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Two editions of Jefferson's Writings have been utilized in the preparation of this volume. One of them is THE WRITINGS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, edited by H. A. Washington and printed by the United States Congress in 1853–54. The other edition is THE WRITINGS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON, collected and edited by Paul Leicester Ford, and published by G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1892–99. The Ford EDITION contains a large number of valuable letters and papers which are not printed in the WASHINGTON Edition, while the latter gives many letters that are not included by Mr. Ford in his volumes.

The quotations in The JEFFERSONIAN Cyclopedia are credited to both works if they contain them. Quotations with a single credit are printed only in the edition indicated. There are,

in addition, some quotations from the DOMESTIC LIFE OF JEFThese are marked D. L. J. The name of the person written to is given after the extract as, under Abuse, “To Edward RUTLEDGE,” then the volume and edition where found are given, as “iv, 151," refers to the WASHINGTON Edition, while “ FORD ED., viii, 93,” is self-explanatory; next the place and date are given, as (M., Dec. 1796) = Monticello, Dec. 1796.

The names of places from which Jefferson wrote are abbreviated as follows:


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In the quotations the mark * *

indicates an omission in the text. Words not in the text, but supplied by the Editor are, in all cases, enclosed within brackets.


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1. ABILITIES, Appreciate. I cannot if the two continents of Asia and America be help hoping that every friend of genius, when separated at all, it is only by a narrow strait. the other qualities of the competitor are

So that from this side also, inhabitants may equal, will give a preference to superior abili- | have passed into America ; and the resemblance

between the Indians of America and the eastern ties.-To WILLIAM PRESTON. FORD ED., i, inhabitants of Asia, would induce us to conjec368. (1768.)

ture, that the former are the descendants of the 2. ABILITIES, Attract.-Render the

latter, or the latter of the former; excepting (State) executive a more desirable post to

indeed the Esquimaux, who, from the same cir

cumstance of resemblance, and from identity of men of abilities by making it more independ- language, must be derived from the Greenlandent of the legislature.—To ARCHIBALD STUART. ers, and these probably from some of the northiii, 315. FORD ED., V, 410. (Pa., 1791.)

ern parts of the old continent.-Notes ON VIR

viii, 344. FORD ED., iii, 205. (1782.) 3. ABILITIES, Education and. It is often said there have been shining examples

6. ABORIGINES OF AMERICA, Lanof men of great abilities, in all businesses of guages.-A knowledge of their several lanlife, without any other science than what they guages would be the most certain evidence of had gathered from conversation and inter-fact, it is the best proof of the affinity of nations

their derivation which could be produced. In course with the world. But, who can say

which ever can be referred to. How many ages what these men would not have been, had have elapsed since the English, the Dutch, the they started in the science on the shoulders of Germans, the Swiss, the Norwegians, Danes and a Demosthenes or Cicero, of a Locke, or Swedes have separated from their common Bacon, or a Newton?-TO JOHN BRAZIER. stock? Yet how many more must elapse before vii, 133. (1819.)

the proofs of their common origin, which exist

in their several languages will disappear? It is 4. ABILITIES, Few Men of.-Men of to be lamented, then, very much to be lamented, high learning and abilities are few in every that we have suffered so many of the Indian country; and by taking in [the judiciaryl tribes already to extinguish without our having those who are not so, the able part of the body of literature, the general rudiments at most of

previously collected and deposited in the records have their hands tied by the_unable. --To the languages they spoke. Were vocabularies ARCHIBALD STUART. iii, 315. FORD ED., V, formed of all the languages spoken in North 410. (Pa., 1791.) See ARISTOCRACY, Talents. and South America, preserving their appellaABLATIVE CASE IN GREEK.- those which must be present to every nation

tions of the most common objects in nature, of See LANGUAGES.

barbarous or civilized, with the inflections of ABOLITION

their nouns and verbs, their principles of regiOF SLAVERY.-See

men and concord, and these deposited in all the SLAVERY,

public libraries, it would furnish opportunities 5. ABORIGINES OF AMERICA, Deri

to those skilled in the languages of the old

world to compare them with those, now, or at vation.—Whence came those aboriginals of any future time, and hence to construct the best America ? Discoveries, long ago made, were evidence of the derivation of their part of the sufficient to show that the passage from Europe | human race.--NOTES ON VIRGINIA, viii, 344. to America was always practicable, even to the FORD ED., iii, 206. (1782.) imperfect navigation of ancient times. In go

7. ing from Norway to Iceland, from Iceland to

The question whether the Greenland, from Greenland to Labrador, the Indians of America have emigrated from anfirst traject is the widest; and this having been other continent is still undecided. Their vague practised from the earliest times of which we and imperfect traditions can satisfy no mind on have any account of that part of the earth, it is that subject. I have long considered their lannot difficult to suppose that the subsequent tra- guages as the only remaining monument of jects may have been sometimes passed. Again, connection with other nations, or the want of it, the late discoveries of Captain Cook, coasting to which we can now have access. They will likefrom Kamchatka to California, have proved that wise show their connection with one another.


