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Use affected the organ of mind. The brain, answering to stimuli, gradually increased in size, and necessarily the bones around it became enlarged.
Use and disuse thus brought about a skull like man's—in fact, man's new skull. Equally may use and disuse, or, at least, diminished and modified use, be credited in large part with the enlarged hind limbs and the abbreviated fore limbs of man and the specialized feet and hands.
The speaker agreed with Drs Baker and Shute that the negro was not exactly intermediate between the white man and the apes, but it must be conceded that he resembles the latter more in color, the prognathous jaws, and the depressed nose, and those characteristics are doubtless the result of inheritance and retention from our common ancestral stock. To the extent of manifestation of such characteristics (and others coincident with them), the negro is an example of retarded or arrested development.
Averages and percentages expressing comparative (and not absolute) differences are most useful, but they must be used with great caution, and we should be on the constant watch lest fallacies creep in. When, for instance, we are told that the third trochanter of the femur is found in 37 per cent of the Swedes and in only one per cent of “our own race" (presumably the so-called Anglo-Saxon stock), we may be sure that there is an undue selection of figures (although unintentional) in one case at least.
The speaker was very glad to hear the protest against attributes to atavism, and entirely concurred with Dr Baker that the term had been much abused by some naturalists. There is room for new variation in the future as in the past, and unless a given structural characteristic existed in an ancestral stock of at least the same class, it is much more probable that the appearance of any feature analogous to one in a lower class is due to fortuitousthat is, unknown-conditions rather than the result of atavistic energy
Mr G. R. STETSON said: “Skill in the use of tools and in directing machinery is the gift of culture. I know of no better illustration of this fact than the present industrial status of the Southern negro. In reference to his adaptation to the higher mechanical employments dependent upon mental and physical dexterity, I some time since made inquiries of several leading cotton manufacturing companies in the South which developed the following facts :
“First. That his deficiency in technic skill and muscular training effectually handicaps the negro in competition with the white as a factory operative.
“ Second. That in addition to his deficiency in technic skill he is hampered by his moral and racial peculiarities and proclivities.
" Third. That with proper training, which time only can supply, he will become available.
"Fourth. That at the present time, if employed at all in the cotton mills, the number is extremely small, and then only in menial occupations.
“ It is evident that only when, because of a large increase in the number of mills, white labor becomes scarce will an effort be made to train those who have the largest admixture of white blood for employments requiring inherited technic skill.”
CAVATE LODGES in North DAKOTA. - Mr Alfred T. Marks has recently discovered a series of eleven communicating cavate rooms in the limestone cliffs of Missouri river, 65 miles north of Bismarck, N. D. The first lodge entered contained a number of bones-probably of the coyote—and near the extreme end of the chamber, about 12 leet from the entrance, in a sitting posture, with backs resting against the side of the cave, two wellpreserved Indian skeletons. On the floor in front of each lay a flat, slightly hollowed stone, containing what appeared to be parched corn, together with several small pieces of bone. Near these implements were a number of rudely made arrow points of chalcedony and other stone, a tool of buffalo horn-probably an arrow-chipper-and several shells foreign to the vicinity. The adjoining caves, while smaller than the first, also contained a number of skeletons, all in precisely the same position, and in most cases with similar surroundings. In every instance the face of the skeleton was toward the east.
PICTOGRAPHS.--Interesting pictographs have recently been discovered by Canadian Senator McLaren, of Perth, on the shores of Lake Massanog, in South Renfrew county, Ontario.
PUEBLO SNAKE CEREMONIALS
F. W. HODGE
It has generally been supposed that Pueblo Indian snake ceremonials have been performed only among the Hopi or Moki tribe of northeastern Arizona and at Sia in Jemez valley, New Mexico, although attention has been directed to a reference by Antonio de Espejo to a dance “con vivoras vivas” witnessed by that sturdy Spaniard at Acoma in 1583. It may therefore prove of interest to note that evidence of at least the former observance of snake ceremonials at other villages was obtained by the writer during a reconnoissance of the New Mexican pueblos in the summer and autumn of 1895, especially as such indications may shed light on the origin of similar observances practiced at the present time.
At Laguna-whose people have probably been more greatly affected by civilization than those of any other pueblo—it was learned that in the summer village of Hatsáyî, commonly known by the Spanish name Mesita, the natives kept a large rattlesnake, which they brought out in certain ceremonials. This occurred over twenty years ago. Today no such rite is performed, although the old men even now seem to have a lingering regard for the rattlesnake, since, like the Hopi, they religiously refrain from killing one.
With reference to this rather recent Laguna ceremony, which appears to have been somewhat akin to the celebrated snakedance of the Hopi, it is noteworthy that the native designation of the pueblo of Laguna is Kawaík', a term practically identical with Kawaíka, the name applied by the Hopi to a pueblo in their country which they assert was abandoned by its inhabitants after the Spaniards came.
