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firing. All but my head and arms was concealed by the bushes, even from the elevated position where I expected they would come in sight, and from an observation on a level with myself I was entirely concealed. I thus stood, anxiously listening to the birds, and so was enabled to notice their progress, and thus determine at what moment to expect their appearance in the open space. The first that appeared was the head and neck of the old cock that led the flock. It seemed as if he raised his head for the express purpose of looking at me, for the instant his head appeared he stared fixedly towards me, and gave the loud quick note of alarm. In a second or two he took wing, followed by the rest of the flock. I still think he was in a little doubt, else he would not have remained an instant after seeing me, and when he did fly, instead of going directly away, he passed near enough over me to satisfy his doubts.

The eyes of the turkey are so situated as to embrace within the range of vision a very large field. Here we see the sight was very quick if not absolutely certain. Although they had passed very near us, the sense of smell had given them no intimation of our presence.

While I stood there, my gun still resting against the tree, deeply chagriped at what I supposed the last chance for game that day, for I was too much fatigued to track farther, I heard the brush crack, and in an instant the largest buck with the largest horns I ever saw, stopped not more than thirty or forty feet from me. While I could distinctly make out his form, the bushes were too thick to allow the hope that I could reach him with a bullet. My only chance was to wait till he should pursue his course, which would bring him through a short space where the bushes were lower, and I might get a shot on the bound when his body would be above them. He stared at me some seconds, as if something told him of danger; but at length he seemed to become reassured, and bounded along in his original course as if he was in somewhat of a hurry, but not in manifest alarm. As I anticipated, on his third or fourth bound he gave me a chance, and I fired as he was descending. His heels flew into the air with a snap as if his hoofs would fly off, and he fell all in a heap. There was something in the size of the deer and of his horns, the way in which his hind legs, as quick as lightening, stretched almost perpendicularly in the air, and the mode of his falling, which produced a thrill of delight which I have never before or since experienced. I reloaded as quickly as possible and approached the spot where he fell. The first sight told what was the matter. He had raised himself on his forefeet, and was looking fiercely around for an enemy, every hair on his shoulders and neck standing forward, and his eyes glaring with the ferocity of a demon. All behind his shoulders appeared quite inanimate and as wilted as a rag. His backbone was severed just behind his shoulders. It took another shot in the head to induce him to let me bleed him. By the time this was done, a little old man, with a rifle on his shoulder, made his way through the bushes to where I stood, and looked at my trophy in a most disconsolate way. At length he remarked, without taking the least notice of my salutation, "Well, you have got him.” To this manifest truth I assented, and asked him to help slue the deer around that he might bleed the better, as he was rather heavy for one to handle. "Excuse me,” said he, "I have been following that rascal ever since daylight. I am a good way from home with no time to spare ;” and away he hurried before I had time to offer to divide the venison with him. Probably that is not the only instance in which one has lost a supper by being in too great haste.

Although the deer had his attention arrested by the scent, and in full view of my entire form, and of the dog standing at my feet, yet from not seeing the least motion, he could not make us out.

THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY.

BY J. G. COOPER, M. D.

(Continued from page 600, Vol. II.)

II. BIRDS.

RICHARDSON'S PEWEE (Contopus Richardsonii).

FLYCATCHERS (Empidonax pusillus, obscurus, and minimus). These being the species found at Fort Bridges, I suppose one or more of them to have been among the small flycatchers I saw in the mountains. They were exceedingly shy, and though I shot one or two I did not find them, as they fell or hid among thick bushes.

Swainson's THRUSH (Turdus Swainsonii). I heard the low call note of this bird in the early morning and evening throughout the mountains, but rarely saw it, as it was very shy and watchful,-more so than T. ustulatus on the west coast. Its note and habits were otherwise similar, but I heard no song from it on account of the late season. They were migrating south in September, and common at Coeur d'Aleñe Mission up to the 22d. Near Fort Colville I also saw this or T. ustulatus still later.

