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INQUIRY INTO CERTAIN PROCEDURES OF THE
INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION
SELECTED EXCERPTS FROM INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT
PART I, INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT
REGULATION IN GENERAL; CAR SERVICE; ALTERATION OF LINE
Sec. 1. [A8 amended June 29, 1906, April 13, 1908, June 18, 1910, May 29, 1917, August 10, 1917, February 28, 1920, June 19, 1934, August 9, 1935, September 18, 1940, June 24, 1948, August 2, 1949, August 12, 1958.] [ 49 U.S.C. $ 1.]
(3) (a) The term "common carrier" as used in this part shall include all pipeline companies; express companies; sleeping-car companies; and all persons, natural or artificial, engaged in such transportation as aforesaid as common carriers for hire. Wherever the word "carrier" is used in this part it shall be held to mean "common carrier.” The term "railroad" as used in this part shall include all bridges, car floats, lighters, and ferries used by or operated in connection with any railroad, and also all the road in use by any common carrier operating a railroad, whether owned or operated under a contract, agreement, or lease, and also all switches, spurs, tracks, terminals, and terminal facilities of every kind used or necessary in the transportation of the persons or property designated herein, including all freight depots, yards, and grounds, used or necessary in the transportation or delivery of any such property. The term “transportation" as used in this part shall include locomotives, cars, and other vehicles, vessels, and all instrumentalities and facilities of shipment or carriage, irrespective of ownership or of any contract, express or implied, for the use thereof, and all services in connection with the receipt, delivery, elevation, and transfer in transit, ventilation, refrigeration or icing, storage, and handling of property transported. The term “person” as used in this part includes an individual, firm, copartnership, corporation, company, association, or joint-stock association; and includes a trustee, receiver, assignee, or personal representative thereof.
(4) It shall be the duty of every common carrier subject to this part to provide and furnish transportation upon reasonable request therefor, and to establish reasonable through routes with other such carrier, and just and reasonable rates, fares, charges, and classifications applicable thereto; and it shall be the duty of common carriers by railroad subject to this part to establish reasonable through routes with common carriers by water subject to part III, and just and reasonable rates, fares, charges, and classifications applicable thereto. It shall be the duty of every such common carrier establishing through routes to provide reasonable facilities for operating such routes and to make reasonable rules and regulations with respect to their operation, and providing for reasonable compensation to those entitled thereto; and in case of joint rates, fares, or charges, to establish just, reasonable, and equitable divisions thereof, which shall not unduly prefer or prejudice any of such participating carriers.
(5) All charges made for any service rendered or to be rendered in the transportation of passengers or property, or in connection therewith, shall be just and reasonable, and every unjust and unreasonable charge for such service or any part thereof is prohibited and declared to be unlawful.
(10) The term "car service" in this part shall include the use, control, supply, movement, distribution, exchange, interchange, and return of locomotives, cars, and other vehicles used in the transportation of property, including special types of equipment, and the supply of trains, by any carrier by railroad subject to this part.
(11) It shall be the duty of every carrier by railroad subject to this part to furnish safe and adequate car service and to establish, observe, and enforce just and reasonable rules, regulations, and practices with respect to car service; and every unjust and unreasonable rule, regulation, and practice with respect to car service is prohibited and declared to be unlawful.
(12) It shall also be the duty of every carrier by railroad to make just and reasonable distribution of cars for transportation of coal among the coal wines served by it, whether located upon its line or lines or customarily dependent upon it for car supply. During any period when the supply of cars available for such service does not equal the requirements of such mines it shall be the duty of the carrier to maintain and apply just and reasonable ratings of such mines and to count each and every car furnished to or used by any such mine for transporta: tion of coal against the mine. Failure or refusal so to do shall be unlawful, and in respect of each car not so counted shall be deemed a separate offiense, and the carrier, receiver, or operating trustee so failing or refusing shall forfeit to the United States the sum of $100 for each offense, which may be recovered in a ciri action brought by the United States.
(13) The Commission is hereby authorized by general or special orders to require all carriers by railroad subject to this part, or any of them, to file with it from time to time their rules and regulations with respect to car service, and the Commission may, in its discretion, direct that such rules and regulations shall be incorporated in their schedules showing rates, fares, and charges for transportation, and be subject to any or all of the provisions of this part relating thereto.
