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barley flourish, and the vine attains the most perfect development. The herbaceous flora of these two regions is similar in type, except that as we rise on the mountain sides the Tetragontheca and Stachys, and Squill and Pancratium of the plains begin to yield to the thorny mountain species of Astragalus, and Tragacanth, and Eupigium, and the aromatic Origanums and Teucriums.
III. A third region comprises a small part of Cole Syria, near the head waters of the Litany and Orontes, with the plain east of Damascus and Hums. The soil of this region is thin, being fit only for the production of grasses and thorny herbs, the scanty pasture of the Arab's flocks and herds. Here grow Centaurea dumulosa, and Delphinium anthoroides, and many Astragali and other Leguminose, while not a solitary tree, or even shrub, enlivens the dreary landscape. It is the type of those great waterless plains, which, for a short space, interrupted by the fertile district of Mesopotamia, extend eastward through Persia to the great desert of Cobi.
IV. The fourth of these regions is from the height of 4000 feet on Lebanon and Hermon, to their snow clad summits. Here the scanty remains of their once extensive forests of cedar and oak, and pine, end at an elevation of 6000 feet above the sea, and for the remaining 4000 feet of naked rock, we have left such treelets as the Cotoneaster, and Prunus prostratas, and Daphne olæoides, while the herbaceous flora is represented in the lower regions by Astragalus lanatus, Alyssum montanum, and Ranunculus demissus and Viola ebracteolata, and higher up by hemispherical bogs of a species of Astragalus, Onobrychys tragacanthus and Acantholimon Libanoticum, while on the extreme summit of Lebanon we find Ucia canescens, and of Hermon, Pyrethrum densum.
A fifth region might be enumerated, viz., the plain about Jericho, in which, owing to the depth of its surface below the sea, about 1300 feet, and the reflected glare of the sun from the mountains and surface of the Dead Sea, the heat mounts to equatorial degrees, and a flora is found resembling that of Lower India. More than twenty species are found here and around Engedi, which are not found again until we cross the Himalayas.
Thus it will be seen, that while on the summit of Lebanon there is a plant, Oxygia reniformis, belonging to the Arctic flora, in the valley of the Dead Sea we have representatives of the vegetation of the torrid zone, and this in the midst of a region with a temperate climate, by a special arrangement, seemingly designed to extend the range of human thought and observation within limits almost microcosmical. For while on any high mountain in the tropics we may have the near conjunction of these diverse forms of vegetable life thus answering the ends of variety and comparison, yet the general surface of the country in such cases would be torrid, and hence ill-adapted to the development of a hardy independent race, such as inhabited the mountains of Palestine and Syria. In the Holy Land, however, the end is gained by sinking a small section down to a tropical level, leaving the rest of the country more favorably situated for the support of vigorous life, and the development of individuality of national character.
A single observation' more is in place here. It is that in Syria all plants necessary to life, or conducive to health, are either indigenous or flourish under cultivation in the open air, and that the indigenous materia medica supplies types of all the leading groups of remedies used in the healing art. This statement is illustrated by the fact that in the gardens of Syria grow the potato, bean in all its varieties, Indian corn, egg-plant, squash, pumpkin, artichoke, cucumber, onion, tomato, turnip, cabbage, cauliflower, spinach, carrot, beet, and many other vegetables, and the lemon, orange, citron, pomegranate, apricot, plum (in all varieties), peach, apple, cherry, blackberry, mulberry, banana, fig, date, grape, and other kinds of fruit; the walnut, pistachio, filbert, almond and other nuts; the squill, castor oil plant, elaterium, scammony, colocynth, salep, acacia, galls, poppy, Conium maculatum, aloe, various Euphorbias, madder and many other medicinal and economical plants.
THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY.
BY J. G. COOPER, M.D.
(Concluded from page 84.)
III. REPTILES. HORNED TOAD (Tapaya Douglassii Gir.). A single specimen was obtained at Fort Benton. Though found on the Columbia Plains this species does not seem to cross the mountains at this point, but probably does so by the head of Snake River..
RATTLESNAKE (Crotalus confluentus Say, possibly also C. Lucifer B. and G.). I saw but two rattlesnakes in the Rocky Mountains, which were on a prairie along Hell Gate River. Expecting to find more I did not preserve them, but as specimens were probably obtained by Lieut. Mullan, I mention the localities of this and other reptiles which I did not preserve. All kinds were very scarce in the mountains, and this, which is so abundant along the Platte, is rather rare near Fort Benton. I mention this as the species seen on the west slope, because the Bitterroot Mountains are a far greater obstacle to the migration of the C. Lucifer eastward, than the main divide is to that of this, and I killed some of C. confluentus, probably, as high as 5000 feet above the sea on the east slope.