It is well known that Laguna is the most recent of all the pueblos, it having been established some time prior to the year 1700. According to Laguna tradition, a Sia and a Zuñi Indian met on the present site of Laguna, just west of which was a lagoon (whence the village name) whose banks were fringed with trees and shrubbery. Believing it to be a desirable site for a settlement, these two Indians agreed to go to their respective homes and return with their families. This little gathering was soon followed by other natives of Zuñi and Sia, and these in turn by quite a large body from Acoma, whose inhabitants had always regarded the site of Laguna as a part of their hunting grounds. The people of the present Laguna are the descendants of emigrants from the Keres villages of Acoma, Sia, and San Felipe, the pueblo of Zuñi, the Tanoan pueblos of Jemez and Sandia (these two speaking remote dialects), and one of the Hopi villages, “probably Oraibe.”
Now, these Hopi emigrants to Laguna formed the Rattlesnake clan of the latter pueblo and became affiliated with the Watersnake clan (Skŭr'shka-báno) from Sia, the Earth or Sand clan (Hátsi-háno) from Jemez, and the Lizard clan (Méyo-háno) of unknown origin in the form of a phratral organization, all of these clans being still represented at Laguna (except the Earth or Sand folk, who are extinct) and among the Hopi. Indeed, among both of these people the Earth or Sand and the Lizard clans belong to one phratry. It therefore seems quite likely that the snake ceremony performed at Laguna only twenty years ago had its origin among the Hopi, and that it came not "probably from Oraibe," as the Laguna people say, but more likely from the now ruined pueblo of Kawaíka, whose name adhered to the newly founded pueblo near the lagoon.
It should here be said that the name of the former Laguna summer village of Moquino, nine miles north of Laguna, but now a Mexican settlement, has no reference to “Moqui,” but to the well known Moquino family of New Mexico who owned the land on which the town was afterward located.
It might be asked that if people from Sia, who also have a snake dance, as described by Mrs M. C. Stevenson, migrated to Laguna, why should not the rattlesnake ceremonial of the latter pueblo have been derived from Sia? or if, as Espejo asserted, the Acoma had a snake-dance, why not from that pueblo? In the first place, the snake-dance of the Sia is a very modern rite with that people, it having been introduced by the Cochití somewhat more than thirty years ago. I was informed by an unusually intelligent Cochití Indian that the Sia had no snake ceremony before the sacred reptile from (ochití was introduced there. The reason for the transfer of the ceremony from one Keres village to another may be explained only by surmising that the snake rite at Cochití came to an end with the death of the last member of the Shrúhwi-hánuch or Snake clan of that pueblo. The Snake clan (Sqú-háno) of the Sia is among the existing clans of their village, and members of the Shqúwï-hanoqch are still found at Acoma, but are not affiliated with any other clan in the form of a phratry, as at Laguna and among the liopi. Judging from the fact that, so far as is known, the entire Hopi people of Kawaíka abandoned the region of northeastern Arizona, and that they proved to have wielded sufficient influence to impress the name of their old village on the new Laguna, and by reason also of the fact that the Snake clan of the Hopi is of such importance and the snake ceremonials of that people so highly developed, it is more reasonable to presume that the former Laguna snake rites were introduced from the Hopi rather than from Acoma, where its influence was so slight as to leave not even a traditional trace.
At San Ildefonso a Snake society is reputed to exist, but it could not be learned whether rattlesnakes are used in the ceremonials. Indeed there is reason for doubting the existence of a Snake society and its dependent ceremonies in this or in any other pueblo in which a Snake clan has not been or is not represented. This is another reason why the Laguna snake rite may not have been derived from Acoma, since the Laguna clans (Koháia, Bear; Tyá-mi, Eagle; Tsúshki,* Coyote (partly), Kóchinish-yáka, Yellow-corn; Kůkinish-yáka, Red-corn ; Sits, Water †) which migrated from that town did not include a Snake people, or indeed any clan related to the Snakes, while this was quite the reverse in the case of the Hopi emigrants.
The assertion that Snake ceremonies will in all probability be found only at pueblos in which Snake clans are traceable seenis to be sufficiently supported. When the ceremony of the rattlesnake was brought to a close at Cochití it was not transferred to Santo Domingo, San Felipe, or Santa Ana--the nearest Keres neighbors—but to Sia, for no other apparent reason than that no Snake clan exists or existed at any of these other towns. The pueblos in which Snake clans are found are the Keres villages of (1) Laguna, (2) Acoma, (3) Sia, and (4) Cochití (extinct), at
* Compare Súski, the name of the Coyote clan of Zuñi, whence came the other part of the Coyote folk of Laguna.
† All of these clans except the Coyote are still representeri at Acoma.