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Christians in the province of Canton had a political origin and when the political disturbing element ceased to operate, the fury of the people against Christianity declined. Rev. S. B. Partridge says in the Recorder June 1885, the persecutions which were so bitter last summer hive ceased and it is not known that any

have deserted the cause on account of the persecutions. He states that the Church members in the American Baptist Mission at Swatow were early in 1885, 993 in number. It was a storm for a year and it left the Christians unhurt only revealing the insincerity of some converts who were never sincere. There is encouragement in knowing this fact. Canton is a province in which persecution has been more severe than in any other part of China. In the autumn of 1884 burning, plunder and destruction were active in almost all places where Christians lived. Not long since the Rev. R. Lechler wrote:-"A Christian of some ability had been preaching for several months in a village until one day he was seized by the people, dragged to a neighboring temple and cominanded to burn incense. When he positively refused they were enraged and replied that he must burn incense or die. Without hesitation he answered 'I will never burn incense to another idol as long as I live. Kill me if you will, but I can never deny the Lord Jesus who died for me. They took him straightway to a steep precipice where they cut off his head and threw his body into the stream below." We cannot but admire the firmness of this Christian martyr when facing the fierce opponents of Christianity who were bent on destroying him. This fact reminds us of the Poklo convert of twenty years ago, who on account of preaching the gospel had his life cruely taken and left behind him the honorable repute of a true martyr. We do not hear of such events in other provinces. Eighteen Protestant chapels were destroyed by mob violence in the year of the Canton persecutions. Of these ten were German, that is of the same mission as the martyred preacher of whose death Mr. Lechler wrote. The losses to which the Christians belonging to the German missions in the province of Canton have been subjected demand our sympathy. But what Mr. Partridge has written reassures us in regard to the present aspect of affairs.

The edict of the Empress two years ago, which secured the residence of foreigners in the interior at the time when hostilities were commenced by France was couched in such terms that it amounted to a guarantee that in future no foreign missionaries will be driven from the interior. They may have to leave one city and take refuge in another, but liberty of residence in China is now assured and there can be no reactionary policy. This seems to

follow immediately from the manner in which the decree in question was drawn up. Frenchmen in the interior were, while the warlike operations continued expressly exempted from any necessity to retire so long as they acted peaceably as missionaries or as merchants. All the French missionaries remained at their posts in the capital and the provinces. This document implies that treaties between China and foreign powers are regarded by the central government as valid to their full extent and persecution except locally and to a limited degree cannot occur again. The Empress having spoken in this way spontanously or by the advice of her ministers, the right of residence in the interior carrying with it the right to make converts can not be withdrawn at any future time from the foreign missionary.

2.-Much local persecution exists and is likely to continue notwithstanding edicts. Local persecutions and suffering for the sake of religious belief may continue to take place* and there is in Shantung no small amount of this at the present moment. The Evangelical Alliance in Peking thought that if copies of the government order in favor of the rights of Christian converts issued for catholics in 1861 and for protestants in 1881 were sent they might do some good. We stated the case to the British charge d'Affaires and he kindly sent copies to Shantung mandarins in high office through the British Consul at Chefoo. Rev. Francis James of Ching Cheu writes in anticipation of their arrival “ It will be of no use to send this document for none of the mandarins here take any notice of it and one returned a copy saying it was a fraud. The people doubt its genuineness and the officials refuse to act in accordance with it,” although Mr. James speaks in this way we have hope that if these papers arrive through the consul they may be better thought of by those in authority and if a stamp of some Yamen be affixed and the document be placarded good may result.

It ought to be generally known what those who know China well are prepared to believe that many Chinese civil officers disregard all toleration clauses in treaties and deny any knowledge of them. Mr. James saw four officials in Tsinaufu last October and requested their assistance in cases of persecution. Two of them had the rank of Taotai, one of whom was in office and one expectant. They denied all knowledge of the Government

* In Rev. T. Richards' paper, Recorder July-August 1884, on persecution he mentions

a society of several villages called the Lien chwang hwei formed for the purpose of resisting the progress of Christianity. Christians met at worship were beaten and reviled by this association.

toleration order and subsequently acted as unjustly as ever in the cases brought before them. One case which occurred soon after Mr. James' visit was a very gross one consisting of severe beating and imprisonment because a family had been learning Christianity. Five months have passed and nothing has been done.

Mr. James continues " we have abundant evidence that the officials are resolved to render all toleration of Christianity a dead letter. To accomplish this they do not scruple to use any means so long as they can avoid being caught in some open violation of the Treaty.”

Such instances of perverseness may be expected to become fewer, and gradually to disappear. It is a great advantage of course to have the law on the side of religious liberty and it is to be hoped that recalcitrant officials will become tired of evading the toleration clauses and in the end liberality and law will triumph. China by signing treaties has brought herself within the circle of the nations which recognize international law as binding on all those states which make treaties with each other. We have reason to be thankful that treatises on international law have been translated and are read by an increasing circle among the Chinese. The tendency of these works is directly in favor of liberty of conscience and of the equality of states. Through the efforts of Dr. Martin the president of the government college in Peking the works of Wheaton, Woolsey and Bluntschli have been translated and published and we know that they have produced a good effect in many ways in modifying the opinions of the Chinese official class.

