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than that of the noble metal. While meditating on the subject Archimedes went one day to bathe, and the bath happening to be quite full, he saw that a quantity of water overflowed precisely equal to his own immersed bulk. The idea flashed upon him that the crown lowered into a vessel quite full of water would, if of pure gold, displace and cause to overflow a quantity of water equal to that which would be displaced by a mass of gold of any shape, but of the same weight as the crown. If, however, the crown were an alloy, it would displace a larger volume of water than would be displaced by a crown of gold. In fact, it appeared that Hieron's crown was an alloy of gold and silver, let us suppose in the proportion of 20 to 7 by weight.

Now suppose, for the sake of avoiding decimals, we take water, the standard of comparison, to be 100. Then,

The weight of a cubic inch of water equals
The weight of a cubic inch of gold
The weight of a cubic inch of silver

The weight of 20 cubic inches of gold
The weight of 7 cubic inches of silver


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I last night lay all alone

On the ground to hear the mandrake groan. Ben Jonson, Masque of Queens.' Sown next the vines, the mandrake might give What warning of the presence of depredators. F. ADAMS. says the context?

INSCRIPTION ON BRASS, OXTED CHURCH, SURREY (8th S. iii. 387).-The following inscription upon a slab-now placed vertically-in the 100 north aisle of the church of Lanivet, near Bodmin, 1,925 is interesting, as not only recording the "last 1,053 words" but also the 'Cause of Death' (8th S. ii. 428, 533; iii. 76, 154, 275, 355):—





The weight of 27 cubic inches of the alloy The weight of a cubic inch of the alloy Hence the specific gravity of the alloy is 1,698, that of water being 100; but if the crown had been of pure gold its specific gravity would have been 1,925.

The overflow method devised by Archimedes has long been superseded by the hydrostatic balance (which gives far more accurate results) and various forms of hydrometer, an instrument said to have been invented by Hypatia, a learned Greek lady of Constantinople. C. TOMLINSON, F.R.S. Highgate, N.

HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY REGIMENT (8th S. iii. 367).—This regiment has on its colours twentyeight battles. The 60th Royal Rifle Corps has a record of thirty battles, but cannot show them on its colours, as rifle regiments do not carry colours. F. C. K.

MANDRAGORA (8th S. iii. 429).—The various speculations respecting the mandrage, its properties, strange fables, legendary lore, is an endless subject. If J. E. S. wishes to go deeply into the ridiculous tales told of this plant he should refer to Gerarde's 'Herbal' (1597); Rev. A. Dyce's 'Glossary to Shakespeare's Works'; 'Folk-lore of Plants,' by Rev. T. F. Thiselton-Dyer; 'Folk Etymology,' by Rev. A. S. Palmer; 'Mystic Trees and Flowers,' by Moncure D. Conway; Fraser's Magazine, 1870, ii. 705; Timbs's Things not Generally Known,' p. 103; All the Year Round, second series, x. 520, xxxvi. 371, 413; 'Dictionary of the Natural History of the Bible,' by Dr. Harris; Nares's 'Glossary'; and Josephus's

"In memory of Ann the only child of John Pasco and Dorothy his wife of this P, who was buried the 27th day of April, 1724, in the 14th year of her age.

"She was very Religious from her Infancy And much given to Prayer and Especially in her Death bed, where she sung y 84th Psalm and said ye following verse.

Farewell Parents dear, Father and Mother.
You'll lose youre Daughter dear, tho' you 've no other.
Pray do not grieve for me, for I am going.
Where there are joys for e'er, like fountains flowing.
Reader who e'er thou art, that view these lines.
Our mourning is for one, cut off betimes.
She was the hopes of Father, and of Mother.
Their only Child, they never had another.
Her Piety, and virtue so Divine

Few of her years so vertuously inclin'd.
She Pray'd and Praised, ye Lord while she had Breath.
Till by a raging fever, brought to Death.
She cry'd I go to Christ, friends do not mourn,
You'll come to me, but I shall ne'er return.
Almighty God, He knows what's for her best,
We hope her soul, with her Redeemer rests."

