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into the vitreous chamber before immersing in 70 per cent. alcohol to allow the liquids to pass in. Just before putting into celloidin, a window is made parallel to the plane of desired sections, and the hardened vitreous humor is easily removed without injury to the retina or other structures. This method is now used with small eyes instead of the injection, as it is so much easier of manipulation.

In order to show the relation of the retinal arteries to the area and fovea centralis, they were injected with the gelatinecarmine mass of Ranvier. In small animals this injection was made in the carotid arteries, while with large animals the eyes were removed and the injection made into that branch of the ophthalmic artery which supplies the retina. After injection, the eyes were at once cooled and hardened in alcohol. When hardened, the front half of the globe and the vitreous humor were carefully removed, exposing to view the retina, arteries, entrance of nerve, and area and fovea centralis, when present. The fovea is at once seen if it be present, but the area is sometimes very difficult to discern, and, were it not for the bloodvessels acting as land-marks, it might be overlooked altogether. Drawings were made of this posterior half, great care being taken to orient it, so that one would look into it along the axis of vision.

The results of these injections only serve to substantiate Müller's observation. He states that mammals are the only class of vertebrates which possess, in the true sense, a retinal circulation, while with many mammals only a meagre circulation is present (horse and rabbit). Fish and amphibians possess a good circulation in the hyaloid membrane, while birds and many reptiles have the circulation of the pecten. Huschke states that these vessels of the hyaloid membrane and

pecten correspond to the retinal vessels in mammals. They do not, however, penetrate the retina.

With animals which have neither retinal nor hyaloid vessels, it would appear that the retina is nourished by the choroidal vessels. In fact, in animals with good retinal circulation, the capillaries do not penetrate deeper than the outer 'H. Müller, Anatomie und Physiologie des Auges, p. 117.


molecular layer, thus leaving the rod and cone, and outer nuclear layers without blood vessels.

Investigations show that not all vertebrates possess foveæ, but that each class has a representative which does. When there is no fovea, a well-defined area centralis is usually present. However, in some vertebrates, even an area has not been observed.

The following condensed tabulation will show the frequency of the area and fovea centralis in the eyes which have been examined."

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From this tabulation it is readily seen, so far as experiments have gone, that in mammals the presence of a fovea is the exception while an area is the rule. The primates are the only mammals in which a fovea has been found. Most of the mammals examined have a well-defined area which is easily seen, but, in some, an area has not been demonstrated. The arrangement of the retinal vessels, however, indicates the presence of an area which is free from blood-vessels, and may correspond to the area centralis of other animals.

* H. Müller, Anatomie und Physiologie des Auges, p. 103.

6 These results are partly obtained from the tabulation of J. H. Chievitz in his article: Ceber das Vorkommen der Area centralis retinae in den vier höheren Wirbelklassen. Archiv. f. Anat. u. Entwick., 1891, p. 321-325.

With birds, the presence of a fovea seems to be the rule. In fact, the domestic chicken is thus far the only exception. Many birds have a fovea'and band-like area, while some have two foveæ and a band-like area connecting them.

In reptiles, the number of species provided with fovea or simple area are more nearly equal, while with amphibians and fishes, the area has frequently not been seen, and the fovea is only seldom observed.

The area centralis varies greatly in form and extent in different animals. It varies from the round form of small extent found in the cat and the weasel to the band-like form found in the horse, sheep, rabbit, frog, etc., which extends horizontally across the retina.

In the case of the fovea we also find a variety of forms and positions. In some animals it is situated on the nasal side of the entrance of the optic nerve (fovea nasalis), while in others it is on the temporal side (fovea temporalis). According to Müller, in the former case we have monocular vision, while in the latter we have binocular vision. In form it varies from a mere dot-like impression, as in some lizards, to a well marked funnel-like pit in most birds, especially crow, bluejay, robin, etc., and to a trough-like depression in the crocodile which extends horizontally across the retina. Two foveæ have been found in some birds, as in swallows and terns, in which case the fovea nasalis is very near the centre of the retina, and has to do with single vision. It is also larger and deeper than the fovea temporalis, which is situated near the ora serrata and functions in double vision. According to Chievitz, the tern has not only two fovæ, but a trough-like fovea connecting them, and the goose, duck and gull have a round fovea and a bandlike area.

