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the charters connected with the building, which he should be happy to place at the disposal of the Association. The rev. Mr. Hugo then, accompanied by the president and the dean of Llandaff, conducted the party around the ruins, pointing out its several portions, entering minutely into their special characteristics, and marking the sites of the chapter house, the vestry, the sacristy, hospitium, refectory, kitchen, dole window, etc., etc.
Having inspected every portion remaining of the abbey, some of the party proceeded to view an adjoining building known as St. Anne's chapel, and popularly believed to be of a date anterior to the abbey, and probably used as a place of worship by the workmen and others during the building of the abbey. Mr. White, Mr. Whichcord, and others, were, however, of opinion that it was a somewhat modern erection, or the ruin of an old gateway leading to the chase, and that the window had been transferred from the refectory, with which it precisely corresponded in style. The building evidently comprises some masonry of a comparatively recent period; but there are the remains of a buttress on the outside, facing the abbey, which probably formed, with some other bits of the building, a portion of the original structure. An old doorway is also of an early age; but it was considered probable that it had been placed in its present position.
After examining this building some of the associates returned again to the abbey, to inspect more minutely the remains of the offices, and the fragments of masonry which were lying about. In the refectory, the pulpit, from which it was the habit of one of the monks to preach to the others while partaking of their meals, was pointed out. Some remains of bosses, which had probably formed the centres of the arches in the nave and chancel, excited much attention from the exceeding beauty of their ornamentation. They were enriched with wreaths of oak leaves and acorns beautifully sculptured. Much interest was also felt in the examination of the remains of the old grave-stones about the ruin, and by some portions of columns which had been recently dug out from the earth. Mr. Williamson was of opinion that if the closely adjacent orchards were excavated, it was probable that some valuable treasures of the domestic offices of the establishment might yet be discovered.
The party now reentered the carriages, and having driven to the bottom of the Moss Cottage walk, they commenced the ascent to the farfamed Windcliff, the glorious prospect from whose summit, into no less than nine counties, commanding views of the Wye and Severn, with the Bristol Channel and the distant hills of Gloucestershire, elicited expressions of admiration and delight from every beholder. Having descended to the road, they again pursued their journey; and having gone through the beautiful demesne of Piercefield, where refreshments were kindly provided by Mr. Thompson, they returned to Chepstow at five o'clock.
At the evening meeting a paper "On the Territories of Vortigern, the ancient British King, on the Wye and in the South of Wales", by the rev. Beale Poste, was read. (See pp. 226-231 ante.)
The rev. Mr. HUGO made a few remarks upon the peculiar beauty and rhythm of some of the old Latin monkish hymns. These remarks were made in explanation of his pronouncing the word "huic", in the morning, as a word of two syllables, which was necessary in order to make it
Mr. WHICHCORD submitted to the Association the following observations on the subject of Fortification, time permitting little more than a general view of the most prominent features belonging to those of the different eras:-" A consideration of the subject," he observed, “would demonstrate that, as in all others, the structures raised for the purposes of defence by our forefathers were most apt and fitting for their purpose; that the modifications in their plans and details took place as the science of war advanced; and that, independently of the more recognised features determining the age of the architecture, the plan of the building and its arrangements for purposes of warfare, would fix the date assignable to the erection. The facility of accomplishing this is, however, much impaired by the various alterations which from time to time have been made in older buildings, whether arising from mere increase in size, or modifications rendered necessary as new and hitherto unknown engines were brought to bear. This it is which gives to the architect and antiquary great difficulty in assigning a date to castellated remains, and makes it more than ever necessary to invoke the aid of records and tradition.
