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With the old Greeks, the chariot of Helios was equally provided with fleet horses. Apollo had four white steeds before the sun's chariot, for which Aurora opened in the morning the gates in the Erst, and during the night the sungod and his chariot were put to rest in the palace of Tethys, in the West of the universe.

In consequence of the misapprehension of the term "white colt", Wells Williams ") has trauslated the saying FM * f by "the bright racer quickly disappears", which is in the first place incorrect as in Chinese the adjective precedes the substantive, and if this was really the meaning the phrase would stand * "the bright colt”, and not which has to be translated by "the light of the colt”, i. e. "the gleam of the Sun". The metaphorical sense is "time gone cannot be recalled", as W. Williams himself says, but appearently without understanding the metaphor.

As soon, bowever, as we translate here to by Sun and Mt by the sun's light, the gleam of the sun, the metaphor, which evidently is inspired by Chwang-tsz's saying, becomes quite clear, and we can translate it by “the sun's gleam easily passes away"; or tempus fugit as the Romans said, which is also literally rendered in Chinese by * Be - # , "time gone never comes back”, or by *, "time easily passes away", or by ont Aidi, "time is swift”, etc. ?)

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The desert horses are mentioned by Chwang-tez in his Perigrinations ( VE Book I, Part I, Section 1) in the phrase 野馬也、塵埃也。生物之以息相吹也,which simply means “Desert-horses are (only) dust; it are natural productions :) blown against each other by a breath”.

1) Chinese Dictionary, p. 438 B. 2) See my Nederlandsch-Chineesch Woordenboek i. v. Tijd (time) and Vliegen (fly).

3) We cannot translate here by living things; for the sand of the desert is here meant, which is a natural production of the desert.

De Rosny paraphrases: (et cependant cet animal prodigieux '), comparé à l'univers, n'est) qu'un peu d'air, un peu de poussière; c'est un souffle de la création. In a uote he adds: Cette phrase est d'une extrême concision, et l'expression ye-ma (vulg. "cheval des champs”), qu'il faut interpréter par “l'air qui circule dans les champs" (VEF), appartient à ce style figuré, allégorique, souvent ampoulé, dont l'intelligence présente d'ordinaire de sérieuses difficultés ?).

Legge (Texts of Taoïsm, I, 165) paraphrases: "(But similar to this is the movement of the breezes which we call) the horses of the fields, of the dust (which quivers in the sunbeams), and of living things as they are blown against one another by the air”.

The difficulty lies not only in the interpretation of the term ye-ma, but in the use of the particle tye, which has been taken in the sense of “to be”, by the translators. Now has in this whole chapter of Chwang-tsz the meaning of ; and a modern writer would say 野馬者、塵埃也

Prémare says in his Notitia linguae sinicae (Ed. Bridgman, p. 187, § 3): Yé t is sometimes found in the end of the first member of a sentence; e. g. Í Ź FIT U Źif reason be at fault, I know the cause; and $ 6: XH-, there is not a particle of difference; W —#EX, there is then no difference. In the same piece Chwang-tsz says: LF 水之積也、不厚、則負大舟也、無力,“moreover, when the accumulatiou of the waters of heaven is not deep enough, then it will not have the strength to support a large ship". In this phrase again to ye makes the subject concrete, which is generally

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1) Chwang-tsze has first spoken of the fabulous bird Rokh; but the phrase has no connection with that in which he speaks of this bird, and so we can dispense with the paraphrase in brackets given by de Rosny and Legge.

2) Textes chinois traduits en Français, Paris 1875, p. 74.

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expressed by *, as in the definition of the word Humanity: E Ź ##, Humanity is the root of justice; literally "that which constitutes humanity, is that it is the root of justice".

Von der Gabelentz (Chinesische Grammatik, SS 811, 1166, 11881) quotes several examples of the use of #for #; as e. g. pag. 449: 陽也、剛也、仁也、物之始也。陰也、柔也、義

Ź het , where stands for . Compare also St. Julien's Syntaxe nouvelle de la langue chinoise, Vol. I, p. 163, where several quotations are given of the use of #ye for che.

