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Guildhall' throws no light on the subject, as on the reverse is represented three trees. In 1385 it was called the Painted Tavern, from its florid decorations in front. It is on record that this house was visited by Queen Mary on the occasion of her appearance at Guildhall, to denounce sir Thomas Wyatt and his adherents as traitors, when she rode from thence to the three cranes in the Vintry, and took her barge to Westminster. The sign of the Daggers was formerly frequent, and was adopted very possibly as a memento of the tragic scenes in the time of Richard II. Ben Jonson in his Bartholomew Fair, makes mention of the Three Daggers, a famous house of resort in the locality of Smithfield, which place was the scene of death of Wat Tyler by the hand of sir William Walworth, which circumstance, it has by some been supposed, gave rise to the adoption of the dagger in the shield of the city arms.

"Nathan Drake in his Shakspeare and his Times, quotes an old song, Newes from Bartholomew Fayre, in which there are many old famous houses already mentioned.

"There hath been great sale and utterance of wine,

Besides beere and ale, and ipocras fine,

In every country, region, and nation;
Chefely at Billingsgate, at the Salutation,
And Bore's Head neere London Stone,

The Swan at Dowgate, a taverne well knowne,

The Miter in Cheape, and then the Bull's Head,

And many other places that make noses red;

The Bore's Head in Old Fish street, Three Cranes in the Vintree,

And now of late St. Martin's in the Sentree;

The Windmill in Lothbury, the Ship at the Exchange,

King's Head in New Fish Streete, where roysters do range,

The Mermaid in Cornhill, Red Lion in the Strand,

Three Tuns, Newgate Market; Old Fish Street at the Swan.'

"In some of the older parts of London, we may still find subjects of public-house and inn signs, which exhibit evidence of having been taken. from events connected with the locality, many of which have formed themes for our early ballad literature. In Whitechapel and Bethnal Green there exists the sign of the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green; in Southwark the Blue-eyed Maid; in Bermondsey the Miller of Mansfield and Lilliput Hall. The Green Man, the Archers, Robin Hood, and the Maid Marian, are still lurking about the outskirts, and which were formerly isolated houses, in the neighbourhood of groves, woods, or fields. In Clerkenwell still exists an old relic, in stone, of the sign of the Pindar of Wakefield.

"There are many signs in existence which are difficult to define: as Cogers Hall, the Hog in Armour, and the Hole in the Wall, of which latter there are no less than seven to be found in the metropolis. At

Brentford the remains of the old Three Pigeons exists. Tradition affirms it to have been one of the favorite retreats of Ben Jonson and Shakspeare. One of its former hosts was the popular actor Lowin, who died there, just before the restoration, old and poor, having been driven from the stage, with many others, by the puritans. Other actors, it is well known, kept taverns: Tarlton kept the Bell Savage in Gracious Street. When the author of these notes made mention of the Three Kings in his former paper, he had not seen the curious old sign against a house in Bucklersbury. This relic is, like many others, in stone, in respect to the figures being carved in high relief, and inserted in the brickwork. The probable date of the execution of this is, perhaps, not earlier than the seventeenth century: be that as it may, the artist has evidently endeavoured to adhere to the traditional identity of the triad, which are meant to represent the three kings of Cologne, otherwise the three wise men of the east. Relics, in metal, bearing the names of the three kings, have been occasionally turned up in London; and a few years since, a curious one was dredged from the bed of the Thames, near London Bridge: it was of lead, forming the lid of a 'pix', on the four compartments of which were the three kings and the virgin and child. Another example may be added to those who used their own heads by way of a sign, in that of Pasqua Rosee, of St. Michael's Alley, Cornhill, and who, according to his original handbill, in the collection of the late Mr. D'Israeli, was one of the first who set forth the 'vertue of coffee drink, first publiquely made and sold in England'. This was about 1652. This subject will lead us again into Fleet Street, to the sign of the Rainbow, which in 1667 was kept by one à Barke, another vendor of what its opponents designated an 'abominable compound'. This tavern is also renowned from the fact that the originators of the Phonix insurance company held their meetings there on its being established in 1682; one of its promoters was Dr. Nicholas Barbone, probably a relation of Praise-GodBarebones, who was a resident for many years in St. Dunstan's parish.

"In my former notice mention was also made of various sculptured heads and other devices inserted in the brickwork of the houses which possibly may have been signs, but some may have been placed there for the purpose of marking spots of local or historical interest. There is a curious object of this description still preserved in Newgate-street, over the entrance to Bull's Head court. It is of stone, carved in relief and painted, and representing as the inscription tells us, ye Kynges Porter and a Dwarfe. Nearly opposite to this, and against a house at the corner of Warwick-lane, is a bas-relief in stone of one of the earls of Warwick, clad in a suit of mail armour. The inscription records that it has been repaired by the parish,-a worthy instance, and deserving of honourable mention, of parochial authorities showing respect for its antiquities. In the same street, and opposite St. Martin's-le-Grand, is a

good stone sign of Adam and Eve, an original specimen adopted by the business of a wool merchant. In King William-street, London Bridge, may be seen, over the doorway of a cord and tackle maker, a quaint carving in oak. This formerly decorated the front of an older house now pulled down, at which time it was painted in colours, but is now defaced, and its character destroyed by a thick coat of brown varnish, a bad imitation of the wood of which it is made. The subject is spirited, and represents fishermen in a boat engaged in their craft; the costume indicates the early part of the last century. In addition to the signs formed by rebuses of the name of the owners of the property, a good specimen is still to be seen against the front of a house in the Borough. This is represented in stone relief, a Hare and Sun, the rebus of one Harrison who set it up, as the date on it records, in 1667. The initials at the corner are. The old printer, John Harrison, adopted the same, as we see on his title-pages, but with a variation in the position of the hare, which, with a view to make it more complete, he placed sitting in a sheaf of rye, bound round with a label inscribed with the words 'RI. RI'. "Ben Jonson in his Alchemist gives a scene which curiously illustrates this part of the subject. It occurs in Act II, Sc. 1.

