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224-234.-Langhans (P.) Fremde Volksstämme im Deutschen Reich verglichen mit der Verteilung der Glaubensbekenntnisse. Mitth. a. J. Perthes' geog. Anst., Gotha, 1895, xli, 249–252.- Laurent (E.) Une visite à la prison de Bokhara (Asie centrale). Rev. scient., Par., 1896, 3. s., v, 145.--Lefèvre (A.) L'évolution historique. Tribune méd., Par., 1896, 2. s., xxix, 21; 41; 61.-Lehmann-Nitsche (R.) Ein Beitrag zur prähistorischen Chirurgie. Arch. f. klin. Chir., Berl., 1895–6, li, 910-918, 1 pl. - Lemire (C.) Du rôle de la femme dans la colonisation. Compt. rend. d. trav. Cong. nat. d. soc. franç. de géog. 1894, Lyon, 1895, XV, 389–393.Leubuscher (G.) Untersuchung eines aus Borneo stammenden Pfeilgiftes. Centralbl. f. innere Med., Leipz., 1896, xvii, 97-104.- MCKenzie (R. T.) Notes on the examination and measurement of athletes. Montreal M. J., 1895–6, xxiv, 497-504. [Discussion], 561563.-Maler. Yukatekische Forschungen. Globus, Brnschwg.. 1895, Ixviii, 247; 277.-Maraver(M.) Importancia del estudio del hombre. Rev. de España, Madrid, 1895, cli, 37-42.-Martin Salazar (M.) Esbozos antropológicos sobre la Isla de Cuba. Rev. de san. mil., Madrid, 1896, x, 4-8.-Mathews (R. H.) Australian ground and tree drawings. Am. Anthrop., Wash., 1896, ix, 33-49,1 pl.–Mathivet (A.) La vie populaire dans l'Inde d'après les Hindous. Rev. d. deux mondes, Par., 1895, cxxxi, 407; 901.-Matthews (W.) A vigil of the gods: a Navaho ceremony. Am. Anthrop., Wash., 1896, ix, 50-57.-Meyer (P.) et P. Heiberg. Recherches sur le poids du cerveau chez les aliénés de l'hospice Saint-Jean, à Copenhague. Anthropologie, Par., 1895, vi, 625-639.-Mingazzini (G.) Sul significato delle anomalie della superficie dell'encefalo nei criminali. Atti d. xi. Cong. med. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, psichiat. [etc.], 70-75, [Discussion), 83-86.Minot (C. S.) On heredity and rejuvenation. Am. Naturalist, Phila., 1896, xxx, 1; 89.-Möbius (K.)
Die aesthetische Betrachtung der Thiere. Sitzungsb. d. k. preuss. Akad. d. Wissensch., Berl., 1895, 1005-1016.- Montefiore (A.) The Samoyads of the Arctic Tundras. Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sc., Lond., 1895, 828.- Mooney (J.) The mescal plant and ceremony. Therap. Gaz., Detroit, 1896, 3. s., xii, 7-11.Morel (J.) Sur la nécessité de créer des institutions spéciales pour les individus inaptes à jouir de la liberté. Atti d. xi. Cong. med. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, psichiat. [etc.], 165-169.--de Mortillet (G.) La foi et la raison dans l'étude des sciences. Rev. mens. de l'École d'anthrop. de Par., 1896, vi, 1-11.Mosso A.) Matérialisme et mysticisme. Rev. scient., Par., 1896, 4. s., v, 1-8.--Motte. Anomalie degli organi interni nei degenerati. Atti d. xi. Cong. med. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, psichiat. [etc.), 161-164.--Mulhall (M. G.) Is the human race deteriorating? N. Am. Rev., N. Y., 1896, clxii, 174-180.Munro (R.) and Bulleid (A.) The lake village at Glastonbury; second report. Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sc., Lond., 1895, 519-521.--Nardelli (R.) Ectrodattilia; reversione atavica ? Atti d. xi. Cong. med. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, psichiat. [etc.], 125-123.-Neave (J.L.) An agency physician's experience among frontier Indians. Cincin. M. J., 1895, x, 611; 1896, xi, 17.-O'Neill (J.) Straw. J. Am. Folk-Lore, Bost. & N. Y., 1895, viii, 291-298.Oppenheim (N.) The stamping out of crime. Pop. Sc. Month., N. Y., 1895-6, xlviii, 527-533.O'Reilly (J. P.) On the orientation of certain dolmens recently discovered in Catalonia. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., Dubl., 1895, 3. s., iii, 573-579.
