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Fresh Relics of Glacial Man Reported at the Buffalo Meeting of the

A. A. S. G. F, WRIGHT...

Relative Efficiency of Animals as Machines. M. MILES..............

Piney Branch (D. C.) Quarry Workshop and its Implement (Illus-

trated). THOMAS WILSON......

.... ......

....873,

The Geographical Distribution of Batrachia and Reptilia in North

America. E. D. COPE......

Fossils and Fossilization. L. P. GRATACAP

.902,

The Biologic Origin of Mental Variety, or How We Came to Have

Minds. HERBERT NICHOLS.........
EDITOR'S TABLE.—The Antivivisectionists Again, 32 ; Vivisection of

Idiots, 33 ; The American Association at San Francisco, 34; A
National University, 200 ; The X Rays (Illustrated), 201 ; Graft-
ing Snakes, 201 ; The Destruction of Mosquitos, 201 ; Antarctic
Exploration, 202 ; The Huxley Memorial, 202 ; The Destruction
of the Seal Herd, 385 ; Credit for Work, 385 ; The Field Museum,
385; The Filson Club, 386; The New Commissioner of Fisher-
ies, 386; The Bestiarians Before Congress, 468 ; The Spoliation
of Nature, 563 ; The American Association at Buffalo, 564;
Priority of Publication, 651; Presidents of the Anierican Asso-
ciation, 652 ; The Decimal Catalogue System, 652; The Ameri-
can Association, 805; The Field Museum, 806; Notice to Our
Contributors, 806; Personal Names in Nomenclature, 925 ;
Species Describing. 926; Nansen and the Deep Sea, 927; Survi-
val of useless Names, 1027; Correction Concerning a Review of
Wachsmuth and Springer, 1027; Dates of Publication of the

Numbers of the AMERICAN NATURALIST........

RECENT LITERATURE.—Petrology for Students, 35 : Crystallography,

A Treatise on the Morphology of Crystals, 35; Elementary

Physical Geography, 37; Synoptical Flora of North America,

38 ; Natural History of Plants, 39 ; Recent Books on Vegetable

Pathology, 120 ; The Iowa University Bahama Expedition, 122;

The Shrews of North America, 122 ; Iowa Geological Survey,

Vol. III, 123 ; Duration of Niagara Falls, and History of the

Great Lakes, 124; Korean Games, 124; Williams' Manual of

Lithology, 203; The Corundum Deposits of Georgia, 204 ; Plant

Breeding, 204; Murray's Introduction to the Study of Sea-

Weeds, 290 ; Taxonomy of the Crinoids, 292; Geological Survey

of New Jersey, 387; Annual Report, Vol. VI, Geological Survey

of Canada, 387 ; Elementary Physical Geography, 388 ; Guide

Zoologique, 388 ; Practical Zoology, 389; Elementary Lessons

in Zoology, 389; Cliats about British Birds, 389; Check List of

North American Birds, 390 ; The Cambridge Natural History,

469 ; Geological Biology, 471 ; Surface Colors, 564; The Whence

and Whither of Man, 565; Factors of Organic Evolution, 566;

The Child and Childhood in Folk-Thought, 568 ; Ethics of Mar-

riage, 569; The Structure of Solpugids, 653 ; The Bears of North

1033

America, 656 ; Journey Through Mongolia and Thibet, 731 ;

Publications of the United States Geological Survey for 1893-4.

Fourteenth Annual Report, 732 ; An Introduction to the Study
of Zoology, 733 ; The Cranial Nerves in Batrachia, 733 ; Structure
and Life of Birds, 734; The Earth and Its Story, 927; A Hand-
book of Rocks, for Use Without the Microscope, 728; Gregory's
Plant Anatomy, 1028; Boulenger's Catalogue of Snakes in the
British Museum, 1029 ; Nuttall's Handbook of Birds, 1031 ; Edu-
cation of the Central Nervous System, 1032 ; Lydekker on the

Geographical History of Mammalia..........

Recent BOOKS AND PAMPHLETS -41, 125, 205, 295, 390, 473, 570, 657,

734, 807, 830......

