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These in twos or threes, or perhaps singly, and without a shepherd, are shut up, not in our Lord's sheep-folds, but in their own: the pleasure of their desires is to them a law; and whatever they like or make choice of, they will have to be holy, but what they like not, that they consider unlawful.
The fourth kind of Monks are called" Gyrovagi," or wanderers, who travel about all their lives through divers provinces, and stay for two or three days as guests, first in one monastery, then in another; they are always roving, and never settled, giving themselves up altogether to their own pleasures and to the enticements of gluttony, and are generally in all things worse than the Sarabites. Their miserable way of life is fitter to be buried in oblivion than to be the subject of our discourse. Therefore leaving these, let us, by God's assistance, set down a Rule for Cenobites, or Conventuals, who are the most steadfast class of Monks.
QUALIS ESSE DEBEAT ABBAS.
9 Jan. ABBAS, qui præesse dignus est monasterio, 9 Sept. semper meminisse debet, quod dicitur, e nomen Majoris factis implere. Christi enim agere vices in monasterio creditur, quando ipsius vocatur prænomine, dicente Apostolo: Accepistis spiritum adoptionis filiorum, in quo clamamus, Abba, Pater."1 Ideoque Abbas nihil extra præceptum Domini (quod absit) debet aut docere, aut constituere, vel jubere sed jussio ejus vel doctrina, fermentum divinæ justitiæ, in discipulorum mentibus conspergatur.
1 Rom. viii. 15.
WHAT KIND OF MAN THE ABBOT OUGHT TO BE.
AN Abbot who is worthy to have charge of a Monastery ought always to remember by what title he is called, and in his actions show forth the character of Ancient. For in the Monastery he is considered to represent the person of Christ, seeing that he is called by His name and title, as the Apostle saith: "Ye have received the spirit of the adoption of children, in which we cry, Abba, Father.'1" Therefore the Abbot ought to teach, ordain, or command nothing but what is conformable to the commands of our Lord (and God forbid he should do otherwise); but let his commands and doctrine be mingled in the minds of his disciples with the leaven of divine justice.
10 Jan. 11 Maii
Memor sit semper Abbas, quia doctrinæ 10 Sept, suæ vel discipulorum obedientiæ, utrarumque rerum in tremendo judicio Dei facienda erit discussio, sciatque Abbas, culpæ pastoris incumbere, quicquid in ovibus paterfamilias utilitatis minus potuerit invenire.
Tantum iterum liber erit, si inquieto vel inobedienti gregi pastoris fuerit omnis diligentia attributa, et morbidis earum actibus universa fuerit cura exhibita pastor earum in judicio Domini absolutus, dicat cum Propheta Domino: "Justitiam tuam non abscondi in corde meo, veritatem tuam, et salutare tuum dixi 1 ipsi autem contemnentes spreverunt me."2 Et tunc demum inobedientibus curæ suæ ovibus pœna sit eis prævalens ipsa mors.
11 Jan. Ergo cum aliquis suscipit nomen Abba11 Sept. tis, duplici debet doctrina suis præesse discipulis; id est, omnia bona, et sancta, factis amplius, quam verbis ostendere, ut capacibus discipulis mandata Domini verbis proponat: duris vero corde et simplicioribus, factis suis divina præcepta demonstret. Omnia vero quæ
Let the Abbot always be mindful that, in the dreadful judgment of God, he must give an account both of his doctrine and of the obedience of his disciples, and that any lack of profit which the master of the family shall find in his sheep, will be laid to the shepherd's fault. But if he have bestowed all diligence on his unquiet and disobedient flock, and employed the utmost care to cure their corrupt manners, he shall then be acquitted in the judgment of the Lord, and may say with the Prophet: "I have not hidden thy justice in my heart, I have told thy truth and thy salvation,' but they contemned and despised me." 2 And then finally, death shall be inflicted as a just punishment upon the disobedient sheep.
When, therefore, anyone taketh upon himself the name of Abbot, he ought to govern his disciples with a twofold doctrine; that is, he ought first to show them all virtue and sanctity, more by deeds than by words: hence, to such as are intelligent, he may declare the commandments of God by words; but to the hardhearted, and to those of the ruder sort, he must