The natural way to meet cases of persecution is to seize opportunities for exercising a persistant and patient influence upon those who have power to help the persecuted. We can appeal to men in authority, ask the help of God, and wait for the result. That seem to be the proper course for the Evangelical Alliance to pursue.

3.—The prospects of Christianity in Corea and America are more favorable politically at the present moment than they ever were before.

The Roman Catholic missions commenced early in these countries and a large number of converts have been made. Grievously they have sufferred in the past from government persecutions and from massacre and we rejoice that now they are entering on a period of religious freedom. While we know that the blood of the martyrs in the seed of the Church, we also know that times of peace are the harvesting days of the Church. The new treaties lately concluded

are to us fresh guarantees of peace and religious liberty. The signing of a new treaty by France and China on the subject and fixing regulations for trade between Tung king and the south western provinces of China is only interesting to us as confirmatory of that peace, which is essential to the progress of Christian missions. We wait anxiously to learn what France will do to protect the remainder of the Tung king Christians from the fury of their enemies. May we not hope that the overwhelming tide of violence and cruelty of the antiforeign party in that country has spent its force in the massacre of last year and that there will be a reaction of rest and peace for the Christians. Yet many years must pass away before the Roman Catholic missions in that country can again acquire their former strength. The feeling of republican France is quite favorable to religious equality. A member of the mission wrote to me, “I should regard the abandonment of Tung king by the French as a real misfortune and as a prelude to new disasters. The consequences would be extremely painful and it would not then be possible to look to Paris to disentangle the complications which would arise. It is to be hoped that the French protectorate being once firmly established an honest administration would be assured for the whole of Annam and absolute religious liberty with entire security for all missionaries Catholic or Protestant and for their converts. As far as Tung king is concerned these results have been guaranteed by the treaties made with the court of Huè which stipulate that the Christian communities shall possess rights at least as extended as those which have been secured for them in China by the French treaties with that country. Perfect religious equality prevails in Lower Cochin China and there is in this circumstance a guarantee for liberty in maintaining religious belief in the northern part of the same country.”

The French in Cochin China are then the friends of religious liberty and in Corea the political mission that has gone there lately to make a treaty with the king's government can have had no reason to adopt a policy different from this. We may feel sure that an effort has been made to secure religious liberty and the right of French Catholic missionaries to reside in the interior. We wait with great interest to learn the result of these negotiations.

* The French Treaty with Corea was signed Jine 21th, 1333, in the city of

Seoul. M. ('ogordin hud aimed to secure freedom for Cristian m ssionaries to teach Christianity in Corea. To this the Corea yovernment declined to accede. The IXth article of the British Treaty had provided that subjects of either nationality proceeding to the country cf the other shall be afforded every resonable facility for studying its language, literature, laws, etc. et.., and for the

The new governor of Cochin China M. Paul Bert is a distinguished journalist of liberal opinions. Last year on occasion of the Huguenot celebration he expressed in his journal" the Voltaire" his deep conviction that the most disastrous effects on France had resulted from the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. It alienated citizens from each other and prevented the spirit of the reformation from penetrating into public education. If religious thought had been allowed to be free political thought would also have become free. Instead of this France was taught passive obedience which leads to armed revolution, infallible absolutism which leads to scepticism, or negation, and intolerance which involves excommunication of the most sincerely convinced citizens. Worse than this, he adds, the expulsion of the Huguenots made every Frenchmen inclined to become himself a pope. The infallibility of the Church became the infallibility of the individual and that too in the absence of the safety, reason, and honesty which might have afforded jnstification for strangly held views.

If such opinions as there are read with pleasure by the subscribers to free thought journals in France there must now be a deeper sympathy than before in France for the religious fidelity of the Huguenots, and persecution is not likely to exist in Cochin China during the administration of M. Paul Bert.

(To be concluded.)

purpose of scientific research. In the French treaty this is modified in so far that a similar facility is given to French persons to teach as well as to study all these subjects. This by a favorable construction may include the moral and religious teaching of Roman Catholics. While article IV in the British treaty allows British subjects to travel with passports in Corea for pleasure or purposes of trade, the French treaty provides that French subjects can freely obtain passports to travel in the interior of Corea without declaring what may be their object. Also it being provided that French subjects if charged with any offence are to be handed over to the nearest Consul for judgment it will not be possible for French missionaries to be maltreated by Corean native officials if charged

with offences. The king of Corea was personally in favor of religious freedom. There was however a

strong party opposed to it and he yielded to the adverse influence. The opposition is not with the people for they have shown great willingness to accept the teaching of foreign missionaries. It is with the old persecuting party which not many years ago procured the promulgatiou of persecuting edicts, massacred it is said ten thousand Christians, maligned and martyred the French missionaries and thought they were doing the best for their country by exalting Coufucianism at the expense of Christianity. The party in China that promoted the circulation of the notorious and disgraceful Death Blow to Corrupt Doctrine has its counterpart in Corea and it is suspected that the Chinese anti-Christian party has at this juncture stirred up to action the Corean anti-Christian party. This may account in part for the strong opposition to religious liberty shewn by the Corean

government in recent and in former negotiations. The concessions secured by M. Cogordan are important and the effect is likely to be

that the catholic missions will be prosecuted in Corea in future without hindrance. Just as Christianity progresses in Japan at present without legal privileges, so in Corea it may be expected that the absence of treaty legalization will not prevent the successful advance of the missionary enterprise.

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