GENERAL Notes.— Petrography.The Origin of Adinoles, 43; Notes

from the Adirondacks, 43 ; An Augengneiss from the Lillerthal,

45; Petrographical Notes, 45, 130, 210, 300, 395, 477, 579, 663,

744, 817, 1040 ; Igneous Rocks of St. John, N. B , 127; Eruptive

Rocks from Montana, 128; Porphyrites and Porphyritic Struc-
ture, 128 ; Granophyre of Carrock Fell, England, 129; Sheet and
Neck Basalts in the Lausite, 129; The Eruptives of Missouri,
207 ; Rocks from Eastern Africa, 208 ; A Basic Rock Derived
from Granite, 209; Cancrinite-Syenite from Finland. 209; Rocks
from the Sweet Grass Hills, Montana, 210 ; Examples of Rock
Differentiation, 297; Ancient Volcanics in Michigan, 393 ;
Gneisses of Essex Co., N. Y., 393 ; Volcanic Rocks in Maine,
394 ; Spotted Quartzites, S. Dakota, 394; The Gneisses and
Leopard Rock of Ontario, 395; Malignite, A New Family of
Rocks, 475; Foliated Gabbros from the Alps, 476; The Rocks of
Glacier Bay, Alaska, 477; Volcanic Rocks and Tufts in Prussia,
576 ; Igneous Rocks of British Columbia, 577 ; Chalcedony (on-
cretions in Obsidians from Colorado, 578; Basic Dykes near
Lake Memphremagog, 578; The Origin of the Maryland Gran-
ites, 578; The Eruptives and Tufts of Tetscheu, 660 ; A Nephe-
line-Syenite Boulder from Ohio, 662 ; Crystalline Rocks of New

Jersey, 662; Simple Crystalline Rocks from India and Australia,

662 ; The Weathering of Diabase, 663 ; Petrography of the Bear-

paw Mountains, Montana, 741 ; Two French Rocks, 741; The

Granite of the Himalayas, 742 ; California Rocks, 742; Gabbro-

Gneiss from Russell, 743 ; Geology of Point Sal, California, 814 ;

Leucite-Basanites of Vulcanello, 815 ; A Squeezed Quartz-Por-

phyry, 816; Mica-Syenite at Rothschonberg, 817; The Sioux

Quartzite of Iowa, 1038; The Peridotites of North Carolina,

1038 ; Shales and Slates from Wales...

Mineralogy.-Contact Goniometer with two Graduated Circles, 573 ;

Crystallographic Properties of the Sulphonic Acid Derivatives
of Camphor, 573 ; Optical Properties of Lithiophilite and Tri-
philite, 573; Native Sulphur in Michigan, 574 ; Leadhillite
Pseudomorphs at Granby, Mo., 574; Celestite from Giershagen,

574; Minerals from the Galena Limestone, 575; Miscellaneous

Notes, 575, 739, 813, 934 ; The Chemical Composition of Tur-

quoises, 737; Alstonite and Barytocalcite, 737 ; Rutile, Cassi-

terite and Lircon, 738 ; Development of Faces on Crystals, 809;

Albite from Lakous, Island of Crete, 810; Fosterite from Monte

Somma, 810; Fayalite and the Chrysolite-Fayalite Group, 811;

Rhodophosphite, 812 ; Etched Figures on Some Minerals, 932 ;

Pollucite, Mangano-columbite and Microlite from Rumford,

Maine, 933 ; Epidote and its Optical Properties........

Geology and Paleontology.-On the Species of Hoplophoneus [Illustra-

ted), 46; The Gold-bearing Quartz of California, 52 ; Precam-

brian Sponges, 53 ; Embryology of Diplograptus, 54; The

Upper Miocene of Montredon, 54 ; Notes on the Fossil Mam-

malia of Europe, 131, 306, 480, 665 ; The Glossopteris Flora in

Argentina, 135 ; Geological News, 136, 217, 401, 746, 821, 941 ;

Bear River Formation, 211: On the Occurrence of Neocene

Marine Diatomaceæ near New York, 212 ; The Succession

of Glacial Changes, 216; The Paleozoic Reptilian Order

Cotylosauria (Illustrated), 301 ; The Puget Group, 304; The

Geological Structure of Florida, 305 ; The Glaciers of Green-

land, 311; Geology of the French Congo, 396; The Antartic

Continent, 397 ; Two Epochs in Vegetable Paleontology. 397 ;

