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that a change has come over the people; and that a foreign lady of tact, of polite manners, and with ability to conduct a conversation fluently in the Chinese language, would find access to almost any family, especially in North China. But how few such there are ! Exclusive of the wives of missionaries occupied with domestic duties are there fifty? And what are these for China ? Who then is the exaggerator? You or I?

It has been the fashion during the few months past for you and others to talk about my dealing in exaggerations. Is this one of them? I hope I have a due sense of the responsibility of speech ; and I never write a sentence without careful consideration. I know what I say and I look upon exaggeration as lying. Chefoo, 13th July, 1886.

A. WILLIAMSON.

[Had the above communications come from almost any one but Dr. Williamson, we

would have declined to print them without modifications. Missionaries may differ widely, while still recognizing the purity of others' motives, and rejoicing in others' successes; and much good may result from discussious thus conducted. EDITOR.]

SANITARY SALVATION.

MR. EDITOR :

“That they may have life, and may have it that they more abundantly,” Christ is now made known to the Chinese people. The word life has a wondrous breadth and depth of meaning. It involves ultimately the health, the salvation, the well-being of the whole man, body, soul and spirit. It implies neatness, order, cleanliness, physical comfort. Spiritual salvation is of course the germ out of which all physical and social well-being sooner or later develops. But the process may be hastened by judicious and frequent instruction. It is to be feared that very few of the Chinese Christians understand the precept: “Glorify God therefore in your body.” The teaching of this and similar commands we may not relegate to the busy medical missionary, as being more in his line. We also should hammer away at the native helpers till they learn the rudiments of sanitary salvation, and through them the rank and file of the members may be taught. This aspect of Christianity, though of subordinate importance, ought at times to be the subject in the sermon or in the Sunday school.

It is admitted that the native Christians, as a rule, have better health than their non-Christian neighbors under similar conditions. This is owing probably to temperance, Sunday rest from toil, and the influence of faith and hope. But the difference would be more marked, if we took more pains to teach the Christians sanitary laws

and penalties. Cleanliness of the house and person ought to be the sign of spiritual purity and order. Too often this outward and visible sign is wanting. Ague and typhoid fevers are in the puddle at the door, where from sheer laziness all slops are poured. Death lurks in the dish-rag. When itinerating, and prompted by kind feeling as well as hunger, you have accepted the hospitality of a native Christian, have you never eaten a bowl of steaming rice perceptibly flavored with the odor of the ancient rag with which the bowl had just been wiped ? Oh the nastiness implied by the character ! In our region it is “k'a” in colloquial, a potent word of manifold use. It atones for all non-use of soap, water, and muscle in cleansing. It suggests a dingy rag which may be used to swab off the greasy table, to mop Ah-sin's reeking brow, and then to polish the rice bowls. Think too of the horrors of the narrow, overcrowded sleeping-rooms, dark, damp and filthy, the bedding very rarely washed or even aired, and standing as near the bed as possible the pestilential wooden, te tij, removed perhaps once a week and brought immediately back having had no contact with sunlight or hot water. Let us not be too squeamish to speak of these things. They will not regulate themselves. As to the mass of the people we can effect little. He that is filthy let him be filthy still. But surely the Christians can be taught to cleanse themselves “from all defilement of flesh and spirit.” Medical missionaries might do good service by preparing concise and pointed tracts containing sanitary advice. The tracts would better be in sheet form for free, though not indiscriminate, distribution. We often waste breath in trying to prove the claims of Christianity. But whatever helps to make a Christian Chinaman a cleaner, decenter, healthier, more comfortable man, is a valuable help. Brethren, let us, in a spirit of love, voice our ceaseless protest against all that mars the health of our people, against footbinding, against the gulping of food unchewed, against (literal) hydrophobia, and against all nastiness abstract or concrete, teaching the Christians the meaning, scopo, and potency of the great word SALVATION. M.

Echoes from Other Lands.

