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immediately kill the stone. This joining on the edge of the board is called by the special term "Watari," which means "to cross over." Sometimes we find the word "Watari" used when the connection between two groups is made in a similar way, although not at the extreme edge of the board.

A much more frequent situation is shown at Plate 13, Diagram XI. It is not worthy of special notice except because a special word is applied to it. If Black plays at S 1, it is called "Haneru," which really means the flourish which is made in finishing an ideograph.

We will now take up a few of the other words that are used by the Japanese as they play the game. By far the most frequent of these are "Tsugu," "Kiru," "Nobiru," and "Osaeru." "Tsugu" means "to connect," and when two stones are adjacent but on the diagonal, as shown in Plate 13, Diagram XII, it is necessary to connect them if an attack is threatened. This may be done by playing on either side; that is to say, at Q 17 or R 16. If, on the other hand, Black should play on both these points, the white stones would be forever separated, and this cutting off is called "Kiru," although, as a rule, when such a situation is worthy of comment, one of the intersections has already been filled by the attacking player. Plate 13, Diagram XIII, illustrates "Kiru," where, if a black stone is played at Q12, the white stones are separated. "Kiru" means "to cut," and is recognizable as one of the component parts of that much abused and mispronounced word "Harakiri.” "Nobiru" means "to extend," and when there is a line of stones it means the adding of another one at the end, not skipping a space as in the case of "Ikken tobi," but extend

ing with the stones absolutely connected. In Plate 13, Diagram XIV, if Black plays at Q9 it would be called "Nobiru." "Osaeru" means "to press down," and this is what we do when we desire to prevent our adversary from extending his line, as seen in the preceding diagram. It is done by playing directly at the end of the adversary's line, as shown in Diagram xv, where Black is supposed to play at Q6. Here White must play on one side of the black stone, but it must be pointed out that unless there is support in the neighborhood for the stone used in "Osaeru," the stone thus played runs the risk of capture. In Diagram IX, explaining "Shicho," we also had an illustration of "Nobiru" and "Osaeru."

If a stone is played on the intersection diagonally adjacent to another stone, it is called "Kosumu," but this word is not nearly so much used as the other four. Sometimes, also, when it is necessary to connect two groups of stones instead of placing the stone so as actually to connect them, as in the case of "Tsugu," the stone is played so as to effectively guard the point of connection and thus prevent the adversary's stone from separating the two groups. This play is called "Kake tsugu," or "a hanging connection"; e.g., in Diagram XIII, if a white stone were played at QII it would be an instance of "Kake tsugu" and would have prevented the black stone from cutting off the White connection at Q 12, for, if the black stone were played there after a white stone had been placed at Q11, White could capture it on the next move.

Passing from these words which describe the commonest moves in the game, we will mention the expression "Te okure❞—literally "a slow hand" or "a slow move," which

means an unnecessary or wasted move. Many of the moves of a beginner are of this character, especially when he has a territory pretty well fenced in and cannot make up his mind whether or not it is necessary to strengthen the group before proceeding to another field of battle. In annotating the best games, also, it is used to mean a move that is not the best possible move, and we frequently hear it used by Japanese in criticising the play.

"Semeai" is another word with which we must be familiar. It means "mutually attacking," from "Semeru,' "to attack," and "Au," "to encounter," that is to say, if the White player attacks a group of black stones, the Black player answers by endeavoring to surround the surrounding stones, and so on. In our Illustrative Game, Number 1, the play in the upper right-hand corner of the board is an example of "Semeai." It is in positions of this kind that the condition of affairs called "Seki" often comes about.

Plate 13, Diagram XVI, shows a position which is illustrated only because a special name is applied to it. The Japanese call such a relation of stones "Cho tsugai," literally, "the hinge of a door."

The last expression which we will give is "Naka oshi gatchi," which is the term applied to a victory by a large margin in the early part of the game. These Japanese words mean "to conquer by pushing the center." Beginners are generally desirous of achieving a victory in this way, and are not content to allow their adversary any portion of the board. It is one of the first things to be remembered, that, no matter how skilful a player may be, his adversary will always be able to acquire some territory, and

one of the maxims of the game is not to attempt to achieve too great a victory.

Before proceeding with the technical chapters on the Illustrative Games, Openings, etc., it may be well to say a word in regard to the method adopted for keeping a record of the game. The Japanese do this by simply showing a picture of the finished game, on which each stone is numbered as it was played. If a stone is taken and another stone is put in its place, an annotation is made over the diagram of the board with a reference to that intersection, stating that such a stone has been taken in "Ko." Such a method with the necessary marginal annotation is good enough, but it is very hard to follow, as there is no means of telling where any stone is without searching all over the board for it; and while the Japanese are very clever at this, Occidental students of the game do not find it so easy. Therefore, I have adopted the method suggested by Korschelt, which in turn is founded on the custom of Chess annotation in use all over the world. The lines at the bottom of the board are lettered from A to T, the letter I being omitted, and at the sides of the board they are numbered up from I to 19. Thus it is always easy to locate any given stone. In the last few years the Japanese have commenced to adopt an analogous method of notation.






Plate 14

Iwasa Kei, fifth degree.

Madame Tsutsuki Yoneko, second degree.

Black has a handicap of two stones.

Played about October, 1906. The record is from the "Tokio Nichi Nichi."

This game is selected because it is very thoroughly played out. The notes are intended for beginners, and much is stated which is obvious to a player of any skill; supplementing the explanations made in the preceding chapter the Japanese names of the various moves are given.

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