The Appalachian Folds, 398; The Ancestry of the Testudinata

398 ; The Extent of the Triassic Ocean, 400 ; Phylogeny of the

Dipnoi, 479; Fauna of the Knoxville Beds, 479; Reclamation

of Deserts, 487; Canadian Paleontology, 579 ; Jackson on the

Development of Oligoporus, 580 ; American Fossil Cockroaches,

581 ; The Comanche Cretaceous, 582 ; Kolqueo Island, 582 ;

Paleontologia Argentina, 583; The Limestones of the Jenny

Jump Mountains, New Jersey, 664 ; Unios from the Trias, 665;

The Cadurcotherium, 665; Fossil Jelly Fishes, 744 ; Is Paleos-

pondylus a Marsipobranch? 745 ; The Skeleton of Aepyornis,

745; Cambrian Rocks of Pennsylvania, 817; Structure of Uinta-

crinus, 819; Permian Land Vertebrata with Carapaces (Illustra-

ted), 936; Eozoon canadense, 941; Thickness of the Coal Meas-

ures..

Botany.—The Vienna Propositions, 55; The Flora of Ohio, 58; The

Flora of the Sand Hills of Nebraska, 59; Recent Botanical
Papers, 60; A Recent Paper on the Relation between the Asco-
mycetes and Basidiomycetes (Illustrated), 218; Polyporaceæ,
Hydnaceæ and Helvellaceæ, 222; The Smut of Indian-Corn,
223 ; Antidromy and Crossfertilization, 223; New Species of
Fungi, 313; Alaskan Botany, 314; Aquatic Plants of Iowa, 315;
Another Elementary Botany, 315; Botany in the United States
Department of Agriculture, 316; Notes on Recent Botanical
Publications, 317; The Conifers of the Pacific Slope, 402 ; Pop-
ular Botany, 404; Notes of Botanical Papers, 404; Botany in

the Natioual Education Association, 486; Coulter's Revision of

the N. A. Cactaceæ, 486; Botanical News, 487, 587, 1045 ; Tild-

en's American Algæ, 584 ; Sets of North American Plants, 585;

Botany in Buffalo, 586 ; Blanks for Plant Analysis, 586 ; De
Toni's Sylloge Algarum, 668; The Flora of the Black Hills of
South Dakota, 669; Trelease's Hickories and Walnuts of the
United States, 670; Diseases of Citrous Fruits, 671; Mulford's

Agaves of the United States, 671; The Teaching of Elementary

Botany, 747; The Conifers of the Pike's Peak Region, 748 ; Ferns

near Colorado Springs, 750 ; Botany at Buffalo, 822; A New

Manual of Systematic Botany, 826; Evolution of a Botanical

Journal, 1041 ; The North American Species of Physalis and

Related Genera, 1043 ; The Nomenclature of Mycetozoa, 1044;

The Flora of Wyoming, 1044 ; The Lichens of Chicago, 1045;

Eastwood's Plants of Southeastern Utah......

Vegetable Physiology.—Changes due to an Alpine Climate, 61; Spore

Formation Controlled by External Conditions, 63 ; Germina-

tion of Refractory Spores, 64 ; Botany at the British Associa-

tion, 65 ; Nitrifying Organisms, 65 ; Relation of Sugars to the

Growth of Bacteria, 66; Algal Parasite on Coffee, 67 ; Smut

Fungi by Oscar Brefeld, 137; Water Pores, 224 ; Biology of

Smut Fungi, 224; Function of Anthocyan, 226; Ambrosia, 318;

White Ants as Cultivators of Fungi, 319; Desert Vegetation,

321 ; A Second Rafinesque, 321 ; Change in Structure of Plants

due to Feeble Light, 405; A Graft Hybrid, 408; Ustilaginoidea,

408 ; A New Classification of Bacteria, 490; Ambrosia Once

More.......

Zoology.-On Bodo urinarius, 67 ; Influence of the Winter 1894-95 upon

the Marine Fauna of the Coast of France, 69; Preliminary Out-

line of a New Classification of the Family Muricidæ, 69; Her-

petology of Angola, 71 ; Zoological News, 71, 332, 412, 590, 758,

1052; The Paroccipital of the Squamata and the Affinities of the

Mosasauridæ once more; A Rejoinder to Prof. Cope on Dr.

