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۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱، رأ۱۷۱۱ از ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۰ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱را آن، ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۹ ورا ۱۱۱، ۱۱ رابرارا ورا ۱ ارو

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۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۲ ۱۱ ۱۰ ۱۱۱۱۱۱, ۱۱۰ ۱۱۱ ۱۱۲ ۱۱ ۱۰ ۱۱۱ ۱۱ ،۱۱ ،۱۰) ۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ in Japan, but them in the ultima otherm

): ۱۱۰۱/۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ وأ۱۱ را، (را) (رأ أ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۸ ۱۱۱۱۱۷ | ۱۱ رأرأ (۱۱۱۱۱ از

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أ۱۱۱) (۱) ۱۱۱۱۱۱) اأ۱۱، ۱۱/۱۱، ۱۱ ۱۰ برا ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ران ۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۰) ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱) ۱۱

۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ There is

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,۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱،۱۲۹) را برا۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۰ ,أ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۰

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,۱۱) را براا ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ برا ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ آN أ۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۰) راز را ۱۱ ۱۱۱

۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱ ) أي أ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱) ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱) ار۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۰ ,۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ر ا ا أ (۱) ۱۱ ، ۱۱ ، ۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۰ ۱۱۲ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۰'۱'

۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱(۱۱) (۱۱۱۱۱, ۱۱۱۱۰ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۰۹ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ t; the same sulle comple; they

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۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱ ۱۱۰ و ۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱) ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱) ۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ,۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۰ ۱۱۱ ۱۱۲ ۱۱۱ برا ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱

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اراة أ۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱ (۱۱۰) ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۰ ۱۱۱۱۱۱ ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱) ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۰ ۱۱۰) ۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱۱

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ABORIGINES OF JAPAN.—Ever since we have possessed any definite knowledge of Japan the country has been occupied by two aboriginal races--the Aino or Ainu, in the northern part of the islands, the other, difficult to define, in the south. When the earliest mikado, who is a semi-mythic personage, ruled in Japan he resided in Kiu-shiu, the southernmost of the Japanese islands, and the enemies of his people are called Nauyadne Hitzo or “ Long-legs," and Jaso-Aakeru or the “ Eight wild tribes.” The southern race, over which this mikado was ruling, was probably identical with the people settled on Shantong and Shing-King, who are of small stature, dark-complexioned, and ugly. By these characteristics they are readily distinguished from the Chinese and Mandshu people.

The founder of the Japanese dynasty, Jimma Tennos, came, like the first conquerors of Japan, from an unknown country. To throw light on this subject Dr Edkins has compared the Japanese numerals with those of the languages spoken in other parts of Asia. Many numerals and other terms are like those of the upper Amur; others resemble those in use between Tibet and the upper Lena river, as well as some Magyar terms, which would bring the Japanese language nearer the Ural-Altaic stock. A migration from the Siberian plains to Japan could have occurred only in connection with the great wave or flood of the Hunnic nations, which was moving in the direction toward Pekin and ended about 200 B. C. These northern barbarians, called Tanjen in eastern China, held at that time Manchuria and all of northern China. Tangun, founder of the Korean state, sprung from one of the Tanjen tribes and became prominent about 300 B. C., but in the earliest periods Korea was intimately ilssociated with Japan and often had its rulers in common with those of that country. Korean civilization, derived from China, was in the fourth century A. D. introduced into the Japanese islands.

The chroniclers of Japan mention two irruptions of dark-complexioned foreigners from southern lands. Bands of dark Malays arrived from the island of Formosa and the mainland opposite, and it is surmised that they were reinforced from Cambodia and the Philippine islands. The Malayan language, which they brought to the insular kingdom, is still traceable in a large number of terms, and when the Chinese immigrants joined them the

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literary dialect of China came there also. The colloquial dialect of the high-caste families of Japan is understood with difficulty by the lower classes, and the Japanese tongue possesses three different series of numerals.

The coalescence of the different races within Japanese limits has been an imperfect one. Nippon, the mainland, harbors only a few settlements of the Ainu, but the medley race to which they gave origin still shows the heavy beard, which is so extraordinary a characteristic of the Ainu. Beards are thick also in south.ern Japan, but are thinner in the central portions. Other marks of Ainu blood may be found in the dark complexion, the beastlike features, wild rolling eyes, small stature of the Cossack type, and an abnormal greed for salt.

To trace the Ainu type in Japan is less difficult than to find people typifying the race of the southern aborigines. Nevertheless there is in southern Japan a people with bronze complexion, deep-set eyes, flat face, with high cheek-bones, flat nose, and scanty, irregular beard, and hair also of irregular growth.

