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buried in the same abbey, it is that of some noble warrior of his time.

Figs. 4 and 5 represent the second specimen in point of assigned date, and not inferior in singularity or interest. The original, in the possession of Lord Londesborough, I had the honour, by his lordship's kind permission, of exhibiting to the Association at our evening meeting.

This fine example of a helmet of the close of the twelfth century, has still attached to it a portion of the chain neckpiece or gorget. The opening for the face has evidently been guarded by a plate or grating, moving upon a hinge, and having holes at the top and bottom, through which the studs or small staples passed, and prevented its being shifted by the stroke of a lance or other weapon. The crown is perfectly flat, as in other examples of the reign of Richard I and John, and ornamented by a cruciform plate (fig. 6), in the centre of which is a ring, probably for the attachment of the cointise or scarf, or some other ornament; but in several seals of this period the helmets are seen with rings only. The helmet is of the barrel form, slightly bulging at the sides. It is twelve inches and a half high, and nine and a half in diameter at the crown. Mr. Pratt rescued it from a church in which it had been exhibited for many years as "a popish lantern".

Figs. 7 and 8 present us with two views of the fragment of a helmet of the thirteenth century (temp. Henry III). The cross in front is formed by the ocularium, as in previously exhibited specimens; but in lieu of the moveable grating seen in the helmet of the same date (Journal, vol. viii, plate 22, figs. 6 and 7), and now in the Tower, it has simply a number of perforations for the admission of air. Its form is common upon the seals and effigies of the thirteenth century, but it is the only existing specimen I have seen, and it has gone to Paris with the helmet from Feversham.

Fig. 9 represents a fine specimen of a tilting helmet, of the close of the fourteenth or beginning of the fifteenth century, temp. Richard II or Henry IV. It possesses the interesting feature of a portion of the crest (an eagle or griffin's head) in wrought-iron attached to it. The neck gorged with a plain collar alone remains. The crown of

the helmet, which is concealed by it, is of the pointed arch form to fit the basinet of the above period; this has also gone to Paris.

Fig. 10, sir John Fogge's helmet, is principally interesting on account of its authentic appropriation to that personage, who died A.D. 1469, and was buried at Ashford, where his tomb with superb brasses is still in tolerable preservation, although it has, I believe, been moved from its original position. The chief peculiarity in the helmet is an oval opening on the left side for the purpose of hearing, I presume, as it corresponds with the position of the ear, and the helmet is otherwise provided with the usual apertures for ventilation.

I can only again congratulate the Association on having it in their power, through the intelligence and kindness of Mr. Pratt, and by the medium of their Journal, to increase so greatly the store of valuable information on this subject. Ten years ago, no helmet was known to exist in England. of an earlier date than the reign of Edward III. The plate accompanying this paper gives to the public a second series1 of helmets, of the principal forms from the fifteenth up to the twelfth century, all drawn from the originals discovered in this country! Alas, that so many should have been suffered to leave it; that we must seek in the Musée d'Artillerie, at Paris, for such unique specimens of the armour of our ancestors! I have just returned from an inspection of that interesting and finely-kept collection, and can safely declare that the majority of the rarer examples of helmets contained in it has been obtained from England at four and five times the sums offered by the parties to whom is entrusted the conservation and management of our national armoury.

The previous series will be found in vol. vi, pp. 443-445, plate 36, and vol. viii, pp. 131-137, plates 22 and 23; also p. 354, plate 38. See also vol. vii, p. 161, for description and representation of a tilting helmet of the reign of Edward III.





I BELIEVE that the practice of calling all mediæval architecture in this country "Norman" where the use of the pointed arch does not prevail, results in a great measure from a disinclination to the labour of analysing the facts of various kinds which can be brought to bear upon the question, and from placing too much faith in the traditions and assertions of recent conquerors, whose business it was to decry all that went before them and exalt themselves, rather than narrate historical and impartial truth. I propose, therefore, to call to your recollection certain facts and conditions of society which prevailed in this country antecedent to the advent of the Normans under duke William (his coming not being by any means the first appearance of the race he led into this country), and which are calculated, I think, to make us at least pause before we endorse the popular view or admit the assertions of Norman chroniclers.

It is first to be remembered that when Julius Cæsar came here, more than 1,900 years ago, in continuation of his conquest of Gaul (55 B.C.), he found an unusually high standard of native race, divided into thirty tribes under chiefs or kings. They had several towns or associated


1 This paper was intended to have preceded the remarks on Rochester castle, made by Mr. Duesbury upon the examination of that structure at the Congress held in July 1853 (see Journal, vol. ix, p. 339 et seq.); but as time would not then permit of its being read, it has been revised by the author, and is now given in its perfect and distinct form, as one worthy the consideration of antiquarian architects.