A great difference exists in the different vertebrates when their ability for acuteness of sight is considered. It varies from the most perfect sight found in man (and possibly in birds also) where exceedingly fine discriminations are possible, to the limited visual power found in other animals, where only an area centralis is present. Though acute vision and a fovea have always been associated, still we cannot, at present, say that the animals which do not possess a fovea are not able to see acutely. In order to make clear the relation of sight to the habits of the animal, a much more careful observation of its visual habits, and the histological arrangement of the retinal elements will be necessary.

* H. Müller, Ueber das Vorhandsein zweier Fovea in der Netzhaut Vieler Vogelaugen-Zehender, Klinische Monatsblätter, Sept., 1863, p. 438-440; or Anatomie und Physiologie des Auges, p. 139, 142–143.

"J. H. Chievitz, Ueber das Vorkommen der Area centralis retinae, Archiv. f. Anat. u. Entwick., 1891, p. 324.


-The Antivivisectionists have been endeavoring to get a consensus of opinion on the utility of vivisection, by circulating blanks for signatures, which are attached to a few alternative opinions on the subject in point. The alternatives, excepting those expressing an unconditional affirmative and negative, were not sufficiently precise or well stated to satisfy persons of moderate views, so that it was necessary to amend them more or less to express such opinions. In the summary of the results thus obtained, the antivivisection managers omitted most of these moderate views, and only gave to the public the two extremes. The circulars were also very injudiciously distributed, as a majority of them went to persons unfamiliar with the work of scientific research, as clergymen, etc. The only persons who have a practical knowledge of the subject are original investigators in the natural sciences, physiologists and physicians. The opinions of other persons must be mostly formed at second hand. As a body of men, those above referred to are at least as humane as

other class in the community. Their business is to relieve suffering, and they are not insensible to those of the lower animals. Naturalists, as a body, are probably more humane in their feelings towards animals than any other class in the community. Nearly all of these meu are, however, well convinced not only of the propriety, but of the necessity of vivisection. It is the only method of attacking many difficult problems of physiology. It is the basis of our knowledge of the functions of the human organism, which is itself the first essential to the control of human disease and human suffering. The autivivi


sectionists are, unwittingly, doing what they can to sustain ignorance and to prevent the relief of human suffering. They are sacrificing their fellow beings, their relatives and their friends, in preference to a few of the lower animals. Men, women and children may suffer and die; white rabbits, guinea-pigs and dogs may live. Such logic is like that of the Spanish Inquisitors, who tortured human beings under the belief that they served God and the cause of religion in so doing. There is, however, less excuse for the antivivisectionists, since knowledge is more widely distributed now than then, and the great utility of vivisection has been demonstrated over and over again.

The six national scientific societies to meet during the holidays in Philadelphia will probably express their views on this subject, and it may be confidently expected that these will accord with those of science the world over.

Intelligent people are best deceived by intelligent frauds. A fraud in order to succeed in the United States must make pretensions to superior knowledge. The alleged or actual graduate of medicine who desires to be a fraud bas a pretty good field in this country; and his successes are ever with us, in spite of the opposition of the many true men of that profession. The scientific fraud has not yet developed very largely, as there is no money to be made by pretense in this direction. In fact this species of the genus is not generally a person of evil intentions, and errs chiefly through an active imagination, and perhaps sometimes through a tendency to megalomania.

We are moved to these remarks by reading an article in the December number of a Chicago Journal called Self Culture. On p. 587 we read; “Examination of the brain of such an idiot before its education has begun, shows but few brain cells, and a few nerve fibres connecting them. And when a post mortem has been made upon the child that was once an idiot but that has been lifted up by long years of patient training to citizenship in the moral and rational sphere in which we live and move, such a postmortem shows that an infinite number of braincells have been created de novo; that fibers becoming necessary have appeared, to connect such cells, centers of sensation and emotion and thought.”

Now the author of this paragraph should refer us to the published articles which describe the removal of the brains or parts of brains of idiotic children for sectioning and microscopic investigation, and the subsequent replacement of these organs or parts of them in the cravia of the children in order that they may undergo the “long years of

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