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watching a bed of seedlings from F. Virginiana it will be seen that there is a continual struggle going on in the species (regarding all the so called Fragarias as one specics) as to the transformation of the runners into flowering shoots. Sometimes the runner "party” will so get the upper hand that the pistils will be entirely suppressed, in which case the runners push out with so much enthusiasm as to crowd down and frequently destroy their floriferous neighbors. In fact, just in proportion as the plant becomes truly fruit bearing, and with a tendency to produce a succession of fruit on the same stock, is the tendency to produce runners checked. But even this is subject to modification, for they may produce very short peduncles, although bearing full crops of fruit; they will in this case wait till the bearing is pretty well over and then run (Wilson's Albany), or they may produce a few long scapes, and bearing a heavy crop at once and done with it, then push out with great vigor in the running line (see New Jersey Scarlet).
The result of my observation of plants in a state of nature is, that every tribe or genus of plants has its own peculiar law of variation, that all minor variations form around this great central law, and that unless a describer of species is able to recognize this law, the time will come when he will be considered incompetent to perform his undertaking.
In describing Fragarias it will be seen that the law of variation centres in the effort to produce flower spikes out of stolons, therefore, no character drawn from differing forms of stolons or flower-scapes can possibly serre to identify a species in this genus.
I have thrown in these general views to excuse Judge Clinton, who, in making a new species out of an accidental variation in the cyme, has done no more than scores have done before him, and many more will in the future, without these considerations. With regard to the merits of this everbearing strawberry as a horticultural novelty I offer no opinion. The Alpine everbearing class of strawberries, however, are too much neglected. They are excellent things in the amateur's garden. There is no reason why they may not be an excellent improvement on others we have had. From the little I have seen of this “Mexican" I think it is. Therefore, though the public will not buy “a new species” they will get their money's worth as a garden fruit.* -T. MEEMAN.
RARE Moss. — Some rarer mosses have been detected here, of which mention may be made of Buxbaumia aphylla and Tetraplodon australis. - H. E. P., Norton, Mass.
• Since the above was in type I have seen the plants at Detroit, and they confirm what is above written. It is a valuable improvement on all other alpine strawberries introduced to onr fruit gardens, but not botanically distinct from the well known alpine form of F. resca. It is, however, interesting from the fact that what I have termed the struggle between the viviparous and the florescent principles, is much more evenly balanced in this than in any other form I have seen. The flower scapes and runners are so blended in character, that at times either partakes largely of the conditions of the other.
AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. III. 42
ZOÖLOGY. FooD PLANTS OF NEW ENGLAND BUTTERFLIES. — The following list of the plants upon which the larvæ of our New England butterflies are known or reasonably supposed to feed, has been drawn up after a careful examination of many authorities, and by the kind communications of several friends. In especial, we would mention Messrs. William Saunders and W. H. Edwards. To give the authorities in every instance would extend the list unnecessarily; any additions to it, or correction and confirmation of the probable food plants, would be most grateful to the author.
Papilio Asterias, cultivated and native umbelliferous plants; often found in abundance on parsley and carrots. P. Troilus, sassafras, spicebush, prickly ash; will eat lilac sparingly. P. Turnus, apple, wild thorn, choke cherry, cultivated cherry, alder, tulip, black-ash, birch, basswood, oak. P. Philenor, aristolochia.
Pieris oleracea, turnip, cabbage, radish, mustard. P. rape, cabbage. P. Protodice, cabbage.
Colias Philodice, clover, garden pea, lupine, lucerne, and other species of medicago.
Terias Lisa, T. delia, clover, senna.
Chrysophanus Americanus, sorrel and dock. C. Thoe, polygonum. C. Epiranthe, probably buckbean, water-dock, or some kind of sorrel; possibly cranberry
Polyommatus Porsenna, probably arrow-wood, elder, or hawthorn.
Lycæna neglecta, cornus and willow; also Erythronium? L. lucia, probably the same, and perhaps buckthorn and wild lupine? L. comyntas, Lespedeza capitata.
Thecla Clothilde, probably species of Rubus, Genista, and Hedysarum. T. Falacer, hawthorn; also oak, and perhaps blackthoru? T. strigosa, thorn, oak, apple, willow. T. humuli, hop, oak. T. Auburniana, smilax?, red cedar? T. Niphon, pine. T. Pembina, Vicia cracca ?
T. Mopsus, wild cherry, cultivated plum, Eupatorium. T. Augustus, Vaccinium ? ' T. Henrici, Vaccinium? T. Acadica, willow. T. Scudderii, Lupinus perennis.
Danais Erippus, different species of Asclepias; also Apocynum.