The Wesleyan Missionary says of its Mission in Central China:“Every branch of activity is increasing, both in intensity of work, and in the number of agents, and there never were more candidates for Church membership, nor more interested hearers of the Word."

The Rev. C. B. Henry writes to the New York Evangelist of a recent visit to the aborigines of Hainan. “ A few weeks among these aborigines, called savages by their Chinese neighbors, impressed us favorably as to their character and readiness to receive Christian instruction. We visited about fifty villages, some of them large and populous, and were everywhere received with friendliness and treated with hospitality. There are probably fifteen different tribes, whose customs and language vary, and their number is very great. They inhabit several large plains, beside the whole mountain region of the interior, and everywhere show the same friendliness and accessibility. They were greatly pleased with the proposition we made to open schools, and send Christian teachers among them. And I feel sure that when once work is begun, they will quickly respond to the call of truth, and come in large numbers to receive instruction."

The Secretary of the China Inland Mission, Mr. B. Broomhall, has, as we learn by English papers, issued a volume entitled The Missionary Band: A Record and an Appeal. The first part is a record of the farewell meetings, voyage to China, and early experiences in China, of the five Cambridge graduates and two military men who came out in February, 1885, in connection with the China Inland Mission. The second part, consists of extracts from various sermons, speeches, and articles upon missionary topics. The Church Missionary Intelligencer says of this second half of the volume :-“It is one of the most powerful appeals for Foreign Missions issued in our time, and altogether perhaps the best handbook that exists for preachers and speakers in their behalf. There is little or no original matter in these eighty quarto pages. Mr. Broomhall has effaced himself. But, as a piece of editing, this half of the book is a master-piece; and its contents of the most varied kind and gathered from all quarters, have been selected with rare discrimination."

The Missionary (Presbyterian, South) has a letter from Rev. Mr. Johnson of Hangchow, in which he says regarding preaching in the street :- "I was impressed by the remarks of numbers of passers-by, who did not join our audience. The remarks gave me to understand that it is well known we preach about the God of heaven, and about Jesus, and to feel that some knowledge of Christianity is already disseminated among this people more widely than we sometimes suppose.”

Vur Book Table.

The Cross anul the Dragon, or tended notices of prominent trade Light in the Broad East.” The i centres, characteristics of the people, writer of this charming and and facilities for reaching the instructive book brings to the task masses by means of the splendid of authorship historical and des- water-ways so numerous

numerous in this criptive powers of a very high favored province. Customs and traits order. The most valuable knowl- peculiar to the people are succinctly edge presented in a monotonous and pleasantly described, and much and statistical style is doomed to a instructive knowledge as to feasts, speedy interment. No such defect folk-lore and pastimes, is imparted. mars this tasty volume.

In his reference to Confucianism, Here is a collection of most inter. Buddhism and Taoism, the author esting observations on the modes avoids the mistake of attempting an of life, social and domestic relations, ultimate analysis of these different philosophic systems and religious philosophies. What is fairly dedabeliefs, characteristics general and cible is clearly portrayed. The particular, of a large and influential peculiar characteristics of each sysclass in Southern China. Following tem are set forth in the most intelthese is a full account of the rise ligible manner, and will be justly and progress of Christianity, its estimated as valuable contributions bearing upon the present and future to a popular understanding of these prospects as judged by past labors antiquated beliefs. The resume of and triumphs.

mission work shows most encouragThe author is thoroughly at home ing progress, despite the strong in his particular field. No mission antipathy of a very wealthy and ary has more fully traversed the great

influential class. Difficulties are thoroughfares as well as more at: fairly stated, criticisms and cavils tractive by-paths of the populous by unsympathetic writers met, and Broad East. The work abounds fully answered; and while recognizin fine descriptions of natural ing the necessity of the highest scenery, not only pleasing to the qualifications of men and heart for imagination, but helpful to a better his great work, the patient toiler understanding of the

will have no fear about the ultimate and advantages of this particular triumph of the gospel. The work part of the Middle Kingdom. At throughout gives evidence of painsno point in the successive chapters taking care, and will take its does the interest flag. The work place among the best not only as derives most of its value from the furnishing information on matters fact that the author gives details of general interest, but as giving which have fallen chiefly under his more specific knowledge of the field to personal observation. On his

numer

which the writer has restricted his ous journies he has had fine oppor

labors. The work is published in tunities for extended research and attractive form by Randolph and investigation, and the results now Co., Broadway, New York. F. appear in this able volume. Brief

