.


HATCHING OF THE SEVENTEEN-YEAR CICADA. — With reference to the eggs and young of the Seventeen-year Cicada, your correspondent from Haverford College, Philadelphia, is not the only one who has failed to produce the young, by keeping branches containing eggs in their studios. I so failed in 1834 and 1851, and indeed I have never heard that any one has succeeded in that way, who has kept them for any great length of time. In the brood of 1868, the first Cicadas appeared here in a body, on the evening of the 2d day of June. The first pair in coitu, I observed on the 21st, and the first female depositing on the 26th of the same month. The first young were excluded on the 5th of August. All these dates are some ten days later than corresponding observations made by myself and others in former years. On the 15th of July I cut off some apple, pear and chestnut twigs containing eggs, and stuck the ends into a bottle containing water, and set it in a broad shallow dish also filled with water, the whole remaining out of doors exposed to the weather, wbatever it might be. The young continued to drop out on the water in the dish, for a full week, after the date above mentioned. I could breed no Cicadas from branches that were dead and on which the leaves were withered, nor from those that from any cause had fallen to the ground, and this was also the case with Mr. Vincent Bernard, of Kennet Square, Chester County, Pa. After the precise time was known, fresh branches were obtained, and then the young Cicada were seen coming forth in great numbers, by half a dozen observers in this county. As the fruitful eggs were at least a third larger than they were when first deposited, I infer that they require the moisture contained in living wood to preserve their vitality. When the proper time arrives and the proper conditions are preserved, they are easily bred, and indeed I have seen them evolve on the palm of my hand. The eyes of the young Cicadas are seen through the egg-skin before it is broken. – S. S. RATHVON, Lancaster, Pa.

PREPARATION OF BIRD's Eggs. - The season for collecting eggs has now commenced, and it may be of interest to those engaged in oölogy to know the best method of preparing the egg for the cabinet. As a writer in this journal Col. II, p. 487) has gone somewhat into detail on this subject, I will only add the more recent improvements in this branch of Natural History. Until within a few years eggs were blown with two holes, one at each end, or two holes in the side, as seen in the drawing on p. 487, Vol. II. Now, oölogists desire the egg blown with only one hole, and that on the side. This is the only way now adopted by our best collectors. By placing the hole downward nothing but the perfect egg is visible; or what is still better, place the number (according to the Smithsonian Catalogue) over the hole, with the number in sight; then every person, whether familiar with oölogy or not, can tell the egg by referring to the catalogue. The common blowpipe is generally used to remove the contents of the egg. If the hole is a little larger than the point of the blowpipe, the inside passes out around the instrument. If the aperture is no larger than the point, by forcing air into the egg, and

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