"The science of fortification is divided into two distinct branches, viz. that which existed from the most remote antiquity to the introduction of gunpowder, in the thirteenth century, and the works executed from that date to the present day. The former takes us back to the cities mentioned in Holy Scripture, particularly in the books of Judges (chap. i, v. 24), Samuel, and the two books of Kings, in which are recorded the taking of Jericho, Ai, Jerusalem, and other cities. In these accounts it will be found that continual reference is made to walls, vallies, secret entrances, etc., showing that, in common with all strongholds prior to the discovery of gunpowder, there were lofty and strong walls, built with openings, or machicolations, for the purpose of hurling missiles when attacked. This, with the additional precaution of towers to secure the angles, and gates, was, it would appear, all that was deemed necessary as a security against the attacks of scaling, undermining, battering, or assault by mounds or galleries.
"The changes in the plan of fortified places were, therefore, only subject to the modifications which improved mechanical skill and the progress in the arts made general, as well as from time to time the necessity for guarding against the more powerful catapulta, employed for attack.
It may be remarked that, in all early sieges, the advantage was infinitely in favour of the besieged, in comparison to the relative footing at the present day.
"Of Roman fortifications in this country, in addition to the many examples existing in the remains of walls and towers, may be cited that stupendous work known as the Roman Wall, extending from the Solway Firth to the mouth of the Tyne, so ably and elaborately treated by our associate, Dr. Bruce. Without following the learned author into the speculations of whether or not this magnificent work be really fortificacations of distinct periods, the section of the wall as it now exists, demonstrates the use of earth-works on a large scale. Upon examination this will be seen to consist of a wall with a ditch on the northern side, and a vallum, or turf-wall, on the southern. Between these were placed the watch-towers, castles, etc.; and the space was thus a defended military way. The width of this way was generally about sixty or seventy yards, but varied considerably.
Amongst the numerous remains of Roman castra, we may be permitted to glance for a moment at the interesting remains in Kent, particularly in the neighbourhood of the coast. One of the most perfect specimens extant is that of Richborough castle, near Pegwell bay, assigned by tradition as the landing-place of Hengist and Horsa. The castle is bounded by the river Stour on its eastern side, and is the boundary of the Isle of Thanet. It is a noble work, and the remains are calculated to impress the observer by their solidity and massiveness, and with somewhat of awe when we reflect that these walls are eighteen hundred years old, from ten to fourteen feet in thickness, and of a height of twenty-five to thirty-two feet, with solid and massive foundations; built with that consummate skill which presents for ages the perfect face which we have now learnt to be a type of Roman handicraft, and which has outlived many a proud work of more modern creation. The external face of these walls is peculiarly interesting; and it is probable that a luxuriant growth of ivy, which has now covered their venerable surface, may have in some measure conduced, during the more recent ages, to preserve them in the perfection in which they now appear; injured, not so much by the damage from the elements, as by the ruthless hand of man. The facing of these walls was made of squared Portland ashlar, diminished in the size of the block as the courses got higher. These courses ranged one above the other, from five to ten stones deep, and are then divided by a horizontal course of tiles in a double row. These tiles are of a yellowish red colour, and very perfect. The mass of the walls is composed of a kind of concrete formed of boulders, with flints and rubble, and the whole is well mixed, and of great strength.
"The area of the castrum is about five acres, and in the north wall is the entrance gate, formerly called Porta Principalis, but now the postern
gate. On the west side is the Decuman gate, the name of which is derived from the word decem, as through it ten men could pass abreast. The flanking towers are sufficiently evident on the west and south sides; and it is conjectured that similar ones existed on the other sides. Within the walls of this castrum is a large table of masonry, some 150 feet in length by 50 feet in breadth, the use of which has been the subject of much careful research and antiquarian discussion; and although many feasible theories have been hazarded, nothing has yet been discovered to absolutely determine its purpose. It seems reasonable, however, to suppose it was a portion of the fortifications of the place. Upon this is another mass of masonry, of a cruciform shape, which, it is suggested, had been used as a chapel, and is possibly of more recent date.
