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become more numerous, they are smaller than before, and the anatomy of the internal organs is more complex. At the end of the body, now much elongated, is a pair of short feet, ending in several bristles. This is the Zoëa stage (Fig. 74, enlarged forty-five diameters) and corresponds to the Zoëa of the Crab, Carcinas manas (Fig. 75; a, natural size), discovered by Thompson.
THE CANADIAN ENTOMOLOGIst completed its first volume in July. The Editor, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Credit, Canada, announces that the public cation will be continued and the number of pages of each number be increased from eight to at least twelve, and, if sufficiently encouraged, to sixteen, while the annual subscription will be increased from 50 cents to $1.00. We hope this journal will be sustained, for it is a credit to Canadian entomology.
THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGIST. — The August number, which comes to us in an attractive cover, is the last of Vol. i. The Editors announce that hereafter each number will consist of thirty-two pages instead of twentyfour, and the annual subscription has been raised from $1.00 to $2.00. The present number abounds with illustrations, while the paper is improved in quality. The magazine cannot fail to satisfy those who wish for information regarding our noxious and beneficial insects.
PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES.
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. — The Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Association was held August 18-25, at Salem, Mass. From the great number of papers presented, their high scientific character, and the large number of members present, the meeting was judged by many to have been, both in a scientific and social point of view, the most brilliant and successful one that has been held for many years. About two hundred and seventy-five members were present and one bundred and sixty-three papers were presented. A great deal of business was dispatched, and the legitimate objects of the Association so closely adhered to that invitations from various societies in Boston and Cambridge, the city authorities of Boston, and other places, were relactantly refused in order that each paper should have a hearing. One day (Saturday) was given up to the enjoyment of a steamboat excursion about Massachusetts Bay, given by the city of Salem.
This' meeting was 'signalized by the formation of two new subsections of Section B, viz. : Archæology and Ethnology; and Microscopy: 1 vir
There was also held during the session a microscopic convention which proved very successful and interesting to microscopists, and as the standard of instruments made in the United States is not surpassed by those
of England, France or Germany, we hope this section will continue to flourish and increase in influence and importance, and stimulate our manufacturers of microscopes, and observers, to still greater perfection in the construction and use of this instrument. As a Natural History journal we are not called upon to report the doings of Section A, Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, but we should say that its meetings were this year especially interesting from the numerous papers on the recent eclipse which were presented.
The American Association dates its origin as far back as 1840, when some eighteen gentlemen, connected with the geological surveys then in progress, met in the hall of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, and organized an association under the name of “The Association of American Geologists.” At the meeting held in 1842 the name was changed so as to read “The Association of American Geologists and Naturalists," and in 1847 its sphere was enlarged and its present name adopted; thus embracing every department of science.
The meetings were suspended during the years 1861-65, but since the war they have increased in value and the number of those in attendance, and both this and the last meeting have demonstrated that the American Association fully accords with the genius of our people and institutions, and that as promoting good fellowship and harmony among scientific men, and placing them in a more direct relation with the people, the value of these annual reunions cannot be too highly estimated.
An important change in the Constitution was proposed, which, if adopted at the next meeting, will greatly facilitate business, and will place all the Sections on an equal footing. The change proposed is as follows: Rule V to read
"The Association shall be divided into troo sections, A and B. Section A to be divided into the following subsections: 1, Mathematics and Astronomy; 2, Physics and Chemistry; 3, Microscopy. Section B into the following: 1, Geology and Paleon. tology; 2, Zoology and Botany; 3, Archæology and Ethnology. The two sections may meet as one."
It was voted that the next meeting be held at Troy, N. Y., on the first Wednesday in August.
Officers present at the Meeting: J. W. Foster, President; F. W. PUTNAM, Acting Permanent Secretary; 0. C. Marsu, General Secretary; J. W. FOSTER, F. W. PUTNAM, 0. C. MARSH, B. A. GOULD, Louis AGASSIZ, JOSEPH HENRY, BENJAMIN PEIRCE, JOHN TORREY, T. STERRY HUNT, J. S. NEWBERRY, ALEXIS CASWELL, W. C. KERR, Standing Committee. (Messrs. Roon, LOVERING, ELWYN, ROCKWELL and WHITTLESEY were absent.)