Robin THRUSH (T. migratorius). Not abundant, but seen all along the route except in the dense forests. At Milk river I found a nest, with eggs, built in a split trunk of a half fallen tree.

OREGON ROBIN (T. nævius). I found this beautiful thrush common near the summit of the Caur d'Aleñe Mountains about September 10th, frequenting the exceedingly dark and damp spruce forests, which seemed to be its favorite summer residence as at the mouth of the Columbia river. surprised to find many of them about Fort Vancouver as early as October 28th, where I did not see them in 1853 until December. There had been an uncommonly early fall

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of snow on the Cascade Mountains, which probably drove them down.

EASTERN BLUEBIRD ( Sialia sialis). I noticed this species at the mouth of Milk river, and as this is within sight of the first range of mountains, their base may be considered as its western limit. I saw it also near Fort Laramie in 1857.

ARCTIC BLUEBIRD (S. arctica). I saw a few of this species on the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains only, and at a high elevation. I have no doubt, however, of its also frequenting some parts of the western slopes, and Nuttall says that he saw it at Fort Vancouver in the winter. It is more shy and silent than either of the other species.

WESTERN BLUEBIRD (S. Mexicana). None of the Western Bluebird were seen until reaching Spokan river, north and west of which it is found wherever there are trees, shunning only the dense forest.

RUBY-CROWNED WREN (Regulus calendula) and GOLDENCROWNED WREN (R. satrapa). Seen in small nnmbers throughout the Rocky Mountains.

WATER OUZEL (Hydrobata Mexicana). I was surprised to find this Ouzel scarce in the Rocky Mountains, having seen none myself, and only one being observed by Capt. Floyd Jones, whose attention was attracted by its peculiar habits. This was just east of the Caur d'Aleñe Pass.

MACGILLIVRAY'S WARBLER (Geothlypis Macgillivrayi). Young birds and old ones in fall plumage were common all across the Rocky Mountains, even near the summits, but I saw none in the dense forests of the Caur d’Aleñe Range, which they seem to avoid as they do those of the Coast Range in Washington Territory.

WATER THRUSH ( Seiurus Novæboracensis? No. 70). Hell Gate river, August 24th.* Though smaller than the average, this specimen agrees closely with some in Baird's Report from Pennsylvania and Florida. I found it pretty common in the Rocky Mountains, as far west as the Cæur d’Aleñe Range, and I noticed no difference in its habits or in its single callnote of this season, from those of eastern specimens. I did not notice it along the Missouri, nor did Dr. Hayden collect it above Vermilion river, near the Iowa line.

* Length, 5.75; extent, 9.25; wing, 2.87; Iris and bill, brown; lower mandible and feet paler.

AUDUBON'S WARBLER (Dendroica Audubonii). This was the only bird of the genus I saw. It was very common throughout the mountains, and I have found it in every portion of the country west of them, even where there was scarcely a bush to be seen.

REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla). The Redstart was one of the commonest birds in the Missouri bottom-lands, and I found several of its nests between Fort Union and Milk river, in June. It continued pretty common as far west as the Cæur d'Aleñe Range.

WESTERN TANAGER (Pyranga Ludoviciana). Less common than near the coast, but reaching the east base of the Rocky Mountains, though not seen down the Missouri river. The specimen preserved is larger than any measurements recorded by Baird.

BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo horreorum). The Barn Swallow occurs in small numbers entirely across the Great Plains of Nebraska, but seems to limit its summer residence to tracts where it can find caves in which to build, as I saw no sign of its nests about the trading posts, where the more abundant Cliff Swallow has full possession of every available position for a nest. I saw the former, however, near Fort Benton in July, and in some parts of the Rocky Mountains afterwards.

CLIFF SWALLOW (H. lunifrons). Swarms of this species occurred at every suitable cliff along the Missouri, and across the Rocky Mountains to Caur d'Aleñe Mission, where they remained until September 18th.

SWALLOW (H. bicolor or thalassina?). I saw a flock of one or the other species flying over Bitterroot river, about September 1st, and remarked them because I had not seen

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. IU. 5

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