The thought of "fountains flowing" was no doubt "heavenly" to this girl upon her bed of fever. Č. E. GILDERSOME-DICKINSON. Eden Bridge.

In Tomson's version of the New Testament

(Genevan Bible) there is a marginal note to "from euill" (Matt. vi. 13), which runs "From the deuil, or from all aduersitie."



"SALLER MONY " (8th S. iii. 408). This was a toll, or custom, paid for salt, especially so used in Cheshire. The sallery, or fee for collecting it, was called "salarium" as early as Edward III.'s reign. Probably it may occur in the church accounts mentioned, in connexion with some revenues in that parish from pits or customs. Also "Sallicher"

was a service of carrying salt by tenants for their lords. C. GOLDING.


of Rome a copy of King Henry's book against Luther, which led to that sovereign receiving the title of 'Defender of the Faith,' still used, though with a very different meaning. The church was not pulled down on the dissolution of the abbey, but remained until 1706, when, being in a very dilapidated and dangerous state, it was taken down and rebuilt from the ground, with the exception of the north wall, upon which the chief monuforty-ments are placed. Then the writer says that the parishioners of St. Catherine Cree, in 1622, obtained leave of Charles I. to rebuild the priory church with the assistance of Lord Mayor Barkham. From this it is quite evident that the writer of the article has mixed up our church and the abbey with another church and some priory. What in the world could the parishioners of St. Catherine Cree have to do with Holy Trinity, Minories? Also, as the church was not rebuilt until 1706, it in 1622; but Sir William Pritchard, who was Lord Lord Mayor Barkham certainly did not assist to rebuild Mayor in 1683, purchased the abbey, and resided in it during his mayoralty, calling it, I believe, the Mansion House. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN.

REV. HENRY ADAMS (8th S. iii. 387, 417, 478.)—The statement quoted from the Gent. Mag. of July, 1839, to the effect that Mr. Adams had been at the time of his death, in 1839, for nine years chaplain to Lord Montagu, must be qualified by the fact that the eighth and last Viscount of Cowdray, was, as every one knows, drowned at the Falls of Laufenburg or Schaffhausen in 1793. It is true that Mark Antony Browne assumed the title, but as he had previously been a friar of the Roman Church, in which communion he died in 1797, it is unlikely that he required the services of the chaplain of Beaulieu. PERCEVAL LANDON.

ROBERT MONTGOMERY MARTIN (8th S. iii. 408, 477). A memoir of this writer is prepared, and will appear in due course in the 'Dictionary of National Biography.' SIDNEY LEE.

RELICS IN A LONDON CHURCH (8th S. iii. 466). -The correctness of the statements contained in the paragraph which appeared in the City Press has been challenged by no less an authority than the learned vicar of Holy Trinity, Minories, who, in the following extract from a letter addressed to the editor of the Standard, says :

"An article has gone the round of the papers purporting to give particulars of my church and its past history, some extracts of which appeared in your morning and evening editions of the 25th instant. Will you permit me, then, to say that none of the statements in that article are correct? In the first place, the name of my church is not 'St. Mary in the Minories,' but Holy Trinity, Minories'; secondly, the mummified head which we have could not be that of the Duke of Norfolk, as the writer states, for that nobleman never had anything to do with the abbey or the church that I am aware of; but it may be the head of the Duke of Suffolk, to whom the abbey was given for a residence, by royal letters patent, in the reign of Edward VI., and who, whilst resident there, was beheaded for attempting to place his daughter, Lady Jane Grey, upon the throne. The head was found in 1853 in one of the vaults, in a box of oaken sawdust, which, acting as an antiseptic, has marvellously preserved the skin of the face. Thirdly, the writer says that the ancient Priory of Holy Trinity was founded by Matilda, Queen of Henry I., in 1108,' whereas we know that the abbey (not priory) and its church were built in 1293 by Queen Blanche, widow of Henry Le Gros, King of Navarre, who afterwards married Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. The arms of the Queen, with those of the Earl of Lancaster, are now in our vestry. Fourthly, the writer states that on the dissolution of monasteries by Henry VIII., the priory and its precincts were given to Thomas Audley, Lord Chancellor of England, who, after pulling down the church, made the place his residence until his death in the year 1554.' These mistakes are even worse than the former ones, for Henry VIII. gave the abbey to the Bishop of Bath and Wells (Dr. John Clerk) for a place of residence, where he died, and was buried in the vaults of our church, though afterwards his body was, for some cause, removed to Aldgate Church. This was the man who took to the Pope

71, Brecknock Road. [Many replies to the same effect are acknowledged.]