and F. D'Albe. On a Pandean pipe from Tanna Island, New Hlebrides. Ibid., 511515.-Ottolenghi (S.) Le champ visuel chez les dégénérés. Atti d. xi. Cong. med.internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, psichiat. [etc.], 198–200.Patterson (G.) Notes on the folklore of Newfoundland. J. Am. FolkLore, Bost. & N. Y., 1895, viii, 285-290.–Pékar (C.) Astigmatisme
et esthétique. Rev. philos., Par., Rev., Par., 1895, 93-99.-Swanzy 1895, xl, 186-188.-Petrie W. M. (H. R.) Notes on defective vision F.) Anthropology. Rep. Brit. Ass. and other ocular derangements in Adv. Sc., Lond., 1895, Ixv, 816 821. ('ornelius Magrath, the Irish giant. -Phelps (R. M.) The prevention Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., Dubl., 1895, of social defectives. Med. News, 3. s., iii, 524-528.-- Tappeiner (F.) N. Y., 1896, lxviii, 98-101.-Pinard Zur Ethnographie und Anthro(A.) À propos du développement pologie der Resianer (Provinz de l'enfant. Rev. scient., Par., Udine). Sitzungsb. d. anthrop. 1896, 4. s., v, 109-111. -Pisko (J.) Gesellsch. in Wien, 1895, 66-68. Volksmedicin in Nordalbanien. Tarde (G.) Le transformisme soSitzungsb. d. anthrop. Gesellsch, in
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Étude sur le leitung einer Rassenhygiene und mariage chez les Polynésiens (Mao'i) ihre Beziehungen
Ethik. des îles Marquises. Anthropologie, Vrtljschr.f.wissensch. Phil., Leipz., Par., 1895, vi, 610-651.- Téglas 18995, xix, 368-377.-Polakowsky (G.) Neue Beiträge zu den Felsen(H.) Die Zustände auf der Oster Inschriften der Katarakte in der Insel. Globus, Brnschwg., 1895, untern Donau. Ungar. Rev., Pest, lxviii, 142–144. - Poncet (F.) Ori- 1895, xv, 1-18.- de Varigny (H.) gine des bandages herniaires et le Thomas Henry Huxley. Rev. dieu Bès ou Bizou. Méd. mod., scient., Par., 1896, 3. s., v, 33; 69. — Par., 1896, vii, 73.-Retzius. [He- Wallace (A. R.) The expressive. redity of acquired peculiarities.] ness of speech, or mouth-gesture as Förh. Svens. Läk.-Sällsk. Sammank., a factor in the origin of language. Stockholm, 1895, 92-98.--Ronco- Fortnightly Rev., Lond. & N. Y., roni (L.) De l'influence du sexe 1895, n. s., lviii, 528–543. Also, Resur la criminalité. Atti d. xi. Cong. print.-Walsh (J. E.) Some commed. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, mon diseases observed north of the psichiat. [etc.], 161-164. -Sapper Arctic circle. Virginia M. Month., (C.) Die Gebräuche und religiösen Richmond, 1895-6, xxii, 1109-1118. Anschauungen der Kekchí-In- [Discussion], 1176.—Warner (F.) dianer. Internat. Arch. f. Ethnog., Mental and physical defects of chilLeiden, 1896, viii, 195-207.
dren. Rep. Brit. Ass. Adv. Sc., Kekchí-Gebete. Ibid., 207-215.-- Lond., 1895, 503-508. – Wood. Schmeltz (J. D. E.) Beiträge zur thorpe (R. G.) The Shan Hills : Ethnographie Neu-Guinea. their peoples and products. J. Soc. Ibid., 238,244, 1 pl. – Seaver Arts, Lond., 1896, xliv, 197-210.(J. W.) Some new anthropomet- Zuccarelli (A.) Osservazioni inrical data. Yale M. J., N. Haven, torno alla frequenza di dati degen1896, ii, 149, 1 tab. --Sergi (G.) erativi somatici in rapporto con la Sulla classificazione naturale in an- condotta in alunni di scuole secondtropologia. Atti d. xi. Cong. med. arie di Napoli. Atti d. xi. Cong. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, med. internaz. 1894, Roma, 1895, iv, psichiat. [etc.], 75-81.-Sighele | psichiat. [etc.], 87. (S.) Psychologie féminine. Rev.d.
PROF. W. H. HOLMES' memoir on archeological studies among the ancient cities of Mexico will be reviewed in the April number of the Anthropologist.
Our songs being finished we began our teeth to worke. We had there a kinde of rice, much like oats. It growes in the watter in 3 or 4 foote deepe. There is a God that shews himselfe in every countrey, almighty, full of goodnesse and y preservation of those poore people who knoweth him not. They have a particular way to gather up that graine. Two takes a boat and two sticks, by wch they gett y® eare downe and gett the corne out of it. Their boat being full, they bring it to a fitt place to dry it; and that is their food for the most part of the winter, and doe dresse it thus: ffor each man a handfull of that they putt in the pott, that swells so much that it can suffice a man. Thus wrote Pierre d'Esprit, Sieur Radisson, in 1668, for the information of Charles II, of England.