"Some of the most eminent painters of all nations, it is well known, were accustomed to adopt a rebus, which they either introduced into their subjects, or painted it in the corner of their pictures; as Hufnagel, a horse-shoe nail; Isabella Quatrepomme, an apple with IV upon it; Palma, a palm-tree; Jacob Tübingen, a little tub; Correggio, a heart crowned; Jacob Stella, a star; Lauber, a leaf; Hans Weiner, a bunch of grapes; David Vinkenbooms, a finch on a branch of a tree; Birnbaum, a pear-tree; Bernard Groat, the spine of a fish; and Zucharelli, a gourd, or leather bottle. This incidental mention of artists will probably suggest to the reader of these rough notes, the connection of sign-painting with the early struggles in life of some of the greatest masters; the practice of that humble branch of art having been the means of bringing them to notice and fame when no other channel was open to them. Of our own school may be named Hogarth, Gainsborough, and Morland.

"It would be improper to close this notice without reverting to the various traditions and anecdotes to which the subject has given rise. Transpositions and corruptions are among the most familiar. It has been laid to the charge of the puritans, that they compelled many publicans, under pains and penalties, to change the designations of their signs, those more especially which hurt their susceptible consciences in having a reference to regal authority,-and substituting others more conformable to their notions of republicanism. Crowns and sceptres, with stars and garters, were removed without compunction; while the wheels of St. Catherine, and other emblems of the saints, were turned to suit the popular taste. Although there are many instances of force being

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resorted to, it is more than probable the transformations took place at the instigation of the owners of the property, whose interest it was to suit the popular cry,—as they were as ready to restore their former signs at the restoration, as they had been before to abandon them. In some instances, transpositions may be traced to the ignorance of the sign. painter, as in the case of the Bag of Nails for the Bacchanals, and many others which it is not requisite here to repeat, many of them being not well authenticated, and the majority, perhaps, pure inventions of small wits and writers of popular books of jests.

"The signs of London streets often formed subjects for practical jokes. The badly lighted state of the streets, and a defective night-watch, were taken advantage of by unruly disturbers of the public peace. It was no uncommon thing to find in the morning your sign swinging the wrong way upwards, an exchange of signs, or a vacant post showing no sign. Aubrey relates a frolic, in 1635, by a party of students of Lincoln's Inn, in which Sir John Denham, the poet, took a conspicuous part. Having procured a pot of ink and plasterers' brushes, they proceeded to smear over and obliterate the signs between Temple Bar and Charing Cross. The ink-pot was carried by R. Estcourt, esq., and the brushes were wielded by the poet and his companions with considerable effect; but being discovered, they had the next day to pay much monies' for the night's mischief."


Mrs. Percival, of Highbury park, Islington;

Wm. Warwick King, esq., of 32, Tredegar square,

were elected associates.

Thanks were voted for the following presents:

From John Ellis, Esq. Treatise on Hannibal's Passage of the Alps, by R. Ellis, B.D. London, 1854. 8vo.

From J. O. Halliwell, F.R.S. Brief Description of the Ancient and Modern Manuscripts preserved in the Library of Plymouth, etc. London, 1853. 4to. (Privately printed and limited to 80 copies) From the Authors. History and Antiquities of St. David's, by W. B. Jones, M.A., and E. A. Freeman, M.A. Part III. Lond. 1853. 4to. From the Editor. The Autograph Miscellany, executed in perfect facsimile by J. Netherclift. 2 Nos. 1853. Folio.

The rev. Thomas Hugo, F.S.A., exhibited a very fine stone celt belonging to the second division in his arrangement (see Journal, vol. ix, pp. 63-71), taken from the bed of the Thames in October last.

Mr. Gunston exhibited three specimens of encaustic tile, the earliest of which was from Dorchester abbey, Oxon; another from Thame, in the



same county; and a fragment of one, beautifully inlaid, found near St. Bartholomew's hospital.

Mr. C. Elliott laid before the Association a fine cinerary urn (see annexed cut), bought by him at the sale of the late rev. R. Spurgeon, of

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Norwich, who dug it up at Caistor in Norfolk.

The bones form the remains after cremation of an entire interment, and are all human. Mr. Elliott also exhibited a terra cotta lamp from the same place, representing on its upper surface a gladiator.

Mr. W. H. Palin exhibited a large collection of keys and spoons, together with a knife and a sword, obtained during the past year in forming the new sewers at Greenwich. These articles, as may be supposed, belong to various times. Among them are five good specimens of keys of the fifteenth century, a pewter spoon of the time of Elizabeth, and a sword of the same period.

Mr. H. Syer Cuming brought forward the first of a series of papers on "Stone Implements"; this being devoted to the axes, adzes, hammers, and other allied tools and weapons. He began by pointing out the

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