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less is called "Dame" in Japanese, but etymologically the word really means "horse's eye," as the Japanese, not being admirers of the vacant stare of that noble animal, have used this word as a synonym for all that is useless. Therefore the syllable "Me" does mean an eye, and is the same word that is used to designate the intersections, but its recurrence in this connection is merely an accident.)
It is difficult for the beginner at first to understand why the filling of these "Dame" results in no advantage to either player, and beginners often fill up such spaces even before the end of the game, feeling that they are gaining ground slowly but surely; and the Japanese have a saying, "Heta go ni dame nashi," which means that there are no "Dame" in beginners' Go, as beginners do not recognize their uselessness. On the other hand, a necessary move will sometimes look like "Dame." The moves that are likely to be so confused are the final connecting moves or "Tsugu," where a potential connection has been made early in the game, but which need to be filled up to complete the chain. In the Illustrative Game, Number 1, the "Dame" are all given, but a little practice is necessary before they can always be recognized.
When the "Dame" have been filled, and the dead stones have been removed from the board, there is no reason why the players should not at once proceed to counting up which of them has the greatest amount of vacant space, less, of course, the number of stones they have lost, and thus determine who is the victor. As a matter of practice, however, the Japanese do not do this immediately, but, purely for the purpose of facilitating the count, the player having the white pieces would fill up his adversary's territory with the black stones he had captured as far as they would go, and the player having the black stones would fill up his adversary's territory with the white stones that he had captured; and thereupon the entire board is reconstructed, so that the vacant spaces come into rows of fives and tens, so that they are easier to count. This has really nothing to do with the game, and it is merely a device to make the counting of the spaces easier, but it seems like a mysterious process to a novice, and adds not a little to the general mystery with which the end of the game seems to be surrounded when an Occidental sees it played for the first time. This process of arrangement is called "Me wo tsukuru." It may be added that if any part of the board contains the situation called "Seki," that portion is left alone, and is not reconstructed like the rest of the board.
Plate 8 shows a completed game in which the "Dame" have all been filled, but the dead stones have not yet been removed from the board. Let us first see which of the stones are dead. It is easy to see that the white stone at N 11 is hopeless, as it is cut off in every direction. The same is true of the white stone at B 18. It is not so easy to see that the black stones at L and M 18, N, O, P, Q and R 17, N 16, and M and N 15 are dead, but against a good player they would have no hope of forming the necessary two "Me," and they are therefore conceded to be dead; but a good player could probably manage to defend them against a novice. It is still more difficult to see why the irregular white group of eighteen stones on the left-hand side of the board has been abandoned, but there also White has no chance of making the necessary two "Me." At the risk of repetition I will again point out that these groups of dead stones can be taken from the board without further play.
Plate 9 shows the same game after the dead stones have been removed and used to fill up the respective territories, and after the board has been reconstructed in accordance with the Japanese method, and it will be seen that in this case Black has won by one stone. This result can be arrived at equally well by counting up the spaces on Plate 8, but they are easier to count on Plate 9, after the "Me wo tsukuru" has been done.
Plate 10 shows another completed game. This plate is from Korschelt, and is interesting because it contains an instructive error. The game is supposed to be completed, and the black stone at C 18 is said to be dead. This is not true, because Black by playing at C 17 could not only save his stone, but kill the four white stones at the left-hand side. Therefore, before this game is completed, White must play at C 17 to defend himself. This is called "Tsugu." On the left-hand side of the board is shown a white group which is dead, and the method of reduction of which we have already studied in detail. On the right side of the board are a few scattering black stones which are dead, because they have no chance of forming a group with the necessary two "Me." The question may be asked whether it is necessary for White to play at C 1 or E 1 in order to complete the connection of the group in the corner, but he is not obliged so to do unless Black chooses to play at B 1 or F 1, which, of course, Black would not do.
On Plate II, this game also is shown as reconstructed for counting, and it will be seen that White has won by two stones. Really this is an error of one stone, as White