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which gives title to the Moral, is in constant use by Discipline and others throughout.
Ulpian Fulwel's Like will to Like, quoth the Devil to the Collier*, contains some attempts at character, although the foundation of the piece is entirely allegorical : it is by no means regularly conducted, and a good deal has been sacrificed to produce laughter among the audience.
The author thus states his design in the prologue.
• To what ruin ruffins and roisters are brought, * You may heer see of them the final end : • Begging is the best, though that end be nought, ' But hanging is the woorse, if they do not amend. • The virtuous life is brought to honor and dignitie, * And at the last to everlasting eternitie.' Nichol Newfangle is the Vice, armed with his wooden dagger, and he is in fact the hero of the performance +: among his friends and companions are Rafe Roister, Tom Tosspot, Philip Fleming, Piers Pick
* The title is, ' An Enterlude Intituled Like wil to likė, quod the • Devel to the Colier, very godly and ful of plešant mirth. Wherin is
declared not onely what punishement followeth those that wil rather ' followe licentious living then to esteem and followe good councel : and what great benefits and commodities they receive that apply
them unto vertuous living and good exercises. Made by Ulpian • Fulwel. Imprinted at Lodon, at the long shop adioyning uto ' S. Mildreds Churche in the Pultrie, by John Allde. Anno Domini
1568. There was another edition in 1587, also in 4to. printed for Edward Allde, which is that I have chiefly used.
+ Thé manner of his first entrance; as noticed in the stage-direction, is singular: 'Heer entreth Nichol Newfangle, the Vice, laughing and " hath a knave of clubs in his hand, which, assoon as he speaketh, he
offreth unto one of thë men or boyes standing by;' i, e., among the spectators.
purse, Cuthbert Cutpurse, &c., who may be con sidered as individual personages, each with his several habits and peculiarities. The allegorical impersonations consist of Good Fame, Severity, Virtuous Life, God's Promise, and Honour. Lucifer, with his name written on his back and breast,' is also intros duced; and Newfangle (who in name and nature resembles New-guise in one of the Macro MS. Moralplays) claims him for his godfather, and adds that he had been apprenticed to him, and had thus learnt • all kinds of sciences' that support pride :• I learned to make gowns with long sleeves and winges; • I learned to make ruffs like calves chitterlings,
Caps, hats, cotes, and all kinde of apparails, * And especially breeches as big as good barrels.'
The Collier seems introduced merely for the sake of the proverb in the title, and he does not in any way aid the progress of the plot. He enters with empty sacks, admitting that he had sold only three pecks to the bushel. Nichol Newfangle introduces him to the Devil, and all three dance to the tune of Tom Collier of Croidon * hath solde his cole. Tom Collier uses a
* The Collier of Croydon figures early in our dramatic poetry ;; and he is thus introduced among the satirical Epigrams of Richard Crowley, printed, according to Ritson, in 1550 and 1551, and fifteen of which are reprinted by Strype, in his Eccl. Mem., II. Rep. of Orig. 182.
"The COLLIER OF CROYDON.
rustic dialect, peculiar to him. The author has paid comparatively little regard to the conduct of his Moral, as long as he is able to give variety and to illustrate his proverb like will to like' &c., which is perpetually in the mouths of some of the characters. Rafe Roister and Tom Tosspot get drunk, and commit every kind of debauchery, but finally repent, while Pickpurse and Cutpurse are betrayed by Newfangle, and carried away by Hankee Hangman, with halters about their necks * Virtuous Life is crowned by Honour, and Newfangle being carried off by the Devil, poetical justice is done on both sides.
The following, from a speech, by Virtuous Living to the spectators in the course of the performance, will be a sufficient specimen of the serious part of the production.
. Wherefore, you that are heere learn to be wise,
Would God al our knights did mind coling no more
At a reasonable price they did their coles sell;
God graunt these men grace their polling to refrayne,
• For men thynk he is cosin to the collyar of hell' * I copy the following for its singularity, from the edition of 1568, in Malone's collection at Oxford.
* Here entreth in Nichol Newfangle, and bringeth in with him a bag,
" But why do I thus much say in praise of vertue,
For the renowne therof shall soon be raised.'
The exits and entrances of the characters are marked with great punctuality, and the stage-directions are frequent and minute.
The Moral-play of The Marriage of Wit and Science* contains a remarkable external feature not
a staffe, a bottle, and two halters, going about the place shewing it unto the audience, and singeth this:
Trim mar-chan.dice, trim, trim. Trim mar-chan-dice, trim, trim.
[He may sing this as oft as he thinketh good. Mary, heer is merchandise, who list to buy any? • Come see for your love and buy for your money. • This the land which I must distributé anon, • According to my promise or I begon:
For why, Tom Tosspot since he went hence
And Rafe Roister, it may none otherwise be chosen,
And now a couple of felowes are come from cut-purse hall,
Lo, heer is geer that will make their necks to crack.' Just afterwards Tom Tosspot and Rafe Roister enter in great poverty, having squandered and gambled away all their money. The following singular stage-direction introduces them : ' Heere entreth Rafe Roister 6 and Tom Tospot, in their dublet and hose, and no cap nor hat on • their head, saving a night cap, because the strings of their beards
may not be seene, and Rafe Roister must curse and ban as he com6 meth in.'
* Its title is: “A new and Pleasaunt enterlude, intituled the mariage
belonging to any other piece of this class that I remember to have met with : it is regularly divided into five acts, and each of the scenes is also marked. It has no date on the title-page, but it was licensed (according to Malone in a note in his copy of this mast rare performance) between July, 1569, and July, 1570. The author, whoever he might be, has bestowed great pains upon his undertaking, and the construction of it is sufficiently ingenious, conveying, not without some humour, a very useful lesson*. Wit
of Witte and Science. Imprinted at London, in Fletestrete, neare unto sainct Dunstones churche, by Thomas Marshe. n. d. 4to.
* It should be observed, however, that for the whole of the allegory, the author of The Marriage of Wit and Science was probably indehted to an older piece, by a person whose name is new in our dramatic literature-John Redford. He seems to have been a professor of music, perhaps employed at court: he was contemporary with John Heywood, and, like him, wrote several dramatic pieces. One of these, nearly perfect, is contained in a very curious MS. belonging to B. Heywood Bright, Esq. which he was kind enough to place in my hands: in the same volume are traces of two other Morals, one of which has the name of John Redford appended. That ypon which The Marriage of Wit and Science is founded (or more properly, from which it is in a great degree borrowed) has this conclusion, "Thus endyth the play of Wyt and Science, made by master Jhon Redford.' The author of the printed copy has done little more than modernise the style of Redford, for, with one or two slight variations, he has adopted the conduct of the plot: one of these variations is, that in Redford’s ‘play' Confidence is made the attendant upon Wit instead of Will; and another, that Tediousness, instead of being represented as a giant, is made 'a fiend,' by Redford. Four persons, called Fame, Riches, Worship, and Favour, are also introduced by Redford, in order to sing a song and to be dismissed to the World, from whom they came, by Science who disregards them. Redford also has a long scene between Idleness and