Imágenes de páginas

quences thereof, said to have befallen seven persons afterward. The editor has given a modern Welsh copy of this famous document, in a note to his English translation, at pp. 357-8. Seven royal and other grants, of the time of St. Teilo, including a list of the churches given to him, next follow.

After the life of archbishop Oudoceus follow seventyeight royal and other grants, in the time of that bishop and his successors, to Trichanus inclusively; all which, in the manuscript, have the names of those bishops inscribed as running titles over the pages, in the order of their succession.

Of bishop Elvogus there is only a note stating that he followed Trichanus, in the time of four sons of king Glevissicg (p. 196).

Thirteen grants, in the times of bishops Catguaret and Cerenhir, follow (pp. 197-207).

The next entry is only, "Nobis, the nineteenth bishop." Next follow twenty-four grants made in the times of bishop Pater and his three successors. The second of these has the rare distinction of a date. It begins, "in the year from the nativity of the Lord 955, indiction 13", which correspondence is correct. The story which it relates is a singular one, and it contains, or is in itself the act of a "synod" (p. 209). At the end of these charters is a note of the death of bishop Civeilliauc, in 927. His name is twice misprinted Cimeilliauc in that place.

Then follow two grants to bishop Libian, with a note of his death in 929; and four grants to bishop Gucanus, with an account of his consecration by archbishop Dunstan, in the royal court of king Edgar in 982; also a mere note of bishop Marchluid, stating in whose time he lived.

Next follows a grant to bishop Bledri, with a curious document relative to the seven cantreds of Morcannuc, and to the contemporaneousness of king Edgar with the British kings Huwel Da and Morgan Hen, the original of which was said to be perishing with age: it has been printed in the Concilia by Spelman and Wilkins.

Then come, a grant in the time of bishop Joseph, and another in the time of bishop Bledri, with a note of the election of bishop Bledri by the kings of Morcannuc therein named in 983, his consecration in the court of

Adelred by archbishop Albricus, and his death in 1022 (p. 241). The editor has translated and understood this passage as if it were an "election of kings", rather than by kings, as the passage seems to import.

Then follow, a notice of the election and consecration of bishop Joseph by archbishop Ælnod, in the court of Cnut in 1022, and of his death; also a statement of the confirmation of the privileges of the church of Llandaff by Riderch ap Jestin, king of Morcannuc, with a list of the thirty-seven possessions of that church (pp. 242-44); also ten grants in the time of bishop Joseph.

Lastly, six grants in the time of bishop Herwaldus, who, as appears by the next entry, lived in the times of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror. See the 5th head.

IV: Papal briefs and bulls. Of these are no fewer than thirty-eight placed between the lives of Samson and Dyfryg, but of a much later date, having been all procured by bishop Urban from pope Honorius II, in 1128 and 1129 (pp. 30-46, 51, 52), and from pope Innocent II, in or about 1131. Two of these bulls have the rota of the Roman Chancery expressed in fac-simile. After the life of St. Dyfryg, are five bulls and briefs of pope Calixtus II, one of which has the rota in like manner.

v. Episcopal Transactions in the times of bishops Herwald and Urban. The first of these which occurs is a curious concord or deed of covenants, made in 1126, between bishop Urban and Robert Consul or earl of Gloucester, concerning their respective jurisdictions and rights: it was made in the presence of king Henry I, and numerous peers, spiritual and temporal, whose names are given as witnesses (pp. 27-30).

Among the bulls, may be found an exhortation by the pope's legate for aid to be given to the church of Llandaff; a summons of William, archbishop of Canterbury, for a council at London, and the chapters or decrees of that council; also memorials of bishop Urban's two journeys to Rome on the affairs of his see, after the council of London (pp. 46-51).

At the end of St. Dyfryg's life, is an account of the translation of his relics to Llandaff, which gave occasion, it is said, in the year 1120 (though there is some difficulty

attending this date), for the rebuilding of the church. To the precise description of the old one, as given at pp. 82, 83, the attention of the Congress is particularly requested: it is said to have been twenty-eight feet long, fifteen feet broad, twenty feet high, with two small wings at the sides, and with a round porch twelve feet long and broad. This last feature may be very important, if thereby the round towers of churches in this country can be assigned to the British period. The passage is also important as determining the date of the erection of the stately cathedral, which has since fallen into a lamentable state of decay.1

The next documents are a letter from Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, imploring aid for the rebuilding of Llandaff cathedral; bishop Urban's requisition to pope Calixtus at Rheims, relative to the wrongs suffered by his church, and a notice of the council holden there (pp. 83-85); also the canons of the council of Rheims (pp. 90-92).

