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means an unnecessary or wasted move. Many of the moves of a beginner are of this character, especially when he has a territory pretty well fenced in and cannot make up his mind whether or not it is necessary to strengthen the group before proceeding to another field of battle. In annotating the best games, also, it is used to mean a move that is not the best possible move, and we frequently hear it used by Japanese in criticising the play.



"Semeai" is another word with which we must be familiar. It means "mutually attacking," from "Semeru, 'to attack," and "Au," "to encounter," that is to say, if the White player attacks a group of black stones, the Black player answers by endeavoring to surround the surrounding stones, and so on. In our Illustrative Game, Number 1, the play in the upper right-hand corner of the board is an example of "Semeai." It is in positions of this kind that the condition of affairs called "Seki" often comes about.

Plate 13, Diagram XVI, shows a position which is illustrated only because a special name is applied to it. The Japanese call such a relation of stones "Cho tsugai," literally, "the hinge of a door."

The last expression which we will give is "Naka oshi gatchi," which is the term applied to a victory by a large margin in the early part of the game. These Japanese words mean "to conquer by pushing the center." Beginners are generally desirous of achieving a victory in this way, and are not content to allow their adversary any portion of the board. It is one of the first things to be remembered, that, no matter how skilful a player may be, his adversary will always be able to acquire some territory, and

one of the maxims of the game is not to attempt to achieve too great a victory.

Before proceeding with the technical chapters on the Illustrative Games, Openings, etc., it may be well to say a word in regard to the method adopted for keeping a record of the game. The Japanese do this by simply showing a picture of the finished game, on which each stone is numbered as it was played. If a stone is taken and another stone is put in its place, an annotation is made over the diagram of the board with a reference to that intersection, stating that such a stone has been taken in "Ko." Such a method with the necessary marginal annotation is good enough, but it is very hard to follow, as there is no means of telling where any stone is without searching all over the board for it; and while the Japanese are very clever at this, Occidental students of the game do not find it so easy. Therefore, I have adopted the method suggested by Korschelt, which in turn is founded on the custom of Chess annotation in use all over the world. The lines at the bottom of the board are lettered from A to T, the letter I being omitted, and at the sides of the board they are numbered up from I to 19. Thus it is always easy to locate any given stone. In the last few years the Japanese have commenced to adopt an analogous method of notation.



Plate 14

WHITE. - Iwasa Kei, fifth degree.




Black has a handicap of two stones.

Played about October, 1906. The record is from the

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Madame Tsutsuki Yoneko, second degree.

"Tokio Nichi Nichi."

This is selected because it is very thoroughly game played out. The notes are intended for beginners, and much is stated which is obvious to a player of any skill; supplementing the explanations made in the preceding chapter the Japanese names of the various moves are given.


2. R 4. Called "Komoku," the most usual and most conservative method of commencing the corner play.


1. C 15. A rather unusual move called "Moku hadzushi." As will be seen in the chapter on "Joseki," it is the least conservative of the three usual openings.

3. P 3.

5. D 17. This move secures this corner for White.

7. N3. ("Ikken tobi") M 3 would be too far.

4. Q5. Intended to attack No. 3, and also it commences to make territory on the right side of the board.

6. O 4. Continues the attack on No. 3.

8. R 10. Black tries to make territory on the right side.

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