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number of plants as any of the aborigines of America, and that they have more than once bridged over the failure of their staple crop, maize, by other plant foods not used by the whites for food. It is certainly important to know what these other food plants are, but the bearings of this on the food resources of the great American desert I must reserve to my final discussion.
Gutierrezia euthamiæ. (Hopi name, Pamnavi: from pami, assuredly; mana, maid; übi, axil—the true female plant.)—A sprig of this plant is attached to the paho, or prayer emblem. (See Journ. Am. Eth. and Arch., vol. iv, p. 27.)
Thelesperma gracile. (Hohoisi : from hohovaktü, sweet smells ; sihü, flower.)-An infusion of the flowers is drank as a beverage. A stronger infusion is used in the liquid in which the Hopi boil yucca fiber, for basketry, until they acquire a reddish-brown color.
Biscutella wislizeni. (Külcibcü: from kütca, white; cibuci, seed.)—The dried leaf is presumed to have healing properties. When used it is commonly rubbed to a powder and sprinkled on abrasions.
Stanleya sp. (Kwibi.)—In the spring its leaves are boiled and eaten.
Stanleya albescens. (Ishü : from isauüh, coyote; cühii, hay.)Used as a food, like kwibi. Sisymbrium canescens. (Asa: etymology obscure.)-It gives
. its name to a clan who now regard themselves as Hopi, but traditionally claim to be of Tanoan stock. Soon after people came up from the Underworld and were yet wandering in search of permanent dwellings some women daily plucked the flowers of this plant, fluttering their yellow blossoms in the faces of the infants cradled on their backs to still their cries. These infants became known as the “ Children of the Asa," and their descendants have ever since been called the “Asa people.” An infusion of the flowers of this plant is used to mix with a dark iron pigment, forming a black color for pottery decoration. The juice of the asa is presumed to cause the pigment to adhere. It is also used as a food, its leaves either boiled or roasted between hot, flat stones.
Portulaca retusa. (Pihala : from piakü, caterpillar.)— This plant is likewise called pinkü kaüadta, caterpillar, his corn; it is boiled with meats.
Delphinium scaposum. (Tcorosi : from tcoro (Sialis arctica) sihü, flower-bluebird flower.)-The Flute priests gather its petals and seeds; the maids of their families grind them on the mealingstones, making a very fine blue meal conventionally called cakwatalasi, blue pollen; prescribed for the Flute altar.
Physaria newberryi. (Hohoyana: from hohoyrüh (Asida rimatu), the prayer beetle, alluding to the kneeling posture which it assumes when disturbed; ña from ñahü, medicinal charm or root.)—This plant is one of the ingredients of the snake charm, or antidote drank after the snake dance by all who have taken part as snake priests.
Cleome integrifolia. (Tümi: from tüwa, land (sand); hümita, corn kernel.)-The boiled leaves and flowers are highly esteemed.
Sphæralcea incana. (Kopoña: from poña, round, abdomen; nahi, charm.)- A diarrhea antidote.
Rhus trilobala. (Cübi: from cükü, pungent, alluding to its acid berries, which are called sivwipsi; a syncopated form of cübisialta, cübi, its seeds.)— They are eagerly eaten by young people. Its twigs are used for many ceremonial purposes; also for coarse basketry. The buds are regarded as medicinal. The dry shrub is one of the four prescribed fuels for the kivas.
Dalea lanata. (Kücüña: from kütca, white; ñaa, root.)— The root is white and after scraping is eaten as a sweet.
Astragalus pictus filifolius. (Pacipña: from pahü, water; cüwipa, straight; maa, root.)-Its long, straight roots, dug and gathered after rain, are caten as a sweet, especially by women and children.
Ribes cereum. (Yowipsi : from yowi, the tassel on the maize ear; sihü, flower: maize tassel flower.)—The shrub is in blossom when the tassel comes on the corn. The berries are eaten.
Enothera pinnatifida. (Bolisi : from boli, butterfly; sihii, flower. The term boli is also applied to a maid of marriageable age.)—Maids deck their hair with this flower on holidays.
Muhlenbergiu. pungens. (Wügsi : from wiigti, woman; sihü, flower, a satiric name.)— The women use it as a brush, the same bunch of grass serving a double purpose; with the stiff end they brush the hair and with the more flexible tip end they sweep the floor.
Pinus monophylla. (Tuvaü: from tüva, nut; kohu, wood.)
Opuntia. (Yüsü.)- In the spring and early summer the succulent stem is boiled, divested of its spines, and eaten.
Yucca angustifolia. (Mohü.)-Its soapy root is called mohümobi.
Yucca baccata. (Samóa.)-Its edible fruit is called sahü; its soapy root is called samomobi. All the yucca plants are used for basketry and a multitude of other purposes.
Artemisia tridentata. (Napaliña: from napala, a term applied to an ailing person lying on a mat, apa; nahü, charm.)—An infusion of its leaves is drank by a person whose ailment is supposed to lie in his ilium.
Panicum capillare. (Nünü: from nücyüka, food.)— Its seeds are ground and mixed with corn meal.
Panicum autumnale. (Putücaka: from pahü, moisture, water; tücaka, grass.)
Hilaria jamesii. (Takachü: from taka, man; cühü, a wiry grass ; the male cühü.)—The grass which the Hopi assume to be the female cühü is used by the women in making the coil trays, called poota, for which Tusayan is famous.
