## Computer Games IILong before the advent of the electronic computer, man was fascinated by the idea of automating the thought processes employed in playing games of skill. The very first chess "Automaton" captured the imagination oflate eighteenth century Vienna, and by the early 1900s there was a genuine machine that could play the chess endgame of king and rook against a lone king. Soon after the invention of the computer, scientists began to make a serious study of the problems involved in programming a machine to play chess. Within a decade this interest started to spread, first to draughts (checkers) and later to many other strategy games. By the time the home computer was born, there had already been three decades of research into computer games. Many of the results of this research were published, though usually in publications that are extremely difficult (or even impossible for most people) to find. Hence the present volumes. Interest in computers and programming has now reached into almost every home in the civilized world. Millions of people have regular access to computers, and most of them enjoy playing games. In fact, approximately 80 percent of all software sold for use on personal computers is games software. |

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Página 148

To assign values to

minimize values of White turns . We compute upwards from the bottom of the tree

. This is possible since the game tree is finite . By a “ Black

To assign values to

**branches**of the tree , we maximize values of Black turns andminimize values of White turns . We compute upwards from the bottom of the tree

. This is possible since the game tree is finite . By a “ Black

**Branch**” we mean ...Página 168

MOVE NUMBER 1 2 3 - - P P - 4 5 I ol

܀ ܐ . ... In

spatial symmetry , so we may omit the

...

MOVE NUMBER 1 2 3 - - P P - 4 5 I ol

**BRANCH**NUMBER 2 o - 2 ja : T12F Q ܡ܀ ܐ . ... In

**branch**2 , a White move 2 to the other vertex is game - equivalent , byspatial symmetry , so we may omit the

**branches**corresponding to 2 and 3 which...

Página 171

Since the value of each

bounded by MN , V ( M , N ) SMN . Note that the bound MN is best possible and is

attained by any legal final position in which np > 0 and ns = 0 . Corollary 3 (

Chinese ...

Since the value of each

**branch**of the game tree ( outcome of the game ) isbounded by MN , V ( M , N ) SMN . Note that the bound MN is best possible and is

attained by any legal final position in which np > 0 and ns = 0 . Corollary 3 (

Chinese ...

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