History of St. Edmund's College Old Hall. By the Very Rev. Bernard Ward, the President. (Kegan Paul & Co.)

THE Catholic College of Old Hall is the only existing educational institution which can trace its history back to the times of the penal laws, when it was contrary to statute for the Roman Catholic body to have schools of their own where their faith was taught. Twyford School was established in the reign of James II., when for a short time the penal statutes were suspended. The Revolution does not seem to have materially affected Twyford, for Mr. Ward tells us that it continued to exist for more than fifty years. It was suspended during the Rebellion of 1745, but was revived at Standon eight years after, from which place it was removed to Old Hall, where it yet remains, in 1769. In its earlier days it was a mere lay school; but when the French Revolution swept away the English colleges on the Continent, Old Hall received a large influx from Douay, so that the present college of Old Hall may be said to have a double parentage, the one lay and the other ecclesiastical. Douay was founded in the reign of Elizabeth as a place of education for Catholic exiles by Cardinal William Allen, a Lancashire man, who had been educated at Oriel College, Oxford. He graduated in arts in 1554, and shortly after became head of St. Mary's Hall and a canon of York. When Protestantism was established by Queen Elizabeth he threw up his preferments and went over sea, where at length he founded Douay, which was an important educational centre until 1793. In a certain shadowy way Douay may be said to have represented the old traditions of Oxford, and to have handed them on to its daughter Old Hall.

We have seldom met with a fuller or more accurate history of an educational establishment. From the first page to the last Mr. Ward's book overflows with facts, many of which will prove of interest to all personswhatever their form of religious belief-who care for the educational progress which has been so marked a characteristic of the century now closing. The fifth chapter, which gives an account of the sufferings

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Two Centuries of Stepney_History, 1480-1680. Three
Lectures. By Walter Howard Frere. (Thomas &
MR. FRERE is one of the curates of Stepney parish
church. He has occupied his leisure in compiling these
lectures, which were, we gather, delivered to his people.
Their character and tone are excellent, and the breadth
of view all that could be wished. In popular lectures of
this kind we do not expect to find original discoveries.
Probably there are no facts in Mr. Frere's pages
which have not before found their way into printed
books; but he has been a diligent student not only of the
local annals of his parish, but also of general history so
far as it has affected Stepney. Dean Colet, Bishop Fox,
the Charterhouse monks, Thomas Cromwell (Henry
VIII.'s Vicar General), and many other notable men of
the Reformation period flit before us. Their respective
characters are sketched in a few words, and this is done
without prejudice or partisan bitterness. When we
arrive at the period of the great Puritan revolt, in the
following century, Mr. Frere becomes more sketchy;
but he chronicles several matters of importance. The
account of the local dissenting congregations in the
reign of Charles II. is very good.

Marriages, Regular and Irregular, with Leading Cases.
By an Advocate. (Glasgow, William Hodge & Co.)
THIS book is intended for those persons about to marry,
and others of the general public who are interested in
the subject. It has not been written for the legal
practitioner, but for the ignorant layman, whose loose
and hazy conceptions of marriage quite astonish the
learned advocate. Free use has been made of the law
reports, and many of the cases which have aroused great
popular interest are referred to. Much curious and
interesting matter will be found in the pages of this
little book.

A Fragment of the Apocryphal Gospel of St. Peter
found at Akhmim in Egypt. Translated from the
Greek. (Norgate.)
THE apocryphal gospel attributed to St. Peter has
been discussed so fully in magazines and newspapers that
we shall discharge our duty by acknowledging this
translation and saying that the rendering is correct and
scholarlike. Where difficulties occur-and there are
several the anonymous author of this version has given
the alternative renderings of other scholars.