(14) (a) The Commission may, after hearing, on a complaint or upon its own initiative without complaint, establish reasonable rules, regulations, and praetices with respect to car service by common carriers by railroad subject to this part, including the compensation to be paid and other terms of any contract. agreement, or arrangement for the use of any locomotive, car, or other vehicle bot owned by the carrier using it (and whether or not owned by another carrier), and the penalties or other sanctions for nonobservance of such rules, regulations or practices.
(b) It shall be unlawful for any common carrier by railroad or express conpany, subject to this part, to make or enter into any contract, agreement, or arrangement with any person for the furnishing to or on behalf of such carrier or express company of protective service against heat or cold to property transported or to be transported in interstate or foreign commerce, or for any such carrier or express company to continue after April 1, 1941, as a party to any such contract, agreement, or arrangement unless and until such contract, agreement, or arrangement has been submitted to and approved by the Commission as just, reasonable, and consistent with the public interest: Provided, That if the Commission is unable to make its determination with respect to any such contract, agreement, or arrangement prior to said date, it may extend it to not later than October 1, 1941.
(15) Whenever the Commission is of opinion that shortage of equipment, ( gestion of traffic, or other emergency requiring immediate action exists in any section of the country, the Commission shall have, and it is hereby giren. authority, either upon complaint or upon its own initiative without complaint. & once, if it so orders, without answer or other formal pleading by the interested carrier or carriers, and with or without notice, hearing, or the making or fillas of a report, according as the Commission may detemine: (a) to suspend the operation of any or all rules, regulations, or practices then established with respect to car service for such time as may be determined by the Commission, (b) to make such just and reasonable directions with respect to car service with out regard to the ownership as between carriers of locomotives, cars, and other vehicles, during such emergency as in its opinion will best promote the service in the interest of the public and the commerce of the people, upon such terms of compensation as between the carriers as they may agree upon, or, in the event of their disagreement, as the Commission may after subsequent hea ring find tu be just and reasonable ; (c) to require such joint or common use of terminals including main-line track or tracks for a reasonable distance outside of sub terminals, as in its opinion will best meet the emergency and serve the public interest, and upon such terms as between the carriers as they may agree apa or, in the event of their disagreement, as the Commission may after subsequent hearing find to be just and reasonable; and (d) to give directions for preserene or priority in transportation, embargoes, or movement of traffic under permits, at such time and for such periods as it may determine, and to modify, change, suspend, or annual them. In time of war or threatened war the President may certify to the Commission that it is essential to the national defense and security that certain traffic shall have preference or priority in transportation, and the Commission shall, under the power herein conferred, direct that such preference or priority be afforded.
(16) Whenever the Commission is of opinion that any carrier by railroad subject to this part is for any reason unable to transport the traffic offered it so as properly to serve the public, it may, upon the same procedure as provided in paragraph (15), make such just and reasonable directions with respect to the handling, routing, and movement of the traffic of such carrier and its distribution over other lines of roads, as in the opinion of the Commission will best promote the service in the interest of the public and the commerce of the people, and upon such terms as between the carriers as they may agree upon, or, in the event of their disagreement, as the Commission may after subsequent hearing find to be just and reasonable.
(17) (a) The directions of the Commission as to car service and to the matters referred to in paragraphs (15) and (16) may be made through and by such agents or agencies as the Commission shall designate and appoint for that purpose. It shall be the duty of all carriers by railroad subject to this part, and of their officers, agents, and employees, to obey strictly and conform promptly to such orders or directions of the Commission, and in case of failure or refusal on the part of any carrier, receiver, or operating trustee to comply with any such order or direction such carrier, receiver, or trustee shall be liable to a penalty of not less than $100 nor more than $500 for each such offense and $50 for each and every day of the continuance of such offeense, which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil action brought by the United States : Provided, howerer, That nothing in this part shall impair or affect the right of a State, in the exercise of its police power, to require just and reasonable freight and passenger service for intrastate business, except in so far as such requirement is inconsistent with any lawful order of the Commission made under the provisions of this part and except as otherwise provided in this part.