Wild rice, Zizania aquatica, is common throughout eastern North America, but is most abundant in the shallows of the Great Lakes region. It is also termed Indian, water, and wild oats and marsh rye. Although known to Linnæus,” it has never been extensively used, except by some tribes of North American Indians. It grows best from the rich, muddy, slimy bottoms of gently flowing streams or their expansions into marshy lakes. The stagnant water of swamps and the still water of small spring lakes do not seem to furnish its necessities. In scarcely moving water the stalks sometimes come up from a depth of ten feet or more, but this grass is commonly found in water from two to four feet deep. It often reaches a height of nine or ten feet and grows in a thick mass; the leaves are long, flat, and lanceolate; the panicle is pyramidal in form; the lower branches are spreading and staminate; the upper branches erect and pistillate. This unusual arrangement necessitates a reversal of the common method of fertilization. In wild rice the small grains of pollen are lighter than the surrounding atmosphere. So, on leaving the anther, instead of falling, as in most plants, they rise to come in contact with the stigmas and produce fertilization. This variety of grass is exceedingly prolific. While found in many of the lakes and streams of northern Wisconsin, it does not grow in all of those which seem fitted for it. It can be sown in proper places with good results. It is an annual, the plant from the seed dropped in the fall coming up through the water in early June and at once putting forth its flower-stalk. It flowers in July and early August and reaches maturity in September. The seed is longer than that of common rice and is of a dark slate color. This plant is the folles avoines of the early French writers. Its harvest marked an important time in the Indian's year and preceded the great annual autumnal hunt. With the ancient village sites and the best hunting grounds, the rice fields were esteemed the most valuable tribal property and were vigorously defended.
1 Radisson's Fourth l’oyage, in Wis. Ilist. Coll., vol. xi, p. 89. 2 I. A. Lapham. Grasses of Wisconsin, in Trans. Wis. Agr. Society, 1853. 16
At the present day wild rice is an important item in the diet of the Ojibwa Indians of Wisconsin. The fields on Kakagon river, several miles from their village, are annually visited for the harvest. In the Ojibwa tongue August is Manominikegisiss, the "rice-making moon." About the first of this month these Indians prepare large quantities of cedar-bark rope or twine, using the inner bark torn into long, narrow strips, which are then tied together. This twine is rolled into a large ball for convenience in handling. Toward the middle of August, when the rice is in the milk, they visit the rice fields in their canoes. Two women usually work together. One paddles or pushes the canoe; the other sits or kneels, with her roll of cedar twine behind her, the end passing forward through a ring on her shoulder. This woman gathers as many rice-stalks as she can conveniently reach and fastens them together in a sheaf by passing her twine around the stalks just below the heads and tying it. This enables her later to gather a large harvest with less trouble, the sheaf being handled more easily and more securely than the loose stalks, and less grain is knocked into the water in the handling. The sheaves stand in rows just far enough apart to allow a canoe to pass between the rows. After allowing them to stand about two weeks, the grain then being ripe, the women return in their canoes and harvest the crop. Formerly the heads were sometimes cut off with a knife and carried to the shore, but this could not be done to advantage when the seeds were ripe.
3 C. L. Flint. Grasses and Forage Plants, p. 89. 4 W. W. Warren. Tistory of the Ojibways, p. 222.
Some of the Indians, instead of using the twine, would formerly gather a handful of stalks and twist them together and downward, leaving the grain thus to ripen; they proceeded in this manner over a considerable district. When they came later to gather the seed, each woman knew her own by some peculiarity of the twist, and the rights of this ownership were respected. Carver says that each family had its allotment and was able to distinguish it by the manner in which the sheaves were fastened.'
Father Marquette probably referred to this practice when he wrote: “They divide the ground whereon this wild rice grows, so that each one can reap his own separately without trespassing on his neighbor's patch."8
Sometimes the rice is harvested without the preliminary binding into sheaves. Two women work together sitting in the extremes of a canoe facing each other. The one at the rear is equipped with a long, light pole with which to push the canoe along, this pole being sometimes forked at one end to keep it from sinking too far in the muddy bottom of the stream. The woman at the bow holds two slender cedar sticks a trifle more than three feet in length. These sticks are 1} inches in diameter at the butt and taper almost to a point. They are specially prepared for this purpose and are used for none other. One of them is sometimes made with a curve or hook at one end. As the canoe is slowly pushed through the thickly grown stalks of rice, this woman bends the stalks over the canoe from one side with her curved stick and strikes the heads smartly with the
• Rev. C. Verwyst, 0. S. F., in a personal letter.