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Very early in life, therefore, I formed a vocabu- 12. ABUSES, Arraignment of.—The arlary of such objects as, being present every- raignment of all abuses at the bar of public where, would probably have a name in every language; and my course of life having given

reason, I deem (one of the) essential princime opportunities of obtaining vocabularies of ples of our government and consequently, many Indian tribes, I have done so on my

(one) which ought to shape its administraoriginal plan, which, though far from being tion. FIRST INAUGURAL ADDRESS. viii, 4. perfect, has the valuable advantage of identity, FORD ED., viii, 5. (1801.) of thus bringing the languages to the same points of comparison.

The Indians

13. ABUSES, Barriers against.-We are west of the Mississippi and south of the Ar- to guard against ourselves; not against ourkansas, present a much longer list of tribes than selves as we are, but as we may be; for who I had expected; and the relations in which you can now imagine what we may become under stand with them

induce me to hope circumstances not now imaginable?- TO JEDEyou will avail us of your means of collecting their languages for this purpose.—To DR. SIB

DIAH MORSE. vii, 236. FORD ED., x, 205. LEY. iv, 580. (W., 1805.)

(M., 1822.) 8.

I suppose the settlement of 14. ABUSES, Tho Constitution and.our continent is of the most remote antiquity. In questions of power

let no more The similitude between its inhabitants and be heard of confidence in man, but bind him those of castern parts of Asia renders it proh- down from mischief by the chains of the able that ours are descended from them, or Constitution.-KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS. ix, from ours.

my on this single fact : Among the red inhabitants 471. FORD ED., vii, 305. (1798.) See Con: of Asia, there are but a few languages radically different, but among our Indians, the number of 15.

Aware of the tendency of languages is infinite, and they are so radically power to degenerate into abuse, the worthies different as to exhibit at present no appearance of our own country have secured its inof their having been derived from a common

The time necessary for the generation dependence by the establishment of a Constiof so many languages must be immense.—To tution and form of government for our naEzra Stiles. FORD ED., iv, 298. (P., 1786.) tion, calculated to prevent as well as to corSee INDIANS.


Society. viii, 156. (1809.) See VACATION.

16. ABUSES, Correction of.—My confiABSTINENCE.-See INTEMPERANCE.

dence is that there will for a long time be

virtue and good sense enough in our country9. ABUSE, Newspaper. It is hardly

men to correct abuses.-To E. RUTLEDGE. ii, necessary to caution you to let nothing of

435. FORD ED., V, 42. (P., 1788.) mine get before the public: a single sentence got hold of by the “ Porcupines," * will suffice

17. ABUSES, Economy and.—The new to abuse and persecute me in their papers government has now, for some time, been for months.- TO JOHN TAYLOR, iv, 248. under way. Abuses under the old forms have FORD ED., vii, 266. (Pa., 1798.) See LIBELS, led us to lay the basis of the new in a rigorMINISTERS, NewSPAPERS and SLANDER. ous economy of the public contributions.

To M. DE PINTO. iii, 174. (N. Y., 1790.) 10. ABUSE, Personal.—You have seen my name lately tacked to much of 18. ABUSES, Education and.-Educaeulogy and of abuse that I dare say you hardly tion is the true corrective of abuses of constithought that it meant your old acquaintance tutional power.—To William C. JARVIS. vii, of '76. In truth, I did not know myself under 179. FORD ED., X, 161. (M., 1820.) the pens either of my friends or foes. It is

19. ABUSES, Elections and.-A jealous unfortunate for our peace that unmerited

care of the right of election by the people, abuse wounds, while unmerited praise has

a mild and safe corrective of abuses which are not the power to heal. These are hard wages lopped by the sword of revolution where for the services of all the active and healthy peaceable remedies are unprovided, I deem years of one's life.-To EDWARD RUTLEDGE.

one of the) essential principles of our goyiv, 151. FORD ED., vii, 93. (M., Dec. 1796.)

ernment and, consequently, (one] which See Calum NY, LIBELS, Ministers, News- ought to shape its administration.— FIRST INPAPERS and SLANDER.

AUGURAL ADDRESS. viii, 4. FORD ED., viii, 4. 11.

If you had lent to your (1801.) country the excellent talents you possess, on

20. ABUSES, Liability to.-What instiyou would have fallen those torrents of abuse

tution is insusceptible of abuse in wicked which have lately been poured forth on

liands ?-To L. H. GIRARDIN. vi, 440. FORD me. So far I praise the wisdom which has descried and steered clear of a waterspout

ED., ii, 151. (M., 1815.) ahead.---To EDWARD RUTLEDGE.

iv, 152.

21. ABUSES, Monarchical.-Nor should FORD ED., vii, 94. (M., 1796.)

we wonder at the pressure (for a fixed Con

stitution in France in 1788-9], when we conABUSE OF POWER.-See POWER.

sider the monstrous abuses of power under ABUSE OF THE PRESS.-See Cal- which this people were ground to powder, UMNY, LIBELS, NEWSPAPERS, and SLANDER. when we pass in review the weight of their " Peter Porcupine" was the pen-name of William

taxes, and inequality of their distribution: Cobbett.-EDITOR.

the oppressions of the tithes, of the tailles,


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