Wells Williams' definition of ye ma, "a column of dust flying over the desert”, is pretty correct; that of Medhurst "the simoon of the desert" and that of Giles "a sunbeam" are wrong, for a simoon is a dust-storm, which is called in Chinese ; whilst the

ye-md is light dust hovering over the desert upon which the sun shines, and affecting the wellknown form of mirage so ordinary in all deserts and tantalizing to the poor wanderer parched with thirst.

The famous pilgrim Hiuen-ts'ang suffered frighfully from the fantastic visions appearing suddenly and disappearing as quickly in the desert Mo-kia yen-tsih '), when on his way to the WF , the "Well of mirage”, and not, as St. Julien has translated it, the “Well of wild horses”. .

Ye-ma are also the little motes or atoms of dust, dancing in a beam of the sun. The chinese poet Han-oh ( 12 ) says:

* AF "In the sun's beams through my window the motes dance" ?). It were ridiculous to take here the term ye ma as "wild horses" or as a Simoon or dust-storm.

Chinese is difficult; not on account of its easy and transparent syntax, but on account of the figurative use of characters, which

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1) In Mongol Makhai Gobi, the ugly desert. 2) See my “Nederlandsch-Chineesch Woordenboek” i. v. Zonnestofje (Sun-motes).

are wanting in our dictionaries, and so can even lead the most experienced sinologues into error. Before we have a complete chinese dictionary in the fullest sense of the word, we will all be liable to misunderstandings and errors in our translations of chinese texts. But it is impossible for one man to make such a dictionary, and we want a special commission of Sinologues, unfettered by material wauts, to compile it. The expenses,

divided over a goodly number of years, would not be so heavy, that the British government, which is most concerned with it, could not easily bear them.

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Le «Berliner Tageblatt» rapporte un par tracasserie qu'on fit cela, mais en interview intéressant avec le chargé observation des anciens rites. Le mot d'affaires de l'ambassade chinoise à Ber

même d'audience en Chinois Tchao lin, par rapport aux réformes à introduire en Chine. Ce diplomate chinois signifie au propre matin '). En Chine, disait que la première réforme à faire comme ailleurs, les réformes doivent est celle d'abolir l'heure excessivement sortir du gouvernement. matinale à laquelle les ministres doivent Le ministre chinois considérait comme actuellement présenter leurs rapports, une des meilleures preuves de la bonne ce qui force également l'empereur de se volonté de son gouvernement le fait qu'il lever à 2 heures du matin. Le ministre avait nommé Tching-Tchang comme disait que cette réforme devait venir du ambassadeur à Paris. Tchiny-Tchang dehors; et il a raison. L'Empereur de la est catholique et sort d'une famille Chine est le symbole du soleil, et le soleil catholique depuis 2 siècles. Autrefois reçoit l'hommage de la nature et des une pareille nomination aurait été imêtres vivants le matin. L'empereur doit possible. Mais on fera plus: on en verra donc, comme représentant le soleil, en en Europe une grande quantité de jeunes faire antant. Au dernier siècle, les gens, en partie de famille princière, et ambassadeurs hollandais se plaignèrent en partie choisis d'entre les grands de amèrement d'être tirés de leur lit de l'empire. Ils s'y livreront à l'étude de la si grand matin pour être l'eçus en jurisprudence, de l'administration, de la audience.

chimie, de l'économie rurale, des scienIls ne savaient pas que ce n'était pas ces militaires, etc. Mais le ministre chi

1) Voir mon Uranograpkie chinoise, p. 94. La belle explication que l'interviewer nous donne, que les audiences étaient tenues le matin, afin d'arracher l'empereur à ses femmes, est encore une de ces belles fantaisies européennes. L'erapereur chinois, toujours comme représentant du soleil, s'occupe de ses femmes l'après-midi, de même que le soleil caresse la nature le jour et non la nuit. Les missionnaires se sont assez plaints dans le temps que leur grand K'ang hi passait tous ses après-midis dans ses jardins particuliers avec un troupeau de femmes. On peut en lire la relation détaillée dans les Mémoires du P. Ripa (traduction anglaise de Fortunato Prandi, pp. 72 et 115-117, nouvelle édition de 1861).

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