The offspring of the Siberian or Tartar race are large-bodied, measuring about 1.65 meters; their features are regular, even beautiful; they have brown eyes, smooth hair, high foreheads, and dolichocephalic skulls; their deportment is quiet and dignified. In the north of Nippon the complexion is much lighter, and, indeed, is often ruddy. Two-thirds of the intellectual classes, including the nobility, are composed of this race

The progeny engendered by the Malay race is easier to distinguish in Japan than that of other races, though there are various subdivisions of this type. The Malays are small-bodied throughout; their legs are short and their skulls brachycephalic; they are impassionate, vivacious, with lurking, insidious look; hair rich and showing a curious, dark bluish hue; beard abundant and curly; temperament sanguine. One of the Malay subspecies reminds us of the Semitic race, another of the southern Europeans, and a third of the Suaheli on the east coast of Africa.

A striking characteristic of the first among these subspecies is the Semitic nose and the facial expression, reminding one of rabbis rather than of bedouins. Faces of this kind we meet among the best classes of Japan, even among the daimios, whereas the Malay type is found only among the lowest of the population. The second subspecies is not unlike the southern Europeans, for many men with the fiery looks and well-formed cheeks appear like Spaniards or Greeks; their hair is curly and their complexion light brown, but the slanting eyes prove an Asiatic origin. The Kuli or laborer class comes nearest to the Suaheli negro, for the hair is woolly, the skull thick, the lips are heavy, and the motions of the mouth are accompanied by the indescribable grinning expression of the negro.

A racial connection between Formosa and the coast of Malabar and a possible origin of the negro or black race from the Dekhan has often been suggested, but not proved. Missionary Halbert has attempted to reduce Korean to radices of Dravidian languages.

But there are still other foreign elements in the Japanese population due to Korean and to Chinese immigration. During the period from the fourth to the seventh century of our era there were much travel and commerce between the two countries, and many artists, writers, and students, as well as traders and mechanics, left Korea to settle in the " Land of the Sunrise.” The narrow and oval faces and spare beard found among the higher classes of the Japanese testify to this origin. The Chinese element in the population is supposed to form a tenth of the whole, though others make it a third, and this element is due to very ancient immigration. When the Han dynasty reigned, a Chinese prince settled in Kiu-shiu with a large retinue, and a legendary race, the Seki-manzi or“Stone-men” once came and resided in the same portion of Japan. The remoteness of these arrivals may be judged from the fact that the Chinese type is preserved intact, although in rare instances, but has suffered alterations through intermixture with Malay and Tartarie elements.-Correspondence -of Di Albrecht Wirth, translated by A. S. Gutschet.

REDBONES OF SOUTH CAROLINA.-- Mr McDonald Furman, of Ramsey, South Carolina, who has given considerable attention to the Indian remnants of that state, has recently published in the Sumter Item an interesting account of the “ Redbones” of Sumter county, South Carolina, a peculiar people, evidently of mixed Indian origin and probably akin to the Croatans and Melungeons of North Carolina and Tennessee. Although there is a percentage of negro blood among them, it seems that none of their ancestors were ever slaves, and their predominant characteristics are more Indian than anything else. They usually intermarry among themselves. One of their most common family names is Goins. The writer of this note formerly knew two brothers of this name in Indiana, who, although associating by necessity with negroes, always insisted that they were not of that race or of slave ancestry. They had the physical appearance of half-blood Indians, with a courtly politeness which Mr Furman particularly notes as characteristic of the Redbones.


MARRIAGE CUSTOMS OF THE SHANS.- Marriage celebrations among the Shans are rather unpretentious affairs. The ceremony varies from the simple arrangement of taking each other's word for it to feasts lasting several days among wealthy people; but in these cases the actual ceremony is a minor feature in the proceedings. The usual form among western Shans is for the couple to eat rice together out of the same dish in the presence of their relatives and the village elders. The bridegroom then declares that he marries the lady and will support her. More ceremony is observed among the Lu. The hands of the bride and bridegroom are tied together with a piece of string after they have eaten together, and an old man pronounces them duly married. The Hköns throw rice balls at each other and the couple during the ceremony. The newly married couple then go to their house, and split betelnuts are distributed among the relatives of the bride, who give money as a return present. Divorce is readily obtainable, but, except among young people of low rank, is comparatively rare. A man can have more than one wife if he can afford it. In case of divorce, the property is divided according to the laws of Menu, and the applicant for the divorce, when the desire is not mutual, or the person through whose fault the divorce is applied for, always loses considerably in the division.Popular Science Monthly.

THE THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT of the Bureau of Ethnology, just published, is of unusual interest. The accompanying papers are: Prehistoric Textile Art of Eastern United States, by W. H. Holmes; Stone Art, by Gerard Fowke; Aboriginal Remains in Verde Valley, Arizona, by Cosmos Mindeleff'; Omaha Dwellings, Furniture, and Implements, by J. Owen Dorsey; Casa Grande Ruin, by Cosmos Mindeleff, and Outlines of Zuñi Creation Myths, by F.H. Cushing. As usual, the report is handsomely illustrated.

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