Baur's Rejoinder on the Homologies of the Paroccipital bone,

etc. (Illustrated), 143 ; Boulenger on the Difference between

Lacertilia and Ophidia; and on the Apoda, 149 ; The Myxos-

poridia, 229; The Segmentation of the Hexapod Body, 230 ; The

Coxal Glands of Thelyphonus caudatus, 231 ; Cross Fertilization

and Sexual Rights and Lefts Among Fishes, 232; Abnormal

Sacrum in an Alligator, 232; The Polar Hares of Eastern North

America, With Descriptions of New Forms, 234; The Cruise of

the Princess Alice, 323 ; Australian Spiders, 324 ; Autodax iec-

anus, 325; Reptiles and Batrachians of Mesilla Valley, New

Mexico, 325; On Prof. Cope's Criticism of Baur's Drawings of

the Squamosal Region of Conolophus subcristalus Gray, etc. 327;

The Food of some Colorado Birds, 329; The Manx Cat, 330;

A Case of Renal Abnormality in the Cat, 331 ; Respiration of

.......

.........

Trilobites, 409; A Criticism of Mr. Cook's Note on the Sclerites

of Spirobolus, 409; The Sight of Insects, 410; Dr. Bauron Cope's

Drawings of the Skull of Conolophus subcristatus Gray, 411; The

Feeding Phenomena of Sea Anemones, 495; The Relation of Myr-

mecophile Lepismids to the Ants, 496; Lipophrys a Substitute

for Pholis, 498; Blind Batrachia and Crustacea from the Subter-

ranean Waters of Texas, 498 ; Lungless Salamanders, 499; Ba-

trachia found at Raleigh, N. C., 500 ; The Frilled Lizard, 501 ;

The Palatine Process of the Mammalian Premaxillary, 502; New

Formation of Nervous cells in the Brain of the Monkey, after

the complete cutting away of the occipital lobes, 502 ; Japanese

Leeches, 590; The Origin of Tail-forms, 588 ; The Spermatheca

in some American Newts and Salamanders, 589; Sense of Sight

in Spiders, 672; Classification and Geographical Distribution of

the Naiides, 674; Arkansas Fishes, 675; Batrachia and Reptilia

of Madagascar, 675; The Moulting of Birds, 676; Florida Deer,

677; Lygosoma (Liolepisma) in New Jersey, 752; On a New

Glauconia from New Mexico, 753 ; On the Habits of Keen's

Mouse Deer, Peromyscus keenii Rhoads, 753; The Inheritance of

an Acquired Character, 755; The Hartebeest, 755; The Heart

of some Lungless Salamanders (Illustrated], 829; On two New

Species of Lizards from Southern California, 933 ; Modification

of the Brain during Growth, 836; The Lion of India, 837 ; Inher-

itance of Artificial Mutilations, 837; Fishes in Isolated Pools,

943 ; On the Mud Minnow as an Air Breather, 844; The Perito-

neal Epithelium in Amphibia, 944; The Penial Structure of the

Sauria, 945; Food Habits of Woodpeckers, 946 ; The Ectal Rela-

tions of the Right and Left Parietal and Paroccipital Fissures,

947 ; Notes on Turbellaria, 1046; On the Genus Callisaurus,

1049; The Food of Birds, 1050 ; Preliminary Description of a

New Vole from Labrador.......

Entomology.-Insects in the National Museuni, 72 ; On the Girdling of

Elm Twigs by the Larvæ of Orgyia leucostigma and its Results,
74; Heterocerca of the Lesser Antilles, 152; Bot Flies of the
Horse, 153; Fossil Butterflies, 154 ; Origin of European Butter-
flies, 154 ; North American Apheliniæ, 155 ; Entomological
News, 155, 506, 596, 1058; On Certain Geophilidæ described by
Meinert, 29; Life-History of Scale Insects, 242; The Segmen-
tal Sclerites of Spirobolus, 333 ; Secretion of Potassium Hydrox-
ide, 335 ; Lake Superior Coleoptera, 335; A New Diplopod
Fauna in Liberia, 413; Domestic Economy of Wasps, 504 ; Cir-
culars on Injurious Insects, 505; Gypsy Moth Extermination,
506; The Asymmetry of the Mouthparts of Thysanoptera (Il-
lustrated), 591 ; A New African Diplopod Related to Polyxe-
mus, 593 ; North American Crambidæ, 595 ; New Mallophaga,
596 ; Professor Forbes' Eighth Report 677; Flies Riding on
Beetle's Back, 678 ; Proteid Digesting Saliva in Insect Larvæ,

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