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saw also species of Vireo, (Pipilo arcticus?), Dendroica æstiva, Colaptes (auratus?), Geothypis trichas, and Certhia Americana, which, probably, had nests near there. The locality is about fifty miles by the river west of Fort Union.
The absence of shrubbery, except close to the river, confines most of the small birds to a narrow range, and makes it easy to find their nests, none of the trees being large. It will be noticed that at least two species peculiar to the western half of the continent breed so far east, and it is possible that the Empidonax, Pipilo and Colaptes, were also of the western types. The rocky bluffs which border the river above the Great Bend, and are often high enough to appear like mountains, although only the escarpment of the Great Plains, apparently favor an extension eastward of the Mountain fauna to this point; the Mountain Sheep (Ovis montana), Woodrat (Neotoma cinerea), and perhaps other mammals coming down in company with the birds, etc. At the same time it is remarkable that all the eastern birds mentioned extend in this latitude entirely across the Rocky Mountains, though most of them do not even reach the mountains northward, and seem, therefore, to follow the Missouri River westward, in their spring migrations.
On June 22nd I obtained eggs of the Brown Thrush (Harporhynchus rufus) which is common to the Rocky Mountains. I noticed some species of Swift (Chætura ?) with a white throat, but too high to shoot. We reached the north of Milk River, where large herds of buffalo were passing towards the South, very few having been seen below that point. That pretty and musical bird of the high plains,
. the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza bicolor), also occurred near there, and extends east to Fort Union.
The bluffs from Milk River to Fort Benton are higher and more rugged, with groves of coniferous and other trees at intervals, being spurs of the Black Hills, which form the first range of the Rocky Mountains. I had little opportunity for collecting along this interesting portion of the
route, and obtained only the eggs of some unknowu warbler; of a Pipilo; of the Robin (Turdus migratorius), which had its nest built in a split trunk of a fallen tree; eight eggs of the Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), found in a log-house which was torn down for fuel; two nests and nine eggs of the Shore Lark (Eremophila cornuta); and one of a Nighthawk, probably Chordeiles Henryi, which I found on the bare gravelly bluff. I noticed here the first Magpies (Pica Hudsonica) and a strange Woodpecker.
Arriving at Fort Benton July 2nd, we remained in camp there until August 7th, and this being the worst season for collecting specimens I obtained but few. The country near the fort is also too flat and bare to be productive of a great variety of animals, being exactly in the middle of the wide valley lying between the Black Hills and Rocky Mountains, while there are few trees or bushes along the river. The river, however, furnishes quite a variety of fish, including Pike (Esox sp.), Catfish (Pimelodus olivaceus and Noturus flavus), Pike Perch ( Stizostedion boreus), Grunter (Amblodon grunniens), Carp (Carpiodes damalis), and several other Cyprinoids which furnish much sport, and some of them good eating. Dr. Hayden's "Report of Explorations in Nebraska,” for 1859, gives full lists of these and other animals found by him during several years collecting in this region.
At and above the Great Falls, thirty miles higher up the river, we also found trout abundant (Salmo Lewisii), and also a Coregonus, and other species of fishes apparently new. It is somewhat singular that the fresh-water Mollusca which I found here were all different species from any obtained by Dr. Hayden in the lower parts of the Missouri and its branches, except Unio luteolus and Physa heterostropha, the rest being Limnæa palustris, bulimoides and desidiosa, Sphærium striatinum, Margaritana (margaritifera var?) falcata, while Dr. Hayden obtained thirty other species in Nebraska. The above, also, are nearly all found west of the Rocky Mountains, or represented there by closely allied
AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. III.
species, and one or two are circumboreal. (See Annals of the New York Lyceum, Vol. vii.)
I do not undertake here to enumerate nearly all the species of animals seen or collected, as Dr. Hayden has made a much fuller collection of them than I could do in so hasty a journey.
Rattlesnakes (Crotalus confluentus?), some small Lizards (Sceloporus and Plestiodon), and the curious Horned Toad (Phrynosoma Douglassii) were all the reptiles observed in this dry season, though several others doubtless occur in spring.