Equisetum lævigatum. (Pona: from pono, round, referring to the impression made with the end of its tubular stem on the skin or on clay vessels, a common form of primitive decoration ; see median facial line of Humis-katcina helmets.)-It is dried and ground with corn meal to make a ceremonial bread called ponoviki.
Allium vineale. (Asoci.)
Scirpus lacustris. (Mümüzri.)-The bean in Hopi is müzribuci, from ci'buci, seed, and müzrina, to roll or mould a plastic substance in the palms of the hands. The bean pod bears these marks, but why the term rolled should be applied to this scirpus is not evident.
Oryzopsis cuspidata. (Lehü: possibly from leñya, flute, reed whistle; cühü, hay.)-It gives its name to one of the clans in the group with which the Flute clan is associated.
Euphorbia parryi. (Pi'yüña : from pihü, milk; ñahü, charm.)— This name is given also to Asclepias verticillata, q. v.
Juniperus occidentalis. (Hoko : from hohü, arrow; kohü, wood.)So called because its wood splits into straight arrow-like fragments ; it is frequently called hotcki, referring to the entire tree.
Calochortus aureus. (Hesi : from the form of the flower with protruding lips like those on grotesque masks.)-Its petals and seeds are ground to a fine meal like those of tcorosi ; the meal is called “yellow pollen ” and is mixed with maize pollen and used in the Flute ceremonial ; its root is eaten raw.
Asclepias speciosa. (Coya.)—The Hopi word coya is the name of the planting stick, and is applicable to this plant in allusion to its stiff, straight stalk. Its leaves and the young shoots are boiled with meat as a food.
Asclepias verticillata. (Piyüña: from pihü, milk; sahü,charm.)When a nursing mother has a scanty flow of milk, she boils the entire plant and drinks the infusion.
Sarcobatus vermicularis. (Teve.)-This is one of the four prescribed shrubs for kivamya kohü (kiva fuel) and the principal one used.
Chenopodium leptophyllum. (Tcatcak tübhü: from tcatcak, the plural (reduplicated) of tcaka, little.)—The seeds are minute. See tübhü.
Chenopodium album. (Cirswa: from Cisrotaswa (?), a liquid trickling down a vertical surface; its stalk has vertical streaks of red color.)—Its leaves are boiled and eaten with fat. Chenopodium fremontii. (Wupa tübhü.
See Tübhü; wapa, long.)
Chenopodium cornutum. (Kotoki : a modification of kütüki popcorn; kütüki is a syncopation of kaü tyükaii, corn speaks, in allusion to the sound made by the maize as it decrepitates.) This "popcorn-plant” is so named because they say it flings its ripe seeds abroad like decrepitating corn flying out of a vessel held over a hot fire. Its seeds are ground and mixed with corn meal to make somipiki, small dumplings wrapped in corn husk and tied with a shred of yucca.
Amarantus blitoides. (Pociüh.)-Formerly its seeds were prized as a food.
Amarantus torreyi. (Wiwa: from wiwai, to stumble, alluding to its procumbent stems tripping the foot of the passer.)— Its leaves boiled and eaten with meat.
Amarantus paniculatus. (Komo.)-The seeds first obtained from Spaniards or Mexican villages. An infusion of this plant is used to impart a red color to the piki or paper bread distributed at katcina exhibitions.
Monarda citriodora. (Nanakopsi : from nanakopatcokta, a plural term describing the position of the flowers on the stalk, perched above the other;" sihü, flower.)— This plant is gathered by those engaged in a sowimakiwa, hare-hunt. It is boiled and eaten only with hares.
Poliomintha incana. (Müüñ'tochabvü : from üuñña, salt (üswa blood; nahü, charm); toñtoina, to dip.)-The name describes the manner in which the plant is dipped in üñacküyi, salted water, when eaten.
Mentha canadensis. (Pamüüñtochabvü : from pahü, water, and the same etymology as the plant last mentioned.)—This is eaten as a relish.
Lygodesmia grandiflora. Müha: from a syncopated form of müyikiyuta, descriptive of leaves spread out flat on the ground.)
— Its leaves are boiled with meats and eaten.
Senecio douglasii. Mürgitka: from müryi, mole; kaü, corn.)Many plants are thus assigned to animals supposed to hold them in special favor. The Navajo call it cactus brush, its top being used to brush the spines from prickly pears, and the Hopi use it for the same purpose.
Artemisia dracunculoides. (Lüktaukya.)– The literal meaning of the Hopi term is “two groups of songs,” but why this curious name was given has not been elicited. In the early spring its leaves are gathered and brought home, baked between hot stones, and eaten after dipping in salted water.
Castilleia linariafolia. Mansi : from mana, maid; sihü, flower.)
Castilleia affinis. (Wupamansi : from wupa, long, and mansi.)This and mansi are used by Hopi maidens to deck their hair on holiday occasions.
Solanum jamesii. (Tümna: "a small nodule;” potato.)—It is boiled and eaten with a talc of greasy taste called tümin' tcúka, "potato clay.”
Nicotiana attenuata. (Piba : from napi, leaf; pahi, moisture.)—This tobacco is smoked in pipes on all ceremonial occasions and forms a part of nearly all prayer offerings.
Lycium pallidum. (Keve : signification unknown.)- The entire shrub is used at an annual ceremony called Niman-katcina, at which time numerous small, round disks of gourd are tied to its branches. The disks are painted in emblematic colors and called pikapiki. Its sweet berries, called kebebsi, are eaten from