The last entries in the volume (pp. 263-268) describe the churches consecrated and priests ordained in Archenfield by bishop Herwald, in the times of Edward the Confessor, Harold, and William the Conqueror; also how that bishop held his see at the time of the conquest, and the names of the priests subject to his jurisdiction. Then follows a record of his death, 6th March, 1104; and after an interval exceeding four years, the consecration of bishop Urban at Canterbury, 11th August, 1107, which entry ends abruptly.

These last documents will be found of great architectural importance: for instance, the fine church at Kilpeck seems to identify itself with " Cilpedec", which is said at p. 264 to have been consecrated by bishop Herwald, in the time of king William.

1 The visit of the Association to the cathedral of Llandaff gave great satisfaction to the members. It is now under restoration by able architects, superintended by a dean whose information and taste alike qualify him to secure an ample and proper renovation of the sacred edifice.



THE present name of the town and castle is so obviously an Anglo Saxon appellation, simply signifying a market place, as to require no observation. I will, therefore,

merely remark, that in the older records it was never applied to the castle, but only to the town; whenever mentioned together, we always read castrum de Strogoil, et villa de Chepstow; in no deed or record before the reign of Henry VI, about the middle of the fifteenth century, do we find castrum et villa de Chepstow. On the other hand, the name of Strugul is occasionally applied to the town as well as to the castle, Strogoel castrum et burgus. This old name of Strogoil or Strugul is still retained in the court rolls of the manor, which is styled the manor of Strugul alias Chepstow. Most local appellations in Wales and the Marches have been strangely corrupted, and it is seldom that we find one correctly written. The Norman scribe of Domesday wrote the name of this place Estrighoel; in subsequent records we find it Strighoel, Stroghoel, and Strugul, with some other occasional variations in the orthography. English tourists, and the compilers of guide books, have favoured the public with a variety of exceedingly absurd etymologies of this name, seeming to forget that some little acquaintance with the Welsh language is a necessary qualification when endeavouring to interpret a Welsh name, as also some knowledge of the locality and its ancient history. It would be a waste of time to enumerate all the absurdities that have been written on this subject. Antiquaries are generally agreed that the Roman road called Strata Julia, crossed the Wye at or near Chepstow. Whether the Welsh word Ystrad be an adoption of the Latin Strata, or the latter be derived from the Celtic, is immaterial; it is sufficient that Strata Julia is correctly expressed in Welsh by Ystrad-Iwl (pronounced Ustrad

ecool), and that the castellum de Estrighoel of Domesday, the Strigoel, Strogoel, and Strugul of later records, are several successive corruptions of the Welsh castel Ystrad Iwl, meaning simply the castle on the Strata Julia. That this is the correct interpretation, and that it was so understood in the twelfth century, is confirmed by the words of an ancient annotator upon the Saxon poet Necham, quoted by Leland:1 "Strata Julia cujus pontem construxit Julius quod vulgo Strigolium dicitur." The bridge here alluded to, which this old author tells us was constructed by Julius Frontinus upon the road named after him, and vulgarly called Strigul, there can be no doubt stood above the castle, immediately below the alcove in Piercefield Park.

A learned gentleman, in an article published in the Archæologia, has doubted the existence of this bridge; the fact is, however, well established. The road leading to it across the inclosures above the castle, was very visible a few years ago, and may still be traced, although nearly obliterated by a late tenant of the land; but where it descended to the river, cut out of the almost perpendicular cliff, it will remain as long as the rock itself endures, a lasting monument of Roman engineering skill, and were it cleared of the bushes which obstruct it, might be used as a road now. Half a century ago the foundations of the piers and abutments of this bridge were very visible at low water, and perhaps are at present, but some years have passed since I visited the spot. Near to it, on the Gloucestershire side, stood the little chapel of St. David. Part of the walls, with the lower portion of the east window and the entrance door, were standing within my remembrance. All traces of it have now disappeared, and even the site is known but to few of the present generation. The paved road across the inclosures on this side has also been destroyed; further on, the Roman road, from the nature of the country, could not have deviated very widely from the course of the turnpike road to Gloucester; not many years ago a portion of the ancient pavement existed quite perfect, extending a considerable distance, at the side of the latter, in the parish of Tidenham; the stones have, however, been broken up and used for repairs. The name of the village of Stroat, is evidently derived from Strata; in fine, the

1 Itinerary, vol. ix, f. 101.

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