Amongst the earlier records in which the Welsh fortresses are mentioned, about A.D. 607 or 612, is the contest between Ethelfrith, the conqueror of Bernicia, and the Cymri. The Welsh forces under Brocmail, king of Powis, were accompanied by the monks of Bangor, twelve hundred in number, praying for the success of their countryman; when Ethelfrith attacked the monks first, and destroyed them, which so appalled Brocmail that he fled, and Bangor subsequently fell into the hands of the conqueror. Leland, in his Itinerary, mentions this town as being 'the campace of a wallid towne, and yit remainith the name of a gate, caullid Port Hogan by north, and the name of another, Port Clays, by south.' We learn that, subsequently to this date (610), Cæolwulph, from Wessex, advanced on the Cymry into the province of Glamorgan; and that the inhabitants hastened, in fright at the number of the invaders, to Tewdric their former king, who was leading a solitary life amongst the loveliness of Tintern. It is related that when the royal hermit beheld the dreaded Saxons on the Wye, the remembrance of his own former achievements inspired him with hope, and he drove the invaders over the Severn, but was mortally wounded in the engagement.
"In the subsequent wars of the Welsh kings we learn of the feats of arms of Cadwallar, that hero of bard-worship, in revenge for the ingratitude of Edwin king of Mercia, whose early years had been tended by the father of Cadwallar, and, upon arriving at sovereignty, waged war on his benefactor's son, and was eventually defeated by that son. The successes of Cadwallar seem to have been very great subsequently to this; and he is reported to have been conqueror in fourteen great battles and sixty skirmishes, but at last he was defeated by the Bernician forces.
"It is more than probable, that during these wars between the Welsh and Saxon kings, fortresses and castles were continually erected; but we have no record sufficiently definite to point to the examples. Many have been conjectured to be Saxon, which have afterwards, on the authority of learned antiquaries, been pronounced as Norman; it however seems
unfair to leap over the great interval during which the Anglo-Saxons inhabited and controuled the country, and to proceed at once from the time the Romans quitted to the advent of the Normans; but such has been the fashion. I am, however, much disposed to consider a great portion of both ecclesiastical and castellated remains to belong to the Saxon, and not to the Norman times. There can be no question that the conqueror gave every facility, even forced his retainers, to erect strongholds over every part of the kingdom; but he must have been most extraordinarily successful in his endeavours, and possessed of the aid of mechanical science which we believe to be the peculiarity of the present day, to produce in so short a period all the numerous works that are attributed to him and his immediate successors.
"The several matters comprised in a castle of this date show an advancement in the system of defence, inasmuch as it is composed of several lines, one within the other. Thus we have the outer ballium or court, the inner court, and the great stronghold or keep. The wall bounding the outer ballium was surrounded by a moat or ditch, and strengthened at intervals by towers. This outside wall was sometimes embattled on both sides, so that if besiegers made their entry into the inner court they could be attacked on both sides. Great care was always taken in defending the entrance, by means of flanking towers, portcullises, etc., which could at a moment be lowered down on an invading army, as well as of ingenious contrivances over the gateway for pouring down melted metal and missiles. Occasionally the entrance was defended by an outwork or barbican.
"The inner ballium had an embattled wall defending it from the outer, and within this wall was placed the chapel and military quarters, and any other dwellings that might be required.
"The keep was the last stronghold, and its entrance was fortified and commanded by loop-holes in the main walls. The keep in Norman castles was generally rectangular, and built with prodigious strength, often of four stories in height. The walls of these so-called Norman keeps were frequently twelve to twenty feet thick: those of Conisborough, which is circular on plan, are fifteen feet thick; the basement contained the dungeons and a draw-well, the remains of which are very curious. Many of our Associates will remember this very interesting feature, which we examined last year at the Congress at Rochester. The upper floors of the keep were, in fact, the residence of the great feudal chieftains, and the magnificent architecture of many attest with what luxury they were fitted.
"Of the castles built in the twelfth century, may be cited that at Beaumaris, in the principality, after the victory of Henry II over prince Llewellyn; and many others were added to, amongst which are Caernarvon and Conway. To the fourteenth century (Edw. I to Henry IV), the golden