PINE SNAKE (Pituophis). I also got a Pine Snake at Fort Benton.
GREEN RACER (Boscanion vetustus B. and G., or B. flaviventris?). I saw one dead specimen of this snake along Hell Gate River in August.
WANDERING GARTERSNAKE (Eutainia vagrans B. and G.). Rather common along Hell Gate and Bitterroot River.
TOAD (Bufo Columbiensis B. and G.?). A large toad was occasionally observed along the Hell Gate and Bitterroot Valleys, but was not very common.
SPOTTED FROG (Rana halecina Kalm). I saw this frog on the Missouri among the mountains, which it probably crosses, being found at Fort Dalles by Dr. Suckley.
LEWIS' TROUT (Salmo Lewisii Girard). This fine trout abounds in the headwaters of the Missouri, up to their sources on the eastern slope of the mountains, and a few were taken at and near Fort Benton by the soldiers, all of them large ones. They bite readily at almost any artificial fly; also at insects, meat, pork, and even leaves and flowers, after they had been tempted with grasshoppers. Officers and men, nearly all who were not on duty, would crowd to the banks of the beautiful mountain streams, and catch as many as the whole command of three hundred men could eat every day, and with tackle of all kinds, from a rude stick with a piece of common twine and a large hook, to the most refined outfit of the genuine trout-fisher. The form differs very much from the figure given in Dr. Girard's Report, and in the Natural History of Washington Territory, being, as the specimens show, much more elongated, like most other species. I also took specimens of small size across, to compare with those on the western slope, and am very doubtful whether these can be considered a distinct species, though a comparison of larger specimens may prove them to be so. If distinct, the trout of the western slope is exceedingly near S. Lewisii. It is equally abundant down to the crossing of the Bitterroot, but less so in the streams on both sides of the Cour d'Alene Range, probably from their excessively shallow and rapid current. I saw no difference, however, in those taken at Cour d'Alene Mission from those of the Little Blackfoot. The differences noticed between these and those of the Missouri were as follows:- Evidently fatter and in better .condition, from which, I suppose, arose the deeper tint and greater extent of the rosy tint on their side and belly; back paler olive; spots fewer and chiefly near the tail, where they assumed a more stellate arrangement, but this was not constant. Very young specimens, four to five inches long, were barred on the sides. I saw none so small on the east slope.
No. 61, Little Blackfoot River, August 17th. No. 69, near crossing of Bitterroot River, September 2nd. Length, 14.75 inch; olive, below silvery with rosy tints towards sides ; spots black; operculum, etc., bronze gilt; chin-mark orange.
Salmo sp.—A single specimen of a species of trout was caught by Lieut. A.V. Kautz, U.S. A., on September 25th, just below the ferry across the Spokan River, at Antoine Plant's. Its very dark hue corresponds to the color of the stream, which is often the case in fish of the same species found in different localities, but it otherwise differs very much from the preceding. There is a high fall of the river below this point not passed by the salmon, so that this species cannot be a hybrid with them or anadromous either. No. 121, dried skin; colors when fresh were very dark olive above; belly dull white (no rosy marks); chin-mark reddish purple ; operculum coppery, with a deep purple tint, this continuing as a broad streak along lateral line. Form of head very obtuse. *
SUCKLEY’S SALMONTROUT (S. Suckleyi Cooper, nov. sp.).
* Besides Salmo Lewisii, the following fish were caught at and near Fort Benton, most of which, probably, do not go above the falls:
PIKE PERCH (Stizostedion boreus Gir.). Not very common.
CATFISH. Pimelodus olivaceus Gir. was the only catfish seen above Fort Union, below which P. ailurus Gir. is common. It is excellent eating, preferred by many to trout, which cannot be said of other catfish.
MILK RIVER SUCKER (Acomus lactarius Gir.). Common and very poor eating.
NEBRASKA DACE. (Pogonicthys communis Gir.). Abundant below Fort Benton, but scarce so far up.
Missouri HERRING (Hyodon tergisus Lesu.). Common, and bites sharply like a trout, giving good sport, but is poor food.
SHOVEL-XOSED STURGEON (Scaphirhynchus platirhynchus Baird). Several were caught near Fort Benton.
PIKE (Esox sp.). This large pike was cut up before I saw it, and I only got the head, which I gave to Mr. Hildreth to send to Washington.
I obtained also in the Rocky Mountains a species of Whitefish (Coregonus?), a Cottoid (?), and four species of Cyprinoids, which are probably still undescribed, but the specimens were too much damaged in alcohol to determine them with certainty.