Section B. (Natural History) - Prof. L. AGASSIZ, Chairman; Prof. T. STERRY Hunt and Rev. G. A. LEAKIN, Secretaries. Subsection C. (Archæology and Ethnology) - Dr. E. G. SQUIER and Prof. ARNOLD GUYOT, Chairmen; WILLIAM H. DALL, Secretary. Subsection D. (Microscopy) – J. E. GAVITT, Chairman; E. BICKNELL, Secretary.
PAPERS READ IN SECTION B. - NATURAL HISTORY.
On the Plasticity of Pebbles and Rocks, By J. P. Blake.
On the Trend of the Rocky Mountain Range north latitude 60°, and its Influence on Faunal Distribution. By Wm. H. Dull.
Relations of the Geology of Ohio to that of the adjoining States. By J. S. Vorherry.
On New Species of Fishes obtained by Prof. Orton in the valleys of the Maranon and Napo. By Theodore Gill.
The Homologies and General Structural relations of the Polyzoa. By A. Hyatt.
On the Age and Relations of the Metamorphic Rocks of New Brunswick and Maine. By George F. Jotthew and L. W. Bailey.
On the Raritan Clays of New Jersey. By J. S. Newherry. On some points in the Geology of North Car ina. By ir. C. Kerr. Description of a New Species of Chiton. By Im. l'rescott. Laws of Mountain Formation. By J. S. Grimes. Notice of Fossils from Table Mountain, California. By Wm. P. Blake. Comparison of the Coral Faunæ of the Atlantic and Pacitic Coasts of the Isthmus of Dirien, as bearing on the supposed former connection between the two Oceans. By A. E. Verrill.
On the Systematic Relations of the Lamarckian Pteroceræ. By Theodore Gill.
On certain Peculiarities in the Distribution of Marine Life on the Sea-bottom of the Bay of Fundy. By A. E. Verrill.
Preliminary Notice of the Lamellibranchiates of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, and Chemung Groups. By James Hall.
On some Recent Geological Changes in North-eastern Wisconsin. Communicated by G. R Stuntz. Read by J. S. Newberry.
On Brazilian Dritt. By Ch. Fred. Hartt.
The Value of the Characters drawn from the external Armature of Lepidopterous Larvæ. Br S. 71. Scuder.
A Classification of the Eggs of Butterflies. By $. H. Scudder,
SUBSECTION C.- ARCHÆOLOGY AND ETIXOLOGY. Indian Migrations. In Four Sections. See. 1, Physical Geography of North America, with reference to Natural Highways; and Means of Natural Subsistence afforded hy its Areas. Sec. 2, Agricultural Subsistence, and the Character and Extent of Indian Agriculture. Sec. 3, Migrations of Roving and partially Village Indians; deduced from languages, traditions, and known migrations. Sec. 4, Migration of Village In dians; as derluced from the same sources. By L. H. Morgan.
The Constitution of Man as modified by Light, Heat and Cold, By Clinton Roosevelt. On the Botocudos of Brazil. By Ch. Fred. Hartt.
Observations on the Languages of South America, and the Classification of the Indian Nations thereof. By Porter C. Bliss.
On the boring of Stone Implements, illustrated by specimens collected by R. W. Haskins, from Indian Graves on the banks of the Ohio. By F. W. Putnam.
A Conjectural Explanation of the uses of the Embankments of the Mound Builders. By L. H. Morgan.
The Ainos, or Hairy Men of Yesso, Saghalien, and the Kurile Islands. By A. $. Bickmore.
Evidences of high antiquity in the Kjøkkenmædden Deposits of New England. By E. S. Morse.
On the Distribution of the native Tribes of Alaska, and the adjacent Territory. By W. H. Dall.
SUBSECTION D.- MICROSCOPY..
Some Remarks on an “Opaque Illuminator," applied to an Immersion Objective, and an Immersion Objective of Long Focal Distance. By E. Bicknell.
Some Remarks on the Infusorial Deposits of North America. By A. M. Edwards.