Limenitis Misippus, willow, poplar, plum. L. Ursula, scrub oak, gooseberry, wild cherry, Vaccinium, willow, apple, plum, quince, hawthorn, hornbeam. L. Arthemis, thorn. L. Proserpina, probably some species of Pyrus.
Argynnis Idalia, A. Cybele, A. Atlantis, A. Aphrodite, probably violets; some of them possibly eat Hedysarum, Polygonum, or Rubus. A. Myrina, wild violets and cultivated pansy. A. Montinus, probably violets. A. Bellona, probably violets; also raspberry ?
Melitæa Nycteis, plantain? sunflower. M. Harrisii, Diplopappus umbellatus. M. Tharos, plantain?. M. Phaeton, Chelone glabra, hazel; will eat black currant.
Pyrameis cardui, thistle, sunflower, hollyhock, burdock, nettle. P. Huntera, Gnaphalium, burdock, thistle, balsam. P. Atalanta, nettle, ambrosia, hop. Junonia Cania, Antirrhinum, Linaria.
Vanessa Antiopa, willow, poplar, elm, balm of Gilead. V. J-album, hop, elin; also willow? V. Vilbertii, nettle.
Grapla interrogationis, elm, hop, nettle, ambrosia, basswood, lime. G. C-argenteum, wild gooseberry, cultivated currant and blackberry, elm; probably honeysuckle. G. comma, hop, ambrosia, nettle. G. gracilis, probably nettle, ambrosia, and elm. G. Faunus, probably wild gooseberry, elm, and nettle.
Chionobas semidea, probably sedges; possibly lichens.
Visoniailes Juvenalis, Glycine, Lathyrus. N. Persius, N. Brizo, Pulse family. N. Catullus, Monarda punctata.
Eudamus Tityrus, Robinia pseudacacia and viscosa, American Wistaria. E. Lycidas, Hedysarum. E. Bathyllus, Glycine and Hedysarum.
Hesperia Metacomet, H. Verna, H. Massasoit, probably grass. H. Hobomok, H. Pocahontas, H. Quadaquina, grass. H. Leonardus, probably grass. H. Mystic, H. Sassacus, grass. H. 'ingina, probably grass. H. Jamsutta, grass. H. Acanootus, H. Egeremet, H. Manataaqua, probably grass. H. Ahaton, grass. H. Oneko, H. Samoset, H. Vialis, probably grass. H. Metea, coarse and fine grasses; probably also Panicum. H. Manoco, probably grass. H. Hianna, Glycine? grasses ? H. Panoquin, probably grass. II. Mesapano, grass? H. Delaware, H. Logan, Panicum and coarse grasses.
Larvæ of unknown species of Hesperidæ have also been found on poplar, scrub oak, hazel and columbine, and Lespedeza capitata. — SAMUEL H. SCUDDER, Boston Society of Natural History.
TENNESSEE WARBLER. – Mr. Boardman's statement in the June number of the NATURALIST relating to the abundance of this warbler in his locality is interesting. It shows how irregular is the distribution of some of our birds. This species seems to be one of a class of birds which, though quite rare in other parts of New England, are not at all so in south-eastern Maine, reaching that region I presume via the St. Lawrence and Maine Central water route. I would here enquire if Mr. Trippe's article on “The Warblers” (NATURALIST, vol. ii.) is not written in the locality of Orange, N. J.?* On page 181 we might infer that he had been giving the Warblers of the New England States, if on a perusal of the preceding pages we had not been convinced to the contrary; the species as found by Mr. Trippe showing a decided tendency to a South Alleghanian fauna, as compared with their distribution in New England.
H. A. PURDIE, Boston.
* It is. -Eds.
PAPILIO (var?) CALVERLEYI, CAPTURED IN FLORIDA. — While in Florida last April it was my good fortune to capture a female specimen of Papilio var. Calverleyi Grote, which in some respects differs from Mr. Grote's type (a male), the description of which appeared in the “Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia,” vol. ii, and which, till now, was unique. The differences are chiefly as follows: Anterior wings wanting the yellow marginal spots; emarginations very slight; the four yellow patches nearest the internal angle suffused with orange, particularly the basal third. At the extremity of the discal cell is a conspicuous yellow band, bounded apically by the nervures. On the under side this is preceded by a small yellow spot. Apical third of the costal nervure with a fine yellow line. Secondaries with the black ground-color more encroached upon by yellow. Fulvous markings preceding the marginal lunules powdered with whitish scales; above the fulvous, and between it and the discal cell, the color is yellow. Anal ocellus pupilled with a well-defined black spot instead of a “narrow faint blackish arcuated line.” Tails black without any sprinkling of yellow. Abdomen with six rows of yellow dots. Mr. Grote's specimen had but two rows, and Papilio Asterias, of which Mr. Edwards considers it a variety, has four. — THEODORE L. MEAD, New York.