WE have received the fifth volume of the Acts of the Privy Council of England, edited for the Master of the Rolls by John Roche Dasent (Her Majesty's Stationery Office). It includes the years 1554-1556. In the sixteenth century the Privy Council was in many respects a far different body from what it is now. The servile parliaments of the Tudors dared not resist the royal will, whether it was on the side of the old religion or the new. The Privy Council was a committee nominated by the sovereign, and we have no reason to suppose that either the Peers or the Commons had any influence, however indirect, in the appointment of its members. The years included in this volume were the times of great Papal reaction. Almost every page bears witness of this, and for the purposes of the local his

torian the facts it contains are invaluable; we do not think, however, that it adds so much to our stock of knowledge as to general history as some of the previous volumes have done. We need hardly say that the editorial work is excellent.

A NEW LITERARY SOCIETY.-The birth of a new literary society, which we hope to make one of the first rank, is an event worthy of being chronicled in 'N. & Q.' The happy event took place at the Royal United Service Institution on the afternoon of Tuesday, the 13th inst., when, by a meeting called together to consider the question, it was formally resolved "That a society be, and is hereby, formed for the publication of rare or unedited works relating to the Navy." Lord Spencer has accepted the office of president, and a provisional committee was appointed to consider the name of the society, to draft laws, &c., and prepare a list of council and officers, all which are to be reported to a general meeting of the society, at the United Service Institution, on Tuesday, July 4, at 5 P.M. Though nominally a meeting of the society, we shall be glad to welcome any one who is interested in the subject of naval literature. The society contemplates working on similar lines to those of the Camden and Hakluyt Societies, and printing for its members some of the interesting and important MSS. in the Record Office, the British Museum, or in private collections, as well as some of the rare works of which only one or two copies now exist, and some also of those not perhaps so rare, but practically inaccessible from the form in which they have been published. Monson's 'Tracts' is one such work; and as the only version of it, in Churchill's collection of voyages, is avowedly

edited," it is not improbable that when we come to compare it with the original MS. we may find the printed copy as much Churchill's hack as Monson. Many others might be named; but I will not trespass further on your space, except to say that if any one wishes to become a member of the society, or wants to know more about it, let him ask, not a policeman, but the provisional secretary, J. K. LAUGHTON.

Catesby House, Manor Road, Barnet.

Notices to Correspondents.

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but as a guarantee of good faith.

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately.

To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."

PENTELOW (8th S. iii. 109).-Will E. be good enough to communicate with A. B; Pentelow, 6, Claremont Villas, Sydenham, S.E.

CORRIGENDUM.-P. 468, col. 1, 1. 18 from bottom, for "Wilson" read Winslow.


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ""-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher"-at the Office Bream's Buildings, Chancery Lane, E.C.

We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no exception.



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SCIENCE-The Royal Observatory, Greenwich; Prof. Karl Semper;
Societies; Meetings; Gossip.

FINE ARTS-The Royal Academy; Sale; Gossip.

The ATHENÆUM for June 3 contains Articles on






NEW NOVELS-The Forbidden Sacrifice; A Woman's Crusade; The
Great Peril; The Voice of a Flower; A Deformed Idol; Elton
Hazlewood; Pas Jalouse!







SCIENCE-William Kitchen Parker; Prof. Pritchard; Societies; Meetings; Gossip.

FINE ARTS-The Royal Academy; The Salon of the Champ de Mars; The Constables at Burlington House; A Greek Motto inisread at the National Gallery; Sales; Gossip.

MUSIC-The Week; Concerts and Recitals; Music in Munich; Per- MUSIC-The Week; Concerts and Recitals; Gossip; Performances formances Next Week.

DRAMA-The Week; Gossip.

Next Week.
DRAMA-The Week; Gossip.

JOHN C. FRANCIS, Athenæum Office, Bream's-buildings, Chancery-lane, E.C.

Or of all Newsagents.

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L'INTERMEDIAIRE is published on the 10th, 20th, and 30th of the month, and each number, price 1 franc, contains 48 columns, beautifully printed, and the paper forms at the end of every six months an elegant volume of not less than 1,000 columns, with indexes.

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JOHN C. FRANCIS, at Bream's-buildings, Chancery-lane, E.C.-Saturday, June 24, 1893.

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