Young Curlews (Numenius longirostris) and Field Plovers (Actiturus Bartramius) were common on the plains. The Mountain Plover ( Ægialitus montanus) appears on the driest plains among the villages of the Prairie-dog (Cynomys Ludovicianus). I also shot some immature Buntings (Plectrophanes), of which three species are found in Nebraska, and confined to the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains.
Near Sun River, which is a clear swift mountain stream, I observed some middle-sized Squirrels ( Spermophilus Franklinii?), but they were so exceedingly shy that I did not succeed in getting any. Here the Rocky Mountains became fully visible, and mountain trees line the banks of the river. I noticed here the first of Lewis' Woodpecker (Melanerpes torquatus), which never leaves the neighborhood of the mountains. On the east side of the Missouri high ranges are also visible, and the road now commences to ascend over rolling and often rocky hills, with pine woods on the higher parts. August 13th two eggs of the Night-hawk were found nearly hatched, laid as usual on the bare ground. At the mouth of Prickly-pear Creek the Dusky Grouse (Tetrao obscurus) was first found, in company with the prairie-loving Sharp-tail (Pediæcetes phasianellus), which we had found all along the Missouri River.
Going up the valley of this creek we passed over high and thickly wooded ridges, where I saw Clarke's Crow (Picicorvus Columbianus), the Clay-colored Sparrow (Spieella pallida), and obtained a specimen of the long-tailed Chickadee (Parus septentrionalis var? albescens Baird). The Red Crossbill (Curvirostra Americana) and Pigmy Nuthatch (Sitta pygmæa) were also common, with other species which scarcely ever leave the mountain forests. August 17th we encamped only three miles from the summit of Mullan's Pass, and nearly six thousand feet above the sea, where I observed a large Marmot (Arctomys flaviventer) and a Weasel (Putorius longicauda?). I also shot the first Oregon Grouse (Bonasa Sabinii), and saw MacGillivray's Warbler (Geothlypis MacGillivrayi).
THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, OF THE ROCKS,
AND OF THE CLOUDS.
BY PROF. G. HINRICHS.
u Consider the lilies of the field,-even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed Hke one of these!"
THESE beautiful words and their promise are familiar to all of us; but we are perhaps less conversant with the beauty of form here referred to. The season of flowers is now with us; we have, therefor, each and all, abundant opportunity to consider or behold the plants in their own glory. A few words of explanation, and a few examples from the world of flowers may, perhaps, be an additional incentive to look upon the flowers themselves; and it may also prove interesting to show that there are objects deeply buried in the rocks, and also high up in the sky, which contain the same essential elements of beauty so much admired in the lilies of the field.
To the botanist the lilies comprehend a very large group of plants. A great number are distinguished for the brilliancy of their colors; as the numerous tulip-varieties and
the lilies proper. The lily of the valley (Fig. 50) is of a pure white; hence its beauty cannot be sought in its color, Fig. 50.
but must principally be due to its peculiar form. In the lily family the form of the flower is perfectly regular; the three leaves of the calyx are succeeded by three leaves of the corolla; then follow the six stainens,
and in the centre of the flower we find the three pistils. These parts may be very easily recognized in the figure of the open flower and the bud of Scilla here added (Fig. 51).
Fig. 51 In the Iris family—of which
Gel a section of the flower, bud
b and pod is illustrative — we notice also that the parts are
d all threefold; here, even the stamens are three in num
b ber, and not six as in the lilies. A like symmetry and regularity of flower is exhibited by many large trees, as the Date-palm (Fig. 52), the leaves
of which are the Palms of Fig. 52.
Scripture; and even microscopic parts of the flower, like the pollen grains, often show a similar regularity. (Fig. 53.)
That color cannot be the most important element of the beauty of these flowers, we may conclude from the
fact that even the imperfect uncolored figures here given are not destitute of beauty. Again, the form of the petals is as changing as their color ; so that the particular form of any of the parts of these flowers cannot cither be considered as the most essential