A REMARKABLE NEW JELLY-FISHI. — During an excursion to Eastport, Me., and vicinity, last season, in company with Mr. S. I. Smith and others, we discovered and captured a very large and fine new jelly-fish, rivalling in size even the common red one, Cyanea arctica, which it slightly resembles, and for which it might be mistaken at a distance. It is, however, more yellow in color, the large complicated ovaries hanging down below the disk being light orange, and the long frilled mouth appendages bright lemon-yellow. The tentacles are about eighty in number, arranged in a nearly continuous circle, and may extend fifteen or twenty feet in large specimens. They are also very remarkable in being flat and broad, with one edge double and divided into crenulated scallops, which are margined with white, producing a very beautiful appearance. The whole body and tentacles give a white phosphorescent light. The largest specimen was eighteen inches in diameter, and secured among the wharves of Eastport, at noon. It is remarkable that so conspicuous an animal has so long escaped observation. It belongs to a family previously unknown on this coast, and forms the type of a new genus. Itwas described in the July number of the “ American Journal of Science" under the name of Callinema ornata.- A. E. VERRILL.
THE SWEDISH NORTH POLAR EXPEDITION OF 1868.- This is the fourth scientific expedition sent out by Sweden to the Arctic regions since 1858, all fruitful in results to geology and other branches of science. After a thorough exploration of Beeren Island on the way, Ice fjord in Spitzbergen, was reached on the thirty-first of July. Ice had already been met with at South Cape, and it increased as they approached the Thousand Isles. The intention was to pass to the eastward of Spitzbergen, but the
ice rendered this impracticable. The geology of Ice fjord was carefully explored during the stay here, and the important discovery made of posttertiary strata containing fragments of plants and shells vow found living much farther south in Norway. It was estimated that 2000 or 3000 head of walrus were annually slaughtered in Spitzbergen by Norwegian walrus-hunters, showing that there must be a large tract of meadow land free from ice to sustain so large a number of these animals, unless they travel over from Nova Zembla. They then endeavored to penetrate to Greenland along the eightieth parallel of latitude, but impenetrable masses of ice, tending north-east and south-west, rendered this impassable. Turning then to north and north-east, they reached 81° 16' north latitude. Here the ocean was sometimes covered with a thin coating of ice, and the old ice northward was quite impassable, the temperature sinking to 21° F. On the 29th of August the “Sofia” entered Liebde Bay, in Northern Spitzbergen. The deep-sea soundings revealed the interesting fact that Spitzbergen was connected with Scandinavia by a submarine bank, having a maximum depth of three hundred fathoms. North and west of Spitzbergen the sea deepens to 2000 fathoms and more. At the greatest depths animal life was found. At 2600 fathoms Foraminifera were brought up. Liebde Bay was now for the first time explored, both in its topography and geology; its climate was mild and calm, while out at sea high winds and snow storms prevailed. After a vain attempt to reach Gilles' Land, the “Sofia," on the 16th of September, made a final endeavor to penetrate the ice to the northward, succeeding at length in reaching 81° 42', the highest point probably yet reached by a vessel, Scoreby's farthest (in 1806) being 81° 30'; and Parry's (in 1827) 81° 6'; but Parry, in sledges on the ice, reached 82° 45'. The ice to the northward of this was broken, but so closely packed that not even a boat could pass forward, and farther westward (on the meridian of Greenwich) the limit of this impenetrable ice came down to 79o. At night the vessel lay to beside the larger sheets of ice, but the temperature having sunk to 16° F., the risk was run of finding themselves blocked up in the morning. After returning to Spitzbergen, and leaving letters announcing their intentions, they made another last push for the north on the 1st of October, but when in latitude 81° all farther endeavors were put a stop to by a collision with an ice block, which opened a large leak in the vessel's side. With great difliculty they regained the land, the water standing two feet over the cabin floor. The intention of wintering here was then abandoned, and the “Sofia” returned to Norway. - Scientific Opinion.
NOTE ON THE “BLOWING” OF WHALES. — The celebrated Norwegian naturalist, M. Sars, was the first, or one of the first, to assert that whales when “blowing" did not throw up water into the air, unless the “blowhole” was beneath the surface. The popular idea has been, and is opposed to this. While cruising in the North Pacific, and Behring's Sea, I paid particular attention to this point. I was very fortunate in seeing