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now supreme head on earth of the Church of England, but that the Bishop of Rome was and is supreme head on earth of the same." So they were accused of being Roman Catholics; and for that they were condemned to die.

On the 11th of May, 1537, just two years and one week after the martyrdom of their Prior, Blessed John Houghton, the two martyrs of York were led to execution. Mercy was shown towards them, for instead of being butchered according to the letter of the sentence, they remained hanging until they were dead, and, indeed, for a long time after they were dead; for they were hanged in chains like pirates or highwaymen, as a warning to others. The bodies dangled from the gibbets of York until, the flesh being consumed, the bones fell to the ground.




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THE royal Commissioners soon discovered that the removal of the four monks who seemed to be the leaders of the opposition had not brought the remainder of the community to acknowledge the king's title. It was still unsafe to propose a general submission, lest well-nigh all might be found ready to lay down their lives for their religion. It was thought that a few days' conversation with ecclesiastics who had already yielded might work a change in some of the Carthusians. Accordingly eight Fathers were sent to Sion House, where most, if not all, of the religious had by this time subscribed to the heretical oath of royal supremacy.

Father John Fewterer, the aged "Confessor General," was on his death-bed when, sending for the eight guests from the Charterhouse, he addressed them thus: "Good Fathers," he said, "I implore



your forgiveness, for I am guilty of the blood of your reverend Father Prior. I encouraged him in his resolution to die in the cause for which he suffered, and to which you still adhere. But soon after I changed my mind, and now I do not consider the question one for which we are bound to suffer death."

These words of the dying priest, or rather---as Chauncy observes of the devil speaking by his mouth, deceived the Carthusians, and several of them were persuaded by him. But on their return to the Charterhouse, where they found their brethren still firm, they saw they had been imposed upon, and, acknowledging their fault, they continued to refuse the oath. It is to be feared, however, that their courage had been permanently weakened or their faith shaken, for, shortly after, the community began to be divided. Then, alas! their strength was gone, and the triumph of their enemies was near at hand. Trafford, the false Prior, was doubtless more instrumental in bringing about this division than the dying Confessor General of Sion. Weariness resulting from the protracted persecution must also have had something to do with it. But whatever the causes may have been, a large number of the community were at last found willing to swear to the royal supremacy. The form of oath, with the signatures of the religious, may be seen in the Public Record Office. It is as follows:

'We, the Prior and convent of the House of the Salutation of Our Lady of the Order of Carthusians near London, and the convent of the same, swear that from henceforth we shall utterly renounce, refuse, relinquish, and forsake the Bishop of Rome, and his authority, power, and jurisdiction.

"And that we will never consent nor agree that the Bishop of Rome shall exercise or have any manner of authority, jurisdiction, or power within this realm, or any other of the king's dominions, but that we shall resent the same at all times to the uttermost of our power. And that from henceforth we shall accept, repute, and take the king's majesty to be the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England.

"And that to our cunning, wit, and uttermost of our power, without guile, fraud, or other undue means, we shall observe, keep, maintain, and defend the whole effects and contents of all and singular Acts and statutes made and to be made within this realm, in derogation, extirpation, and extinguishment of the Bishop of Rome and his authority, and all other Acts and statutes made and to be made in reformation and corroboration of the king's power of supreme head in earth of the Church of England; and this we shall do against all manner of persons, of what estate, dignity, degree, or condition soever they be, and in nowise do or attempt, nor to our power suffer to be done or attempted, directly

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