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III

III

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Traduction.

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大漢国伯志義先發願動

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剛座伏過唯識座主歸宝与諸大德等同發願往生內地三十万人中歸宝為第一人志義第二為室第

虫秀智承奉昇清蘊等並願親奉

I. Le religieux Tchi-i, du pays des grands Han, 5 avait autrefois formulé le veu d'engager 300.000 7 hommes à pratiquer la conduite (prescrite dans

le Sûtra) de la naissance supérieure, de distribuer 10 300.000 volumes du Sûtra de la naissance supé

rieure et de réciter lui-même 300.000 volumes.

Par les mérites nommés ci-dessus, il avait atteint
16
14 15 la sincérité suprême et il s'était armé avec ses
E 16
€ 17 compagnons (préparé pour le péleriuage). Main-
18

tenant arrivés au royaume de Magadha,
= 20 avons longuement contemplé le
+ 21

II. Trône de diamant, et nous avons humblement 卷 23

passé devant le Trône de l'Intelligence unique. E 24 # 25 Lorsque le maître Koui-pao, avec tous ces bha26

dantas, avaient fait ensemble le veu d'aller armés 27 in 28 (préparés), Koui-pao était le premier entre ces = 29 + 30 300.000 hommes, Tchi-i était le second, Kouang7 31

foung le troisième, et les autres (suivaient) selon le 卷。32 to 33 degré de leurs différents mérites. Hour-yen, h 35

III. X.X. et d'autres, désirant fixer (ou scruter)

derechef les causes suprêmes de la doctrine d'or, 0 37

38 ils avançaient journellement (de jour en jour) 同 39

dans son intelligence.
# 40
內 41

Tsiuen-siou, Tchi-young, Foung-ching, Ts'ing-yun 수 43 et d'autres ayant tous ensemble désiré révérer 至

en personne le Vénérable compatissant Maitreya, 绍 46 ils ont profité aujourd'hui de cette bonne occasion, 国 47 48 pour achever (les images de) ces sept Bouddhas,

afin de servir comme souvenir.

慈尊令

£ 34

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Traduction de M, E. Chavannes.

Le religieux Tche-i, du pays des grands Han, avait autrefois formulé le veu d'engager trois cent mille hommes à pratiquer la conduite qui assure la naissance supérieure, de répandre au nombre de trois cent mille chapitres les sûtras qui procurent la naissance supérieure, de réciter lui-même ces trois cent mille chapitres; d'un mérite tel que celui qui vient d'être nommé, l'effet en retour est égal à la cause qui fait naître. Maintenant, arrivé dans le royaume de Magadha, il a admiré le trône de diamant, il a humblement passé devant le trône de Vij ñ â n a mâtra. Le maître Koei-pao et une foule de bhandantas ensemble (ont obtenu?). la cause qui fait naître; des trois cent mille hommes, Koei-pao fut le premier; Tche-i, le second; Koang-fong, le troisième; au-dessous d'eux s'a p p uy a nt sur le rang qui lui assure un mérite éclatant, Hoei-chan, catégorie....(?) pénétrer l'oeuvre efficace de la doctrine accomplie; le sens de cela est de jour en jour plus proche (le pélerin se sent de jour en jour plus proche de la réalisation de son vou). Ho e i-sieou, Tche-yong, Fong-cheng, Ts'ing-yan et d'autres avaient tous ensemble désiré s'a cquitter personnellement du soin de sculpter [l'image du] Vénérable Compatissant; maintenant ils ont accompli cette excellente oeuvre, et, après avoir achevé ces sept Bouddhas, ils ont fait ..... (cette inscription commémorative).

1) Les phrases et mots espacés sont ceux qui diffèreat de ma traduction.

Etymology of the word Taifun

BY

G. SCHLEGEL.

This word, first used by Pinto in 1560, in his description of the terrible whirlwinds raging in the seas of southern China, and expressly stated by him to be a chinese term for these winds, has been hitherto a puzzle to all students.

It has been thought to be the same as the greek word typhon (TUDwv) (Lecomte, 1893), or been identified with the Cantonese taifung (*), "a great wind", an identification to which the late sinologue Mayers objected (Notes and Queries on China and Japan, Vol. III, p. 10).

