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means an unnecessary or wasted move. Many of the moves
of a beginner are of this character, especially when he has
a territory pretty well fenced in and cannot make up his
mind whether or not it is necessary to strengthen the group
before proceeding to another field of battle. In annotating
the best games, also, it is used to mean a move that is not
the best possible move, and we frequently hear it used by
Japanese in criticising the play.
“Semeai" is another word with which we

must be
familiar. It means “mutually attacking,” from “Semeru,'
“to attack,” and “Au," "to encounter,” that is to say, if
the White player attacks a group of black stones, the Black
player answers by endeavoring to surround the surrounding
stones, and so on. In our Illustrative Game, Number 1,
the play in the upper right-hand corner of the board is an
example of “Semeai.” It is in positions of this kind
that the condition of affairs called “Seki” often comes
about.

Plate 13, Diagram xvi, shows a position which is illustrated only because a special name is applied to it. The Japanese call such a relation of stones "Cho tsugai,” literally, “the hinge of a door.”

The last expression which we will give is “Naka oshi gatchi,” which is the term applied to a victory by a large margin in the early part of the game. These Japanese words mean "to conquer by pushing the center.” Beginners are generally desirous of achieving a victory in this way, and are not content to allow their adversary any portion of the board. It is one of the first things to be remembered, that, no matter how skilful a player may be, his adversary will always be able to acquire some territory, and

stone is

one of the maxims of the game is not to attempt to achieve too great a victory.

Before proceeding with the technical chapters on the Illustrative Games, Openings, etc., it may be well to say a word in regard to the method adopted for keeping a record of the game. The Japanese do this by simply showing a picture of the finished game, on which each stone is numbered as it was played. If a stone is taken and another

put in its place, an annotation is made over the diagram of the board with a reference to that intersection, stating that such a stone has been taken in “Ko.” Such a method with the necessary marginal annotation is good enough, but it is very hard to follow, as there is no means of telling where any stone is without searching all over the board for it; and while the Japanese are very clever at this, Occidental students of the game do not find it so easy. Therefore, I have adopted the method suggested by Korschelt, which in turn is founded on the custom of Chess annotation in use all over the world. The lines at the bottom of the board are lettered from A to T, the letter I being omitted, and at the sides of the board they are numbered up from I to 19. Thus it is always easy to locate any given stone. In the last few years the Japanese have commenced to adopt an analogous method of notation.

V

ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES

I

Plate 14

White. — Iwasa Kei, fifth degree.
BLACK. - Madame Tsutsuki Yoneko, second degree.
Black has a handicap of two stones.

Played about October, 1906. The record is from the “Tokio Nichi Nichi.” This game

is selected because it is very thoroughly played out. The notes are intended for beginners, and much is stated which is obvious to a player of any skill; supplementing the explanations made in the preceding chapter the Japanese names of the various moves are given.

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1. C 15. A rather unusual move 2. R 4. Called "Komoku," the called “Moku hadzushi.” As will most usual and most conservative be seen in the chapter on "Joseki, method of commencing the corner it is the least conservative of the play. three usual openings. 3. P 3.

4. Q 5. Intended to attack No. 3, and also it commences to make territory on the right side of the

board.
5. D 17. This move secures this 6. 04. Continues the attack on
corner for White.
7. N 3. (“Ikken tobi”) M 3

8. R 10. Black tries to make
would be too far.

territory on the right side. 68

No. 3

1

>

[graphic]

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T 19

243-200-244 245-141 151 19 18

200 199 137 132 246 140 133 130 149 150 18 17

5 163 187 (25 198 135 131 126 129 153 134 15117 16 173-181 169 205 186 166-165 161 160 118 136 142 155 115-14311116 15 197 1721 168 206 162-171 167 164 249 127 128 113 107 109 111 114 14515 14 240 195 174 170 208 207 117 248 116 103 106 108 110 112 146 14 13 242-196 156 188 158 189 123-225 105 138 104 100 97 91 147 148 13 12

210 230-230-121 102-95 139 99 98 92 152-100 12 11

204-203-49 159 122-226 88 93 125 87 84 72 86 82 11 10

44119-220 90 89 94 124 75 74 11 8 76 81 10 9

120 40 40 216 62 96 224-77 223-79 80-73 67 859 8 190 194

38 39 41 211 252 78 56 234 57 63 65 66 237 8 7185 192 10

42-43

(227232 48 233 60 55 52 64 68 2387 6193-190 16 222-22-37 23 228 202 54

53 (59 58 70

6 5 157 15 14 209-219 211 212 28 250 251 29 694 235 5 4 (13 218-21 (213 214 45 46 27 6 51 2362 4 3 11 12 20 9 215 30 36 184 26 0 (350

3 2 19 17 18 31 35 182-240 183 61 175 176

180 2 1 -221-220 34 32-33 239 241

179-177 178 1 A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T

PLAYED AT Q 10 IN "KO" 253 PLAYED AT Q 9 IN "KO"

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