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means an unnecessary or wasted move. Many of the moves of a beginner are of this character, especially when he has a territory pretty well fenced in and cannot make up his mind whether or not it is necessary to strengthen the group before proceeding to another field of battle. In annotating the best games, also, it is used to mean a move that is not the best possible move, and we frequently hear it used by Japanese in criticising the play.

“Semeai” is another word with which we must be familiar. It means “mutually attacking," from “Semeru," “to attack,” and “Au,” “to encounter,” that is to say, if the White player attacks a group of black stones, the Black player answers by endeavoring to surround the surrounding stones, and so on. In our Illustrative Game, Number 1, the play in the upper right-hand corner of the board is an example of “Semeai.” It is in positions of this kind that the condition of affairs called “Seki” often comes about.

Plate 13, Diagram xvi, shows a position which is illustrated only because a special name is applied to it. The Japanese call such a relation of stones “Cho tsugai,” literally, “the hinge of a door.”

The last expression which we will give is “Naka oshi gatchi,” which is the term applied to a victory by a large margin in the early part of the game. These Japanese words mean "to conquer by pushing the center.” Beginners are generally desirous of achieving a victory in this way, and are not content to allow their adversary any portion of the board. It is one of the first things to be remembered, that, no matter how skilful a player may be, his adversary will always be able to acquire some territory, and

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one of the maxims of the game is not to attempt to achieve too great a victory.

Before proceeding with the technical chapters on the Illustrative Games, Openings, etc., it may be well to say a word in regard to the method adopted for keeping a record of the game. The Japanese do this by simply showing a picture of the finished game, on which each stone is numbered as it was played. If a stone is taken and another stone is put in its place, an annotation is made over the diagram of the board with a reference to that intersection, stating that such a stone has been taken in “Ko.” Such a method with the necessary marginal annotation is good enough, but it is very hard to follow, as there is no means of telling where any stone is without searching all over the board for it; and while the Japanese are very clever at this, Occidental students of the game do not find it so easy. Therefore, I have adopted the method suggested by Korschelt, which in turn is founded on the custom of Chess annotation in use all over the world. The lines at the bottom of the board are lettered from A to T, the letter I being omitted, and at the sides of the board they are numbered up from I to 19. Thus it is always easy to locate any given stone. In the last few years the Japanese have commenced to adopt an analogous method of notation.

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Plate 14 WHITE. — Iwasa Kei, fifth degree. Black. — Madame Tsutsuki Yoneko, second degree. Black has a handicap of two stones.

Played about October, 1906. The record is from the “Tokio Nichi Nichi.”

This game is selected because it is very thoroughly played out. The notes are intended for beginners, and much is stated which is obvious to a player of any skill; supplementing the explanations made in the preceding chapter the Japanese names of the various moves are given.

WHITE 1. C 15. A rather unusual move called “Moku hadzushi.” As will be seen in the chapter on “ Joseki," it is the least conservative of the three usual openings.

3. P 3. .

BLACK 2. R 4. Called “Komoku,” the most usual and most conservative method of commencing the corner play.

4. Q 5. Intended to attack No. 3, and also it commences to make territory on the right side of the board.

6. 04. Continues the attack on No. 3.

8. R 10. Black tries to make territory on the right side.

5. D 17. This move secures this corner for White.

7. N 3. (“Ikken tobi”) M 3 would be too far.

68

A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T

243-200-241245-141 1517 19

- 201-199-137 132 246 140-133 130 149 15018 +5 +163-187- 25198-135-131 126 129 15 3+ (5017 16 173-181-169-205 186 166165 -160 118 136 142-155 115-143 144 16 15197 168 206 162-171-167 164 249-127 128 113-107-109 111 (10 4515

195 174 170 H 2 08-2017117 243 116 103 107 108 110 112 146 14 13 242 190 156 H 188 158-189-123-225-105 138 104 10097 91 A 148-13 12 H 2 O 230 230-120-102-95-139-99 9892 162000 iz 11 H 20423-49-459-22-226 88-93-125 8 & 1 66 8211 10 H H 4 4-119- 200 90 89 94 124 75 74 11 8 6 81 10

H H 2 0-40 40 216 62 98 224 TD 22-79 80-1367 859
8 190 191 38 39 4 ZID 252 78 56 234 57 63 65 66 318
7185 1920 H 42 43 20 13248 33 60 55 62 64 682387
603-190-62 ( 37 23 228 202 54 53 59 687 HH6
5 -150-15 14 209 210 211 212 28 250 251 29 694 +2355

+B 218 21 +213 214 45 46 +27 6 51 236 H 4
+11 029 25 30 36 184 26 0 3 50HH
+ 19 11 18 31 35 182 240 18 61 1759 176-180+

220-220-34 32-33- 29-241 I I I 179-170-178
A B C D E F G H J K L M N O P Q R S T
83 PLAYED AT O 10 IN “KO”
153 PLAYED AT Q 9 IN “KO”

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PLATE 14

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