MM. Taintor and Kingsmill advocated the derivation from the Arab túfân, from the root tâfa (Ibid. p. 42-43); an opinion which Mr. K. Himly also defended in a learned dissertation. Dr. F. Hirth, the wellknown german sinologue, has returned to the question and states agaiv, that the word is a genuine chinese one, as in the Tai-wan-fu tchi, a chinese work on Formosa, these terrible winds are called t'ai (FB), a character not to be found in the imp. dict.

a of the emperor K'ang-hi. Thus far, he is quite right; but his etymology of the word is totally wrong. He declares the character to be composed of the radical fung, Wind, and the abbreviated form of the character tai occurring in the chinese name of the island of Formosa: Tai-wan, also written 台灣; so that it would mean “the wind of Formosa”.

Now, if Dr. Hirth had known the Amoy colloquial '), he would never have proposed such a far-fetched etymology. In Amoy and environs these terrible storms are called hong t'ai, properly transcribed in or "womb (t'ai) of storm (hong)”, which is only a colloquial translation of the classical term -mu, “Mother of storm".

Let us hear what the Chinese have to say about this term, which we, moreover, have already explained in 1882 in our “Nederlandsch-Chineesch Woordenboek" (Dutch-Chinese Dictionary) 8. v. Orkaan, Storm and Typhon.

The Hi #Ling-piao luh i says: “In the southern seas, between summer and autumn, the clouds are circled by a confused halo resembling a rainbow, and which has an extension of six to seven feet. This is a

sure presage that a tyfoon is brewing; and it is therefore called “Mother o' tyfoon". But when a sudden clap of thunder happens, the tyfoon does not break out. Sailors always consider it as a foreboding, and take their precautions against it betimes” ?).

The character is composed of fung, “wind" and kū, "everywhere”, because the tyfoon shifts to all cardinal points :). Other names for the tyfoon are 10 ml fung, the terrible wind;

heh fung, the black wind; yang chau fung, the

1) We must caution all sinologues who wish to treat of Formosa, to pay a due regard to the Amoy-colloquial language, as most of the Chinese in that island are Amoyites.

2)南海秋夏間、或雲物惨然 (sic! for 參然有 量如虹。長七尺。此候則颶風必發。故呼 為颶母。見有震雷、則颶風不作矣。舟人 常以為候。預為備之。Vide Bonyclopedia 格致鏡原, Chap. III, fol. 5 verso, Art. l . Names and designations of Winds.

3)颶者具四面之風也。Vide 南越志,quotel in the name

Encyclopedia

wind which whirls up the tide; not e po-yih fung, the yokebreaking wind, etc. The book "Five elements of the labourer” ( TT TT) says: "The storms raging during the junction of summer and autumn, when the sand of the sea rises in clouds, are called Fung chau, “Wind-tide”; the ancient called them fung; the sailors also call them the yoke-breaking wind" ').

Luh-yeu says: “At the outskirts of the Ling (Meiling = present Kwang-tung and Kwang-si) "Mothers of noxious vapors" are met with, which, at their first appearance, are round and black; they then slowly expand themselves, and they are called "Mother o' tyfoon” ” ?).

In the Canton dialect the tyfoon is called fung kaŭ or ta-fung kaū, written with a local character per or PT F. Wells Williams (Tonic Dict. of the Chin. lang. in the Canton dialect, p. 140a) says: "Pod a colloquial word; a loaf, a lump, piece, clod.... ta fung kaī, a high gale”; but Chalmers, in his English and Cantonese pocketdictionary, calls a tyfoon fung kaữ, which thus literally translated means "The lump of storm". We note here that our sailors call such a black lump portentous of storm "a stain of oil”.

From these names Hong t'ai, "Womb of wind", Fung kaū, "Lump of wind” and # mu, “Mother o' tyfoon”, it clearly appears that with the expression T'ai is not meant the tyfoon itself, but its foreboding black cloud; or, as the Germans would say, "die sturmesschwangere Wolke" (the tempest-pregnant cloud).

This is best illustrated in the Amoy Colloquial. Douglas says:

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1)夏秋之交大風及海沙雲起謂之風潮。古 人名之日颶風。航海之人又名之破範風。

2) 陸游日。嶺表有樟母。初起圈黑、久漸廣。 謂之母。

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