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Japan many players attain a fair degree of skill without a thorough acquaintance with the "Joseki." It would certainly very greatly aid the beginner in attaining proficiency if he were to study these examples, and follow them as nearly as possible in actual play.

It would seem to us that in compiling a work on "Joseki," or openings, we would commence with the openings where no handicap is given, and later study those where there were handicaps; it is another instance of the divergent way in which the Japanese do things that they do just the opposite, and commence their treatises with the study of openings where handicaps are given. Inasmuch as this is a book on a Japanese subject, I shall follow their example and shall commence the study of " Joseki" in games where Black has a handicap.

As we have already seen, the handicap stone is always placed on a certain fixed point, which is the fourth intersection from the edge of the board in each direction, and White has five recognized methods of playing his first stone in relation to such handicap stone. These are called "Kogeima kakari," "Ogeima kakari," "Daidaigeima kakari," "Ikken taka kakari," "Nikken taka kakari." We shall take up examples of these in their order.

I

Handicap

Plate 19 (A) White Black 1. R 14. "Kogeima kakari." 2. N 17. This move supports the This is the most usual move for at- handicap stone and also gains as tacking the corner. The purpose of much ground as possible for Black.

Where

White's first move is to lay a basis for future aggression; he cannot, of course, play in the corner immediately, neither can he play nearer the black stone with advantage.

3. K 17. This is a direct attack on the corner. White can either connect with his first stone or form a living group in the corner.

6. S 16. White threatens to connect.

7. S 17. White cannot play at R 1 C at this time because he would lose the stone at S 16.

0. P 18. Since White cannot connect, he must play to form two "Me" in the corner.

11. Q.17. White makes his corner as large as possible. This move is also "Sente," because it threatens to break through Black's line.

13. S 14. White threatens "Watari," and again Black must reply at once, ("Sent.")

16. Q.H. To confine Black's group and prepare for territory on the right side of the board.

Black

Beginners would generally find O 17 more safe and conservative.

4. R 16. Black plays to prevent the connection of the white stones.

6. S 15. Black breaks the connection by this move.

8. R 15. Black also must connect. Beginners are prone to neglect these necessary connecting moves.

10. P17. Black plays to connect his stones, and at the same time confines White to the corner.

12. O 17. Black must connect to prevent White's escape.

14. T 14. Prevents "Watari."

16. P 15. An important defensive move. Otherwise White could almost envelop the black stones.

Even game. White has a small territory in the corner, but Black has greater possibility of expansion.

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White

4 R14. ^'3. R17.

i/6. Q.17. In place of trying to connect as before, White threatens to extend in the other direction.

7. S 16. Threatens to connect again.

9. S 17.

11. O 18. White again must form "Me" in the corner.

13. N 18. White extends as far as possible.

16. P 17. White must look out for the safety of the stones at N and O 18.

17. P 14. To prevent Black's extension and form a basis for territory on right side.

19. O13.

Black

2. N 17.
4. R 16.

6. P 16. Black prevents White from getting out.

8. S 15. Black stops it again.

10. R 15.
12. O 17.

14. M 18. Black stops the advance.

16. M 17. Black must connect.

18. O 14. Black extends as far as he can.

20. N 14.

Again White has the corner and Black has better opportunities for expansion.

Ill

Hand1cap

Plate 19 (B) White Black 1. O 3. 2. R 7.

Q.3. This variation is called 4. R 3.

White

"Kiri Kaeshi." This move does not attack the corner so aggressively as the preceding examples.

6. R 4. This is the characteristic move of this variation.

7. R 2. White threatens the black stone. If Black defends White can divide the corner.

9. Pa. "Kaketsugu." If White does not make this move, Black will get the "Sente" with a superior position.

11. S 1. White cannot neglect this move. If Black were allowed to play at R 1, he would get the better game.

Black

6. Q.5. This is an important move for Black; if he plays elsewhere, he will get a bad position.

8. S3.

10. S 2. Formerly S 4 was given as Black's move, but it is not so good, because White replies at R 8 with a fine attack.

12. Rs.

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