Folkways: A Study of Mores, Manners, Customs and Morals
Cosimo, Inc., 2007 M09 1 - 704 páginas
William Graham Sumner was an influential professor of sociology and politics at Yale College and president of the American Sociological Association from 1908 to 1909, and it was in this early classic textbook of sociology, first published in 1906, that he coined the term folkways, to denote the habits and customs of a society. He fully explores the concept here, examining their influence on: the struggle for existence labor and wealth slavery abortion, infanticide, and the killing of the elderly cannibalism sex and marriage blood revenge and primitive justice sacral harlotry and child sacrifice popular sports and drama education and history and much more. American academic and author WILLIAM GRAHAM SUMNER (1840-1910) wrote numerous and varied books including Andrew Jackson as a Public Man (1882) and What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1883).
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Página 13 - Ettaoeentrism is the technical name for this view of things in which one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it.
Página 29 - The notion of right is in the folkways. It is not outside of them, of independent origin, and brought to them to test them. In the folkways, whatever is, is right. This is because they are traditional, and therefore contain in themselves the authority of the ancestral ghosts. When we come to the folkways we are at the end of our analysis. The notion of right and ought is the same in regard to all the folkways, but the degree of it varies with the importance of the interest at stake. The obligation...
Página 13 - For our present purpose the most important fact is that ethnocentrism leads a people to exaggerate and intensify everything in their own folkways which is peculiar and which differentiates them from others.
Página 3 - The operation by which folkways are produced consists in the frequent repetition of petty acts, often by great numbers acting in concert or, at least, acting in the same way when face to face with the same need.
Página 2 - If we put together all that we have learned from anthropology and ethnography about primitive men and primitive society, we perceive that the first task of life is to live. Men begin with acts, not with thoughts. Every moment brings necessities which must be satisfled at once. Need was the first experience, and it was followed at once by a blundering effort to satisfy it.
Página 53 - An institution consists of a concept (idea, notion, doctrine, interest) and a structure. The structure is a framework, or apparatus, or perhaps only a number of functionaries set to cooperate in prescribed ways at a certain conjuncture. The structure holds the concept and furnishes instrumentalities for bringing it into* the world of facts and action in a way to serve the interests of men in society.
Página 12 - The relation of comradeship and peace in the we-group and that of hostility and war toward others-groups are correlative to each other. The exigencies of war with outsiders are what make peace inside, lest internal discord should weaken the wegroup for war.
Página 98 - scientific man" can divest himself of prejudice or previous opinion, and put himself in an attitude of neutral independence towards the mores. He might as well try to get out of gravity or the pressure of the atmosphere. The most learned scholar reveals all the philistinism and prejudice of the man-on-the-curbstone when mores are in discussion.
Página 12 - primitive society" which we ought to form is that of small groups scattered over a territory. The size of the groups is determined by the conditions of the struggle for existence.
Página 134 - The maxim usus norma loquendi, ' usage is the rule of speech,' is of supreme and uncontrolled validity in every part and parcel of every human tongue, and each individual can make his fellows talk and write as he does just in proportion to the influence which they are disposed to concede to him.