Note on a Phase in the Reproduction of a Confervaceous Alga belonging to the genus dogonium. By A. M. Edwards.
Mr. Thomas MEEHAN read a paper “On the Laws which govern the production of sexes in Plants.” At a previous meeting he showed that extra vigor or vitality was accompanied by a greater cohesion or adnation of the leaves of conifere with tie stems. Similar laws, it seemed probable, governed the production of the sexes in plants. The female flowers of Norway spruces were always on the most vigorous branches; male flowers only on weak branches. As the strong ones become weak they lose the power of producing females and produce males only. But the Larch afforded the best illustration. As shown last year the most vigorous shoots have the leaves adherent with the stems. What we call leaves are only foliaceous awns. The true leaves only appear when the axial growth is arrested, the verticils or spurs bearing the true leaves. When the reproductive age commences the Larch can only bear flowers from these weakened spurs; only the strongest of these produce female flowers, and only after two or three years of weakening process, by the shade afforded by the increased growth of branches, do the male flowers appear. So low is vitality when these male flowers appear that with their production the whole spur dies. The long, dead, warty strings on Larch shoots are what have been male flowers. The same law can be traced more or less through all Coniferæ. In Amentaceæ the same law, only in another form, prevails. In Quercus, Juglans, Carya, and others, male flowers appear with the opening leaves of spring, evidently formed during expiring vegetative force the fall before: the female only after growth has grown vigorously on the apex or culmination of the greatest vigor. In Corylus, Carpinus, and allies, the male flowers were also on the weakest parts. There were in some plants several waves of growth in the most
vigorous shoots; for instance Pinus inops, P. pungens, P. mitis, P. rigida, and some oaks. In these cases the first wave was the most vigorous, the last the weakest, but the female flowers are not on the apex of the shoot, but on the apex of the most rigorous wave. The Cyperaceæ afforded similar illustrations. Vigor is only one form of high vitality. Power of endurance is another. The Norway spruces, and those species generally which were the hardiest individually, or in comparison with other species, had greater powers to produce female flowers. Not so easily seen, but yet evident was the law in hermaphrodites as in monæcious plants. In many hermaphrodites there was known a tendency to become unisexual, sometimes in the male, sometimes in the female direction. A general debility follows the male in such cases, and increased vitality the female. Viola, Fragaria, and other instances were given in favor of the latter point, and double flowers, variegated plants, etc., as instances of degeneracy to male weakness. The conclusion drawn from the facts given was, not to establish the theory, but to excite investigation whether it was not the highest types of vitality only which take on the female form? He concluded with the bare suggestion that the same laws might prevail in the animal world.
He also read a paper “On the Nature of the Leaf-glands in Cassia and Acacia." Dr. Asa Gray says in the fifth edition of the “Manual” that the glands on Cassia Marilandica are near the base of the petiole. This is true only of the upper leaves. In the lower the position varies from near the base up to the first pair of leaflets. This shows it is not a part of the leaf system as it then would have its regular position. It must be an accident. In a neighboring genus (Gleditschia) we find two buds are formed above each leaf; the one axillary, the other just above, and usually forming a stunted branch or spine. The lower bud produces the growing shoot. In another allied genus, Gymnocladus, two or three buds are formed one above another, very few of which ever push at all, but when this does take place, it is only the upper bud which forms a shoot. The lower bud is generally about the centre of the dilated base of the petiole. Thus we have a class of allied plants, with two or three buds one above another, in some cases two inclined to push freely, although one as a spine (as in Gleditschia), the lower as the shoot; in another, as in Gymnocladus, scarcely pushing at all, and rather absorbed by the stem; but when pushing at all, the upper one, and on the other side of Gleditschia, Cassia, Acacia, etc., with the lower bud absorbed by the petiole, and thus forming the gland.
W. H. Dall read a paper “On the distribution of the native tribes of Alaska, and the adjacent territory.” After reviewing the works of Baer, Wrangell and Holmberg, Mr. Dall proposed a new classification, the revision being based on new information obtained during personal exploration by himself and his companions.
The North American natives are divided into two great groups, Indians, and, another for which there being no general term, he proposed