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the common soldiers. Of the other extreme, or "Ji dori Go," we have already spoken. Another way in which the play of experts may be recognized is that all the stones of a good player are likely to be connected in one or at most two groups, while poorer players find their stones divided up into small groups each of which has to struggle to form the necessary two "Me" in order to insure survival.
Assuming that we have advanced far enough to avoid premature encounters or "Ji dori Go," and are placing our stones in advantageous positions, decently and in order, the question arises, how many spaces can be safely skipped from stone to stone in advancing our frontiers; that is to say, how far can stones be separated and yet be potentially connected, and therefore safe against attack? The answer is, that two spaces can safely be left if there are no adversary's stones in the immediate vicinity. To demonstrate this, let us suppose that Black has stones at R 13 and R 16, and White tries to cut them off from each other. White's best line of attack would be as follows:
and Black has made good his connection, or Black at his fourth move could play at Q 14, then
There are other continuations, but they are still worse for White. If, however, the adversary's stones are already posted on the line of advance sometimes it is only safe to skip one point, and of course in close positions the stones must be played so that they are actually connected. The Japanese call this skipping of "Me" by the terms "Ikken tobi," "Nikken tobi," "Sangen tobi," etc., which literally means "to fly one, two, or three spaces." Although this is plain enough, these relations are nevertheless shown on Plate 13, Diagrams I, II, and III. When stones of opposite colors on the same line are separated by vacant space in a similar way (Diagram Iv), then the terms "Ikken kakari," ‚""Nikken kakari," etc., are used. "Kakari" really means "to hang" or "to be related," but as used in this sense it might be translated "to attack."
Sometimes the stones are placed in relation to each other like the Knight's move in Chess. The Knight in Japanese is called "Keima," or "the honorable horse," and if the stones are of the same color the relation is called "Keima" or "Kogeima," "Ko" being the diminutive. If the stones are of opposite colors, then the phrase "Keima" or "Kogeima kakari" is used as in the previous case. The Japanese also designate a relation similar to the Knight's move, but farther apart, by special words; thus, if the stones are one space farther apart, it is called "Ogeima," or "the Great Knight's move,” and if the stone is advanced one step still farther, it is called “Daidaigeima," or "the Great Great Knight's move." On Plate 13, Diagrams v, vi, and VII, are shown "Kogeima," "Ogeima," and "Daidaigeima."
The next question that will trouble the beginner is where to place his stones when his adversary is advancing into his
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territory, and beginners are likely to play their stones directly in contact with the advancing forces. This merely results in their being engulfed by the attacking line, and the stones and territory are both lost. If you wish to stop your adversary's advance, play your stones a space or two apart from his, so that you have a chance to strengthen your line before his attack is upon you.
The next thing we will speak of is what the Japanese call the "Sente.' This word means literally "the leading hand," but is best translated by our words "having the fensive) offensive." It corresponds quite closely to the word "attack," as it is used in Chess, but in describing a game of Go it is better to reserve the word "attack" for a stronger demonstration than is indicated by the word "Sente." The "Sente" merely means that the player having it can compel his adversary to answer his moves or else sustain worse damage, and sometimes one player will have the "Sente" in one portion of the board, and his adversary may disregard the attack and by playing in some other quarter take the "Sente" there. Sometimes the defending player by his ingenious moves may turn the tables on his adversary and wrest the "Sente" from him. At all events, holding the "Sente" is an advantage, and the annotations on illustrative games abound with references to it, and conservative authors on the game advise abandoning a stone or two for the purpose of taking the "Sente."
Sometimes a player has three stones surrounding a vacant space, as shown in Plate 13, Diagram VIII, and the question arises how to attack this group. This is done by playing on the fourth intersection. The Japanese call this "Nozoku," or "peeping into," and when a stone is played
in this way it generally forces the adversary to fill up that "Me." It may be mentioned here also that when your adversary is trying to form "Me" in a disputed territory, the way to circumvent him is to play your stones on one of the four points he will obviously need to complete his "Me," and sometimes this is done before he has three of the necessary stones on the board. The term "Nozoku" is also applied to any stone which is played as a preliminary move in cutting the connection between two of the adversary's stones or groups of stones.
Sometimes a situation occurs as shown in Plate 13, Diagram IX. Here it is supposed to be White's move, and he must, of course, play at K 8, whereupon Black would play at K 7 (“Osaeru"), and White would have to play at L8 ("Nobiru"), and so on until, if these moves were persisted in, the formation would stretch in a zigzag line to the edge of the board. This situation is called “Shicho,' which really means "a running attack." It results in the capture of the white stones when the edge of the board is reached, unless they happen to find a comrade posted on the line of retreat, for instance, at P 4, in which case they can be saved. Of course, between good players "Shicho" is never played out to the end, for they can at once see whether or not the stones will live, and often a stone placed seemingly at random in a distant part of the board is played partly with the object of supporting a retreating line should "Shicho" occur.
Plate 13, Diagram x, shows a situation that often arises, in which the White player, by putting his stone at MI on the edge of the board, can join his two groups of stones. This is so because if Black plays at L 1 or N 1, White can