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territory, and beginners are likely to play their stones directly in contact with the advancing forces. This merely results in their being engulfed by the attacking line, and the stones and territory are both lost. If you wish to stop your adversary's advance, play your stones a space or two apart from his, so that you have a chance to strengthen your line before his attack is upon you.
The next thing we will speak of is what the Japanese call the “Sente.” This word means literally “the leading hand,” but is best translated by our words “having the offensive." It corresponds quite closely to the word “attack," as it is used in Chess, but in describing a game of Go it is better to reserve the word "attack” for a stronger demonstration than is indicated by the word “Sente.” The “Sente” merely means that the player having it can compel his adversary to answer his moves or else sustain worse damage, and sometimes one player will have the “Sente” in one portion of the board, and his adversary may disregard the attack and by playing in some other quarter take the “Sente” there. Sometimes the defending player by his ingenious moves may turn the tables on his adversary and wrest the “Sente” from him. At all events, holding the “Sente” is an advantage, and the annotations on illustrative games abound with references to it, and conservative authors on the game advise abandoning a stone or two for the purpose of taking the “Sente.”
Sometimes a player has three stones surrounding a vacant space, as shown in Plate 13, Diagram viri, and the question arises how to attack this group. This is done by playing on the fourth intersection. The Japanese call this “Nozoku,” or “peeping into,” and when a stone is played
in this way it generally forces the adversary to fill up that “Me.” It may be mentioned here also that when your adversary is trying to form “Me” in a disputed territory, the way to circumvent him is to play your stones on one of the four points he will obviously need to complete his “Me,” and sometimes this is done before he has three of the necessary stones on the board. The term “Nozoku” is also applied to any stone which is played as a preliminary move in cutting the connection between two of the adversary's stones or groups of stones.
Sometimes a situation occurs as shown in Plate 13, Diagram ix. Here it is supposed to be White's move, and he must, of course, play at K 8, whereupon Black would play at K 7 (“Osaeru”), and White would have to play at L 8 (“Nobiru”), and so on until, if these moves were persisted in, the formation would stretch in a zigzag line to the edge of the board. This situation is called “Shicho,” which really means “a running attack.” It results in the capture of the white stones when the edge of the board is reached, unless they happen to find a comrade posted on the line of retreat, for instance, at P 4, in which case they can be saved. Of course, between good players “Shicho’ is never played out to the end, for they can at once see whether or not the stones will live, and often a stone placed seemingly at random in a distant part of the board is played partly with the object of supporting a retreating line should “Shicho” occur.
Plate 13, Diagram x, shows a situation that often arises, in which the White player, by putting his stone at M i on the edge of the board, can join his two groups of stones. This is so because if Black plays at L 1 or N 1, White can
immediately kill the stone. This joining on the edge of the board is called by the special term “Watari,” which means “to cross over.” Sometimes we find the word “Watari” used when the connection between two groups is made in a similar way, although not at the extreme edge of the board.
A much more frequent situation is shown at Plate 13, Diagram xi. It is not worthy of special notice except because a special word is applied to it. If Black plays at S 1, it is called “Haneru,” which really means the flourish which is made in finishing an ideograph.
We will now take up a few of the other words that are used by the Japanese as they play the game. By far the most frequent of these are "Tsugu,” “Kiru,” “Nobiru,” and “Osaeru.” “Tsugu” means “to connect," and when two stones are adjacent but on the diagonal, as shown in Plate 13, Diagram xii, it is necessary to connect them if an attack is threatened. This may be done by playing on either side; that is to say, at Q 17 or R 16. If, on the other hand, Black should play on both these points, the white stones would be forever separated, and this cutting off is called “Kiru,” although, as a rule, when such a situation is worthy of comment, one of the intersections has already been filled by the attacking player. Plate 13, Diagram XIII, illustrates “Kiru,” where, if a black stone is played at Q 12, the white stones are separated. “Kiru” means “to cut,” and is recognizable as one of the component parts of that much abused and mispronounced word “Harakiri.” “Nobiru” means “to extend,” and when there is a line of stones it means the adding of another one at the end, not skipping a space as in the case of “Ikken tobi," but extend
ing with the stones absolutely connected. In Plate 13, Diagram xiv, if Black plays at Q 9 it would be called “Nobiru.” “Osaeru” means “to press down,” and this is what we do when we desire to prevent our adversary from extending his line, as seen in the preceding diagram. It is done by playing directly at the end of the adversary's line, as shown in Diagram xv, where Black is supposed to play at Q6. Here White must play on one side of the black stone, but it must be pointed out that unless there is support in the neighborhood for the stone used in “Osaeru," the stone thus played runs the risk of capture. In Diagram ix, explaining "Shicho,” we also had an illustration of “Nobiru” and “Osaeru.”
If a stone is played on the intersection diagonally adjacent to another stone, it is called “Kosumu,” but this word is not nearly so much used as the other four. Sometimes, also, when it is necessary to connect two groups of stones instead of placing the stone so as actually to connect them, as in the case of “Tsugu,” the stone is played so as to effectively guard the point of connection and thus prevent the adversary's stone from separating the two groups. This play is called “Kake tsugu,” or “a hanging connection”; 6.g., in Diagram Xill, if a white stone were played at Q u it would be an instance of “Kake tsugu” and would have prevented the black stone from cutting off the White connection at Q 12, for, if the black stone were played there after a white stone had been placed at Q 11, White could capture it on the next move.
Passing from these words which describe the commonest moves in the game, we will mention the expression “Te okure" — literally “a slow hand” or “a slow move,” which