2 The chiefs were, in their turn, subject to the priests or Druids, who engrossed all the knowledge of the country, such as theology, medicine, astronomy, natural history, etc. A singular circumstance is, that the Druids recorded nothing, but transmitted all their knowledge orally, and with great secresy and ceremony, as the Freemasons now do all over the world. Their temples, or places of incantation, being circular areas enclosed with large stones placed upright, with horizontal stones at the top, the enclosed space being open to the sky. They had also sacred groves, and offered up human sacrifices,-a very early type of paganism, but did not worship images: idolatry, or the worship of images, being the latest type, and although the latest, is yet as early as the days of Moses, and even before his time. (See Clarkson's Churches of Adam and Noah.) Who, therefore, can fix a date to Stonehenge?

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dwellings, built of wood and wattled work, the names of which are in part still retained, as are also those of several rivers. They were warlike and brave; they had chariots and horses, and drove furiously, with scythe-blades projecting from the wheels to gash and mangle those they drove amongst. I might here pause to ask how and when the horses were obtained, since they are said to be indigenous only in the East; did the Phoenicians, who are supposed to have come here in very remote times for tin, bring them? But this inquiry, as also the very interesting one as to the traces of two distinct early races of men, discovered by our associate Mr. Bateman, of Youlgrave, would lead us too far a-field on this occasion.

The Britons were numerous, and fought hard for liberty, since it took several large Roman armies one hundred and thirty-six years to obtain the final mastery. The last was under Agricola, after two years' campaign, in the reign of Domitian (A.D. 81). The conquest, after all, was more in the nature of assimilation with those who remained than of total subjugation of the people. Some fled to Devon, Cornwall, and the opposite coast, but the greater part retired into Wales, where their descendants to this day live and speak their language; and even here, in England, the "Joneses" (pre-eminently Welsh), as proved by the last census, are the most numerous family we have.1

It is foreign to my present purpose to give the details of the one hundred and thirty-six years' war, in which large armies were engaged on both sides, all over the country, or the tempting episodes of Caradoc and Boadicea, or any disquisition as to the alleged introduction of Christianity by the family of Caradoc on their return from captivity in Rome eighteen hundred years ago (A.D. 51). We may, however, for a moment lift the veil of time, and contemplate generation after generation of our forefathers struggling for that liberty, still so dear to us as a people, and the ruthless determination of the invader, who, using all the means that his comparatively superior civilisation and

This is a strong proof of the high standard of the original race, more especially as they inhabited an island of comparatively small area. The Red man of America, with his vast continent, is fast disappearing; so are the natives of the Cape of Good Hope, of Australia, of the South Sea Islands; on every spot where the European plants his foot, the original races melt away, except perhaps in New Zealand, which forms a slight exception.

knowledge afforded, continued the struggle, until he at length conquered, or at least exhausted his certainly not less brave opponent, with long intervals from the wearisomeness of strife, which would prompt alike the invader and invaded to be at rest, and cluster round one common hearth as one human family. It is startling to think that these scenes of strife and bloodshed should take place in the land in which we live at the very time when our Saviour appeared on earth to teach the sublime doctrines of Christianity, with peace on earth and goodwill towards all mankind.

Bearing in mind the above very slight sketch of the general position of affairs in Britain at this period, let us try to ascertain what was likely to have been the state of architecture and the building arts here at this time.

I think it may be said that before the Romans came into the island, it scarcely possessed any architectural building, properly speaking. The Druidical circles, although evincing the existence of considerable mechanical skill, by which large stones, as at Salisbury Plain, were transported, sometimes great distances from the quarries, and then placed as we find them, are not buildings; the stones are rough and unwrought, and not built or jointed together, and the dwellings of the common people, as stated above, were wattled huts, or caves rudely made in the hills, the houses intended for defence being surrounded by walls of loose stone, and some of them, perhaps, built of brick. The houses of the chiefs or princes also would most likely be more permanent, and in some measure architectural buildings. Brick is a British word, and they would not have a name for that which did not exist; they do not appear to have had any monumental tombs; but we may fairly conjecture, from the general character of the people above sketched, that they would soon take example from the invaders, at least in the art of war, and in the construction of camps and fortifications, as shewn at the Beacon, on the Malvern hills; the Caer Caradoc, near Church Stretton, Shropshire; Moel Arthur, in Flintshire; Chün castle, Cornwall; and Maiden castle, Dorsetshire; traces of which are even now extant. Some regular roads they must have had, although the country is described generally as covered with forests. Most likely they had a road on

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