Ling-Nam * means South of the but concise information is given as Ridge, and is the general name to the physical conformation of the given by the Chinese to the Southprovince, together with more ex. ern portion of the Empire ; it is * Ling-Nam, or Interior views of Southern China, including Explorations in the

hitherto untraversed Island of Hainan, by B. C. Henry, A. M., Author of “The Cross and The Dragon." London: S. W. Partridge and Co., 9, Paternoster Row; 1886.

resources

consequently a very appropriate Hall Chamberlain suggests in an title for Mr. Henry's new book of article on the “Past Participle or travels in Southern China. The Gerund ? " that the former term be volume consists largely of narratives dropped by foreign grammariaus of of journeys already published in the Japanese, and that they adopt the China Review, and the Chinese term Gerund for the verbal forms Recoriler, and the author is war- in te. ranted in hoping for a favorable reception of this volume. The

Dr. Eitel's Elucational Report for portion of special interest is that 1885, reflects great credit, both on which relates to the Island of hai- himself and on the Government of nan, “which is here laid open for Hongkong. Would that the Foreign the first time to the reading world." Community of Shanghai exhibited Mr. Henry made good use of his a tithe of the interest in educational recent vacation to the home lands matters. There were 90 schools in the publication of his two under Government inspection in interesting and valuable works on 1885, in connection with which China and the Chinese.

5,833 children were enrolled, and the

total expenditure was $36,092.03, The China Review for May and

or $6.18 a pupil. The Central June is laden as usual with learn- School had 412 pupils ; the Govern. ing. Dr. Edkins discusses The ment Schools, outside the Central Yi King; Messrs Chalmers,

School, had 790 pupils, costing Edkins, and Parker express their views about the Tau Teh King, and Schools had 406 scholars, costing

$3,570.80; the Aided Government Mr. Giles replies with characteristic

$1,707.68; while the Grant-in-Aid spirit; Mr. E. H. Parker tells of Schools (denominational mission “Chinese Relations with Tartars;" schools) had 4,041 scholars, and and there are the usual number of

cost the Government $14,593.38. Notes and Queries, all but one of The total number of children in the which are from the indefatigable colony, between 6 and 16 years of pen of Mr. Parker.

age, is estimated at 18,000; of Part 1 of Volume xiv of the whom 5,833 are in the 90 schools Transactions of the Asiatic Society under Government supervision, of Japan, is before us. Rev. James some 1,800 in about 100 private Summers and James Troup have schools, leaving 11,367 uneducated articles on Buddhism; the first children in the colony. Dr. Eitel “ Traditions concerning its remarks that,

“ The Government introduction into Japan," and the Schools, while abstaining from other on the "Tenets of the Shin- religious teaching in the Christian shiu or “True sect’ of Buddhists." sense of the word, provide the The latter article gives facts moral-religious teaching of Congathered from a native publication fucianism, because it is inseparable issued in 1876, by the sect itself. from the teaching of the Chinese A learned article on the “ Abacus,” classical language, and in the case by Cargill G. Knott, treats of its of six schools, add to it purely Historical and Scientific Aspects, secular English teaching.... The and maintains that its origin is educational policy of the Governforeign to China and Japan. Its mont, whilst abstaining from all home historically is in India, but interference with religious teaching, Aryan Indians probably borrowed has, during the last twelve years, it from Semitic peoples who were practically had the effect of enthe traders of the ancient world; couraging distinctly religions eduand these may have received it cation," —& result effected through from the Accadians. Mr. Basil | the Grant-in-aid Scheme.

on

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