1b) It shall be unlawful for any person to offer or give or cause or procure to be offered or given, directly or indirectly, any money, property, or thing of value, or bribe in any other form whatsoever, to any person acting for or employed by any carrier by railroad subject to this part with intent to influence his decision or action, or because of his decision or action, with respect to the supply, disribution, or movement of cars or other vehicles, or vessels, used in the transportation of property. It shall be unlawful for any person acting for or employed by any carrier by railroad subject to this part to solicit, accept, or receive, directly or indirectly, any money, property, or thing of value, or bribe in any other form whatsoever, with intent to be influenced thereby in his decision or action, or because of his decision or action, with respect to the supply, distribution, or movement of cars or other vehicles, or vessels, used in the transportation of property. any person who violates the provisions of this subparagraph shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be subject for each offense to a fine of not more than $1,000, or imprisonment in the penitentiary for a term of not more than two years, or both such fine and imprisonment.
(18) After ninety days after this paragraph takes effect no carrier by railroad subject to this part shall undertake the extension of its line of railroad, or the construction of a new line of railroad, or shall acquire or operate any line of railroad, or extension thereof, or shall engage in transportation under this part over or by means of such additional extended line of railroad, unless and until there shall first have been obtained from the Commission a certificate that the present or future public convenience and necessity require or will require the construction, or operation, or construction and operation, of such additional or extended line of railroad, and no carrier by railroad subject to this part shall abandon all or any portion of a line of railroad, or the operation thereof, unless and until there shall first have been obtained from the Commission a certificate hat the present or future public convenience and necessity permit of such abanlonment. Nothing in this paragraph or in section 5 shall be considered to prohibit the making of contracts between carriers by railroad subject to this part, without the approval of the Commission, for the joint ownership or joint use of spur, ndustrial, team, switching, or side tracks.
(20) The Commission shall have power to issue such certificate as prayed for, or to refuse to issue it, or to issue it for a portion or portions of a line of railroad, or extension thereof, described in the application, or for the partial es. ercise only of such right of privilege, and may attach to the issuance of the overtificate such terms and conditions as in its judgment the public convenience and necessity may require. From and after issuance of such certificate, and not be fore, the carrier by railroad may, without securing approval other than such certificate, comply with the terms and conditions contained in or attached to the issuance of such certificate and proceed with the construction, operation, or abandonment covered thereby. Any construction, operation, or abandonment contrary to the provisions of this paragraph or of paragraph (18) or (19) of this section may be enjoined by any court of competent jurisdiction at the suit of the United States, the Commission, any commission or regulating body of the State or States affected, or any party in interest; and any carrier which, or any director. officer, receiver, operating trustee, lessee, agent, or person, acting for or euployed by such carrier, who knowingly authorizes, consents to, or permits any violation of the provisions of this paragraph or of paragraph (18) of this ser tion, shall upon conviction thereof be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than three years, or both.
(21) The Commission may, after hearing, in a proceeding upon complaint or upon its own initiative without complaint, authorize or require by order ang carrier by railroad subject to this part, party to such proceeding, to provide itself with safe and adequate facilities for performing as a common carrier its car service as that term is used in this part, and to extend its line or lines: Provided, That no such authorization or order shall be made unless the Commission finds, as to such extension, that it is reasonably required in the interest of public convenience and necessity, or as to such extension or facilities that the expense involved therein will not impair the ability of the carrier to perform its duty to the public. Any carrier subject to this part which refuses or neglects to comply with any order of the Commission made in pursuance of this paragraph shall be liable to a penalty of $100 for each day during which such refusal or neglect continues, which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil action brought by the United States.
SEC. 3. [As amended February 28, 1920, March 4, 1927, August 9, 1935. 43 gust 12, 1935, September 18, 1940, August 2, 1949.] [49 U. S. C. $ 3.)
(4) All carriers subject to the provisions of this part shall, according to their respective powers, afford all reasonable, proper, and equal facilities for the inter: change of traffic between their respective lines and connecting lines, and for the receiving, forwarding, and delivering of passengers or property to and fnun connecting lines; and shall not discriminate in their rates, fares, and charges between connecting lines, or unduly prejudice any connecting line in the distribution of traffic that is not specifically routed by the shipper. As used in this para: graph the term “connecting line" means the connecting line of any carrier subjat to the provisions of this part or any common carrier by water subject to part III
Sec. 12. [As amended March 2, 1889, February 10, 1891, February 28, 1920 August 9, 1935, September 18, 1940.) [49 U. S. 0.8 12.) (1) The Commission shall have authority, in order to perform the duties and carry out the objects for which it was created, to inquire into and report on the management of the business of all common carriers subject to the provisions of this part, and to inquire into and report on the management of the business of persons controlling controlled by, or under a common control with, such carriers, to the extent that the business of such persons is related to the management of the business of one or more such carriers, and the Commission shall keep itself informed as to the manner and method in which the same are conducted. The Commission Day obtain from such carriers and persons such information as the Commission deemi necessary to carry out the provisions of this part; and may transmit to Cogns from time to time such recommendations (including recommendations as to adid! tional legislation) as the Commission may deem necessary. The Commission is hereby authorized and required to execute and enforce the provisions of this part; and, upon the request of the Commission, it shall be the duty of any distrii
attorney of the United States to whom the Commission may apply to institute in the proper court and to prosecute under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States all necessary proceedings for the enforcement of the provisions of this part and for the punishment of all violations thereof, and the costs and expenses of such prosecution shall be paid out of the appropriation for the expenses of the courts of the United States; and for the purposes of this part the Commission shall have power to require, by subpoena, the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of all books, papers, tariffs, contracts, agreements, and documents relating to any matter under investigation.
DISCONTINUANCE OR CHANGE OF CERTAIN OPERATIONS OR SERVICES
Sec. 13a. (August 12, 1958.] [49 U. S. C. & 13a.] (1) A carrier or carriers subject to this part, if their rights with respect to the discontinuance or change, in whole or in part, of the operation or services of any train or ferry operating from a point in one State to a point in any other State or in the District of Columbia, or from a point in the District of Columbia to a point in any State, are subject to any provision of the constitution or statutes of any State or any regulation or order of (or are the subject of any proceeding pending before) any court or an administrative or regulatory agency of any State, may, but shall not be required to, file with the Commission, and upon such filing shall mail to the Governor of each State in which such train or ferry is operated, and post in every station, depot or other facility served thereby, notice at least thirty clays in advance of any such proposed discontinuance or change. The carrier or carriers filing such notice may discontinue or change any such operation or service pursuant to such notice except as otherwise ordered by the Commission pursuant to this paragraph, the laws or constitution of any State, or the decision or order of, or the pendency of any proceeding before, any court or State authority to the contrary notwithstanding. l'pon the filing of such notice the Commission shall have authority during said thirty days' notice period, either upon complaint or upon its own initiative without complaint, to enter upon an investigation of the proposed discontinuance or change. Upon the institution of such investigation, the Commission, by order served upon the carrier or carriers affected thereby at least ten days prior to the day on which such discontinuance or change would otherwise become effective, may require such train or ferry to be continued in operation or service, in whole or in part, pending hearing and decision in such investigation, but not for a longer period than four months beyond the date when such discontinuance or change would otherwise have become effective. If, after hearing in such investigation, whether concluded be fore or after such discontinuance or change has become effective, the Commission finds that the operation or service of such train or ferry is required by publle convenience and necessity and will not unduly burden interstate or foreign commerce, the Commission may by order require the continuance or restoration of operation or service of such train or ferry, in whole or in part, for a period not to exceed one year from the date of such order. The provisions of this paragraph shall not supersede the laws of any State or the orders or regulations of any administrative or regulatory body of any State applicable to such discontinuance or change unless notice as in this paragraph provided is filed with the Commission. On the expiration of an order by the Commission after such investigation requiring the continuance or restoration of operation or service, the jurisdiction of any State as to such discontinuance or change shall no longer be superseded unless the procedure provided by this paragraph shall again be invoked by the carrier or carriers.
(2) Where the discontinuance or change, in whole or in part, by a carrier or carriers subject to this part, of the operation or service of any train or ferry operated wholly within the boundaries of a single State is prohibited by the constitution or statutes of any State or where the State authority having jurisdiction thereof shall have denied an application or petition duly filed with it by said carrier or carriers for authority to discontinue or change, in whole or in part, the operation or service of any such train or ferry or shall not have acted finally on such an application or petition within one hundred and twenty days from the presentation thereof, such carrier or carriers may petition the Commission for authority to effect such authority only after full hearing and upon findings by it that (a) the present or future public convenience and necessity permit of such discontinuance or change, in whole or in part, of the operation