## Computer Games IILong before the advent of the electronic computer, man was fascinated by the idea of automating the thought processes employed in playing games of skill. The very first chess "Automaton" captured the imagination oflate eighteenth century Vienna, and by the early 1900s there was a genuine machine that could play the chess endgame of king and rook against a lone king. Soon after the invention of the computer, scientists began to make a serious study of the problems involved in programming a machine to play chess. Within a decade this interest started to spread, first to draughts (checkers) and later to many other strategy games. By the time the home computer was born, there had already been three decades of research into computer games. Many of the results of this research were published, though usually in publications that are extremely difficult (or even impossible for most people) to find. Hence the present volumes. Interest in computers and programming has now reached into almost every home in the civilized world. Millions of people have regular access to computers, and most of them enjoy playing games. In fact, approximately 80 percent of all software sold for use on personal computers is games software. |

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Página 71

What the program learns , from playing hundreds of games against itself , is not

the specific moves and specific errors , but the strategy to use in any situation as

dictated by the values of seven classifying

...

What the program learns , from playing hundreds of games against itself , is not

the specific moves and specific errors , but the strategy to use in any situation as

dictated by the values of seven classifying

**parameters**, as follows : Pl is index of...

Página 72

the values of certain predetermined functions of the classifying

these are then combined according to a linear polynomial , whose coefficients

are modified adaptively by the program ' s learning routines . Such linear

polynomial ...

the values of certain predetermined functions of the classifying

**parameters**;these are then combined according to a linear polynomial , whose coefficients

are modified adaptively by the program ' s learning routines . Such linear

polynomial ...

Página 73

ticular combinations of the

( table lookup ] for entering signature tables where the tabulated values are

meant to reflect the relative worth to the computer ' s side of these particular ...

ticular combinations of the

**parameters**within the subset and serve as addresses( table lookup ] for entering signature tables where the tabulated values are

meant to reflect the relative worth to the computer ' s side of these particular ...

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added analysis arrangement attack basic Black block branch called chess complete components configuration connected considered created data structure decision defined described determined developed discs discussed draw edge effect element evaluation example expert fact factors Figure final forcing four function further given gives goal Hand heuristic holds human important initial interesting knowledge lead learning linkage look look-ahead machine means method move node Note object opening opponent particular pass pattern pieces planning play player points position possible present probability problem reasonable recognize represent routine rules score selection sequence shows side simple situation specific square stones strategy string structure subgoals